# SOME IMPORTANT NAVAL ARCHITECTURAL TERMS February 2009

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1 Page 1(6) SOME IMPORTANT NAVAL ARCHITECTURAL TERMS February 2009 ITEM A-, B- and C-class divisions EXPLANATION SOLAS has tables for structural fire protection requirement of bulkheads and decks. The requirements depend on the spaces in question, and are different for passenger ships and cargo ships. A-0, A-15, A-30, A-60: Shall be constructed of steel or equivalent material, shall be constructed to prevent passage of smoke and flame for 1 h in Standard Fire Test, shall be insulated so that the average temperature of the unexposed side does not rise more than 140C (any point no more than 180C) above the original temperature within 0, 15, 30 or 60 minutes. B-0, B-15: Shall be constructed to prevent passage of flame for 0.5 h in Standard Fire Test, shall be insulated so that the average temperature of the unexposed side does not rise more than 140C (any point no more than 225C) above the original temperature within 0 or 15 minutes. Shall be constructed of approved non-combustible materials (However, combustible veneer may be used). Alternative Design, Alternative Arrangements Attained Subdivision Index, A C: Shall be constructed of approved non-combustible materials (However, combustible veneer may be used). Regulation allows for designs and arrangements which are not according to SOLAS requirements, providing an analysis is made that shows the proposed alternative design or arrangement is, with regards to safety, at the same or better level than the SOLAS requirement. Example of an alternative design are lifeboats with a higher than 150 person capacity. According to probabilistic damage stability rules the vessel s probability to survive a flooding damage (collision, grounding) is calculated with formula: = i represents each compartment or group of compartments under consideration. p i is the probability that only the compartment or group of compartments under consideration may be flooded. s i is the probability of survivability after flooding of the compartment or group of compartments under consideration. Ballast Water Convention, Ballast Water Treatment, BWT B/5, Breadth divided by 5, B/5-line Block Coefficient, C B The A is calculated for three different drafts and summarized with a weighted formula. If the A R (R=required subdivision index), the vessel fulfills the requirement. Typically the vessel s GM-limits for damage stability are adjusted so that A = R. New regulation requiring ballast water treatment systems on all ships (new and old), in order to avoid harmful organisms spreading from one location to another. Typically the treatment is by filtering and UVlight. Imaginary line used in ship design and damage stability calculations: according to old rules, no damage extends inside the B/5-line (e.g. on a vessel with breadth of 32.2 m, maximum extent of any damage is 6.44 m from ship s shell). Due to this, bilge main lines, fuel tanks, etc. are normally located inside this B/5. New probabilistic rules have made this rule obsolete on new ships. Important coefficient which describes the fullness of the hull: a lower coefficient means typically lower resistance. C B = Displacement Volume / (L x B x T). A typical figure for a cruise vessel is e.g Other often used coefficient is C M, Midship Section Coefficient, which describes the fullness of Midship Section.

3 Page 3(6) Fuel Consumption Free surface correction GM, (transverse) Metacentric Height Growth Margin GT (Gross Tonnage), (formerly GRT) Generally a lower F n means lower resistance (for fast, small vessels the situation can be opposite). Typical figure for a Panamax cruise ship is F n=0.25. Using a typical engine specific fuel oil consumption of 200 g/kwh (when tolerances, heat value corrections, etc. are taken into account, the real heavy fuel oil consumption is seldom below this, and often even above this), this corresponds to a fuel consumption of 0.2 t/h per 1 MW. Thus, a ship using 30 MW for propulsion and hotel load, consumes 6t heavy fuel oil (HFO) per hour. The GM is corrected with free surface correction : i.e. tanks with free surface reduce the stability of the vessel; this correction is e.g m. The more free surfaces (slack tanks, pools, splash areas) there is, the bigger the correction is, and thus more the GM reduces. Describes the righting moment of the vessel: higher GM means better stability (condition for positive stability is that GM>0.). Typical value for GM on a Panamax cruise vessel is ca. 2.0 m. GM = KM KG, where KG is the VCG of the ship (lightweight + deadweight) and KM is the distance from keel to the metacenter (see figure below). KM has to be higher than KG for a ship stay upright (and GM to stay positive). GM can also used for the longitudinal stability of the vessel: then symbol GM L is used. An additional margin added into vessel weight calculation to cover for later weight increases. Practically all ships get heavier when they age; this is due to conversions, modifications, painting, etc. and without preparing for this, the ship can later end up with stability problems, requiring a ducktail or a sponson. Gross Tonnage describes the volume and size of the vessel. GT includes all the enclosed spaces (not balconies, sun decks or similar areas). GT is calculated with a formula: = ( ) where V = vessel s calculated volume in m 3. Heeling, Heeling angle Hotel Load Intact Stability KM, (transverse) Metacentric Height Lightweight, LWT Notes: Earlier 1 GRT was 100 ft 3, or 2.83 m 3 ; thus figures for e.g. Titanic cannot be directly compared with GT figures of today s vessels. For example, if vessel s enclosed volume is m 3, the GT is ca. 91,000. GT is often the base for different port and other fees. As GT is logarithmic, it cannot be used for accurate comparison between vessels of different size: for example, on a 10,000 GT ship one GT is 3.44 m 3, but on a 150,000 GT vessel one GT corresponds to 3.19 m 3. The angle vessel is leaning away from upright position. The electric power needed for other ship functions than propulsion, i.e. for AC, lighting, galleys, etc. For a Panamax vessel a typical hotel load is close to 10 MW. The vessel stability in intact (normal, non-damaged) condition. In intact conditions the vessel has to withstand heeling, wind, etc. to fulfill the criteria stated in rules. KM is the distance from Keel to Metacenter, which depends on the vessel draft, displacement and hull form. Typical KM for a Panamax cruise vessel is 18 m. High KM means more stability, but often at the expense of speed and sea keeping capabilities. See figure below. Vessel s empty weight (and center of gravity), i.e. weight of the vessel without fuel, stores, water, cargo, passengers, crew, etc. Needed liquid in ship system piping and system tanks is included, but not liquids in e.g. storage tanks. Typical lightweight for a Panamax cruise ship is ca. 39,000 t. See also displacement and deadweight. Longitudinal Center of Buoyancy (LCB) Longitudinal Center is the longitudinal center of water the vessel s hull displaces. When the vessel floats, LCB and LCG are in same position. Position of LCB is very important for the hull resistance. Typically LCB is located slightly aft of midship (Lpp/2). Main Dimensions The vessel main dimension area:

6 Page 6(6) Weight Reserve Weight reserve in the vessels weight calculation (both weight and center of gravity). This is e.g. 2% and 0.2 m. This is margin against calculation inaccuracies and changes during design and building stage. See also Growth Margin. Weight reserve is adjusted during the building process as the weight data gets more accurate. Figure: definition of GM, KG and other related terms.

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