Hull form optimisation with Computational Fluid Dynamics

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1 Hull form optimisation with Computational Fluid Dynamics Aurélien Drouet, Erwan Jacquin, Pierre-Michel Guilcher

2 Overview Context Software Bulbous bow optimisation Conclusions/perspectives Page 2

3 HydrOcean Company specialised in marine CFD Spinoff from Ecole Centrale Nantes Fluid Dyn. Lab. Expertise in 4 activity sectors of marine industry 20 high qualified CFD engineers Efficient partnership with Bureau Veritas Offer to BV clients advanced CFD services for specific applications Develop innovative & high level software, services, and methodologies A unique numerical towing tank A unique range of numerical solvers Unlimited number of licences Large CPU power : use of around 100 to 200 cores for a standard CFD study, access to over 2000 CPU cores Access to experimental facilities Page 3

4 HydrOcean Over 170 successful projects in six years Page 4

5 Numerical tools and solvers Our vision 1 - The accurate simulation of complex phenomena needs the use of adapted solvers. 2 - The use of commercial CFD solver is cost and time consuming. HydrOcean has access to unlimited license of in-house solvers dedicated to marine applications and large CPU clusters. 3 - HydrOcean works in partnership with ECN Fluid Dyn. Lab. In the development of unique solvers adapted to marine applications : propeller model, incoming irregular waves Page 5

6 HydrOcean s service for hull optimisation Optimisation examples and potential associated gains General hull shape parametric optimisation in resistance (curve section area, main hydrostatics ) Optimal trim angle evaluation for each draft and speed Propeller design evaluation Propulsive coefficients (Kt, Kq, h prop ) Cavitation inception Pressure pulse Bulbous bow shape parametric optimisation. Total drag and wave field reduction. Bow or stern thrusters shape optimisation. Orientation of level on flow Evaluation of Energy Saving devices Stern, wedges, ducktail shape optimisation in presence of propeller ((1-t), (1-w), h hull ) Propulsion appendages (rudder, shaft brackets ) orientation and shape optimisation Page 6

7 Delta Rtm (%) 27 nds Id Init DOE MOGA OPTNAV : Parametric hull / appendages / propeller Parametric deformations User defined deformation functions Coupled to Rhino grasshopper Constraints Hydrostatic calculations Curve section area Stability checks Resistance calculations Empirical formula CFD database Optimisation process Parametric hull modeling Automatic meshing Ship performance evaluation Automatic export of parametric hulls CAD files : iges, 3dm, stl Meshes : surface and 3D volume meshes Full automatic report Hull modeling software dedicated to ship performance optimisation Deformation parameters : Bulbous bow Hull sections / shape Stern / Wedge Parametric exploration Optimisation algorithms Outputs: Resistance Ship power Objectives : Resistance Ship power Constraints : Hydrostatic Stability GA Page 7

8 ICARE CFD solver Main features Alessandrini et al Collaborative development ECN/BEC Extended validation for resistance predictions Free surface Non-linear conditions Free surface tracking Numerical scheme : RANS, implicite 2 nd order FD shemes K-w turbulence model Fully coupled formulation (U V W P H) Topologies : Structured Multiblock

9 ICARE CFD solver Parallel Version MPI Speed-up Large nonlinear system Blocking communications in preconditioner Typical cpu time: 4 hours x 4 cores efficiency Page 9

10 CMA-CGM ships The Wheelhouse and the Engine Room of CMA CGM Managing the vessels Crew & Fleet DD Supply of spare parts and consumables Supervising New Buildings Providing CMA CGM with any technical advise Fleet Center Navigation Energy Department Figures 108 vessels TEUS capacity managed seafarers 183 employees Page 10

11 Cost savings: action and technologies review Objective : Optimisation of bulbous bow during retrofit could be quite efficient if savings are proven Gains are higher if the vessels sails off-design conditions Page 11

12 Slow steaming for containerships Analyse : Daily mean speed evolution on a typical Asia to Europe trade since 2009 Decrease from 24 knots down to a range of knots Initial design condition Vessel initially optimized for 24.5 knots, 14m Draft Page 12

13 Draft (m) Bulbous bow optimisation for operational profile Objective : Optimisation of bulb for an operational profile of 17 conditions Constraints : Conservation of max speed Limitation of modifications so that box thruster section not modified Conservation of LOA / LPP Study performed at iso displacement and trim Hull to be optimised for Operational profile (17 conditions) Approach : parametric evaluation : 50 hull forms Direct deformations Length Width Height Coupled deformations based on Width / height Length height Speed (knots) % 12.0% 10.5% 4.5% % 10.0% 8.8% 3.8% % 12.0% 10.5% 4.5% % 6.0% 5.3% 2.3% 850 RANSE-CFD computations 13600h cpu Page 13

14 Bulbous bow optimisation for operational profile Analysis: Evaluation of all parameters Length, Height, Width Specific and dedicated analysis tools for huge amount of data Subvison for image comparison Visual analysis Specific developed routines Wider Higher Optimal Longer Initial Page 14

15 Bulbous bow optimisation for operational profile Analysis example: Bulb width influence Width increase ID 22 ID 1 ID 7 The bulb s width deformation has a strong influence on weighted Pe variation and a small influence on Pe at Vmax The thicker bulb offers 9.3% of gains on weighted Pe and 1.5% of loss on Pe at Vmax. Page 15

16 Draft = 14 m Draft = 14 m Draft = 9.5 m Draft = 9.5 m Draft (m) Bulbous bow optimisation for operational profile Results : Speeds (knots) ID Weighted Pe variation (%) % -22.4% -16.6% -10.1% / -18% % -13.7% -9.5% -5.2% / -12% % -8.3% -5.4% -2.4% / -6% % -4.6% -2.6% -0.5% 1.5% -3% Wegihted Pe variation (%) -14.1% -13.3% -9.4% -5.1% 9.4% gains on weighted Pe for a 1.5% loss on Pe at Vmax Initial Optimal Initial Optimal Page 16

17 Business Case Mean Consumption: 25,000 T/Year/vessel Optimized Bulb: -9% in mean HFO Consumption Savings : 2,250 T/Year/vessel (1,350,000 USD/Year/vessel) Retrofit Cost 600,000 USD Net Present Value ROI: 5-6 months GO Month Cash flow (USD) Gain cumulés (USD) Page 17

18 CMA CGM TOSCA Work done during Dry Dock: Propeller Boss Cap Fin New Paint Main Engine Overhauls New Bulbous Bow Page 18

19 CMA CGM TOSCA Sea trial after dry docks: High savings for lower speeds 60 % MCR TOSCA after DD + bulb TOSCA before DD TOSCA ST 13.4m Puissance (TOSCA before DD) Speed (knts) Page 19

20 T (m) CMA CGM TOSCA Results from sea Vitesses (nds) ID % -22.4% -16.6% -10.1% / % -13.7% -9.5% -5.2% / % -8.3% -5.4% -2.4% / % -4.6% -2.6% -0.5% 1.5% Speed (knts) Average Hydrodynamic gains (PBCF + paint + Bulb) CMA CGM LA TRAVIATA 27,3% 20,8% 8,1% 2,5% 14,7% Sister vessel same age, same Dry Dock, without bulb retrofit Results from sea Speed (knts) Average Hydrodynamic gains (PBCF + paint) CONCLUSION 4,3% 8,7% 6,5% 8,3% 6,9% Full scale sea trial accuracy : more than 2% Hard to isolate single effect Good agreement with computations Page 20

21 Conclusions Original Bulbous bow was optimized for design conditions: 24.5 knots / 14m draft Post crisis environment: need for flexibility and lower speeds High savings expected from bulbous bow retrofitting Computations done with accurate CFD codes Parametric study to cover the whole range of deformations Multi-criteria to cover the whole operating profile of the vessel 5 weeks study Results confirmed by sea trials and first voyage of the vessel Short time for return on investment High cash flow generation Following bulb retrofit a trim optimization study has been performed by HydrOcean to update CMA CGM tables. Page 21

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