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1 PART FIVE Chapter 14: Ancient Mediterranean Worlds Time Periods for this chapter include: The Oldest Art: Prehistoric and Neolithic Mesopotamia: Sumerian, Assyrian, Babylonian Egypt The Aegean: Cycladic, Minoan, Mycenaean Greece: Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic Rome

2 Key Terms for this chapter include: fertility figure Nebuchnezzar ziggurat cuneiform hierarchical scale sunken relief techne contrapposto kouros and kore krater and amphora red-figure style Acropolis and Perikles entasis Fides and Concordia Pompeii/Herculaneum equestrian portrait

3 The Oldest Art This chapter focuses on the region around the Mediterranean Sea. Beginning around 3000 B.C.E. many civilizations arose and faded into the world we know today. Paleolithic: Meaning Old Stone Age; nomadic lifestyle and hunter gatherer cultures dominated. Neolithic: Meaning New Stone Age; named for new type of stone tools developed; farming practices begin.

4 The Oldest Art Chauvet and Lascaux Caves: Almost all the paintings are of animals; theories suggest that these animals may have had symbolic meaning. Venus of Willendorf: A fertility figure made of stone; one of the oldest art objects known to man. Fertility Figure: Image of a woman with exaggerated reproductive features. Insert visual(s). Suggestions: 14.1 Horse and Geometric Symbol 14.2 Female figure from Willendorf

5 Horse and Geometric Symbol, Lascaux France, 33000BC *Venus of Willendorf, Paleolithic, limestone, 23000BC Women and Cattle, Algeria, 5000BC

6 The Oldest Art Stone Age art is fragmentary and isolated. In looking at art of the past, it is not necessarily the best art but the most preserved art that is studied. Paleolithic: Meaning Old Stone Age; nomadic lifestyle and hunter gatherer cultures dominated. Neolithic: Meaning New Stone Age; named for new type of stone tools developed; farming practices begin.

7 Mesopotamia Mesopotamian art reflects a fertile land with no natural boundaries where successive waves of people conquered the region in ancient times.

8 Mesopotamia The Sumerians were the first people to leave behind both artifacts and words. Lacking stone, their cities were built of sun-dried bricks. Cuneiform: (Latin for wedge-shaped); first known written words created as marks pressed into damp clay. Ziggurat: Temple or shrine raised on a monumental, stepped base. Insert visual(s). Suggestion: 14.4 Nanna Ziggurat

9 Nanna Ziggurat, BC Head of an Akaddian Ruler, Ninevah, Iraq, 2250BC Ram in Thicket, Ur, 2600BC

10 Mesopotamia The Assyrians demonstrated another major goal of Mesopotamian architecture which was to build citadels for the protection and safety of temples and palaces. The lion hunt was a popular scene depicted in art. Slaying lions was an expression of kingly power. Insert visual(s). Suggestion: 14.8 Lion Hunt

11 *Lion Hunt, Assyrian, Alabaster, 850BC

12 Human Headed Winged Lion, Assyrian,

13 Mesopotamia The Babylonians were great architects of the ancient world. One of their great leaders, Nebuchadnezzar, was an enthusiastic patron of the arts and he built the capitol city of Babylon. Insert visual(s). Suggestion: 14.9 Ishtar Gate

14 *Ishtar Gate, Babylon, glazed brick, 575BC

15 Egypt The principle message of Egyptian art is continuity. Stability, order, and endurance are all ideas expressed through their works of art. Action is not important in Egyptian art. The pyramid is the most famous architectural creation in ancient Egypt. Insert visual(s). Suggestion: 3.5 Pyramids at Giza

16 Pyramids of Giza, Egypt

17 Egypt When depicting important persons, the artist strove to show each body part to its best advantage. Hierarchical Scale: The most important figure is the largest. Men are depicted darker (reddish) and women are depicted lighter (yellowish) Insert visual(s). Suggestion: Palette of Narmer

18 Palette of Narmer, 3100BC *The Great Sphinx, 2500BC, 66

19 Funerary temple of Hatshepsut, 1460 BC

20 Egypt The pharaoh Amenhotep (Akhenaton) was a revolutionary and tried to establish monotheism (belief in one god). During his reign, Egyptian art was less rigid and more natural in appearance. Sunken Relief: Outline is deeply carved into the surface and the figures are modeled from the surface down Insert visual(s). Suggestion: Akhenaten and His Family

21 Wall painting

22 Akhenaten and His Family *Queen Nefertiti, 1345BC

23 Egypt Gold represented wealth, the life-giving rays of the sun, and eternity itself. The flesh of the gods was considered to be gold. King Tutankhamen's gold coffin and face mask were meant to confer immortality.

24 *Mask of King Tut

25 The Aegean Aegean art coincides with both Egyptian and Mesopotamian art. It consists of 3 main cultures: Cycladic, Minoan, Mycenaean Insert visual(s). Suggestions: Statuette of a Woman Toreador Fresco Rhyton in the shape of a lion s head

26 The Aegean Cycladic art: Consists mainly of nude female fertility figures. Minoan art: Centers around the city of Knossos; many frescos adore the palace walls. Mycenaean art: Known for their elaborate burial practices and their use of gold.

27 Left Statuette of Woman, Cycladic, BC. Right Toreador Fresco, Minoan fresco, Knossos, 1500BC. Bottom Rhyton (lion cup), Mycenaean, 1550BC

28 The Classical World: GREECE AND ROME The word Classical refers to 2 cultures: Greece and Rome It aesthetically indicates artwork of the highest quality and standards.

29 Greece Greek philosophers were the first to speculate on the nature and purpose of art. Sculpture, painting, and architecture were discussed as techne. Techne: things requiring a special body of knowledge and skill to make. Krater: A vessel for wine.

30 Krater (wine container), BC, Late Geometric Period

31 Greece The Archaic period consists of the 6 th century B.C.E. It is the beginning of characteristic Greek forms. Kouros: Greek youth or boy. Kore: Greek female maiden. Amphora: Storage vessel. Red-figure Style: The ground is painted black, while figures are left in the unpainted clay color. Insert visual(s). Suggestions: Kouros amphora with gymnasium scene

32 *Left - Kouros, 580BC, 6 4. Right - Andokides Painter,Amphora,520 BC

33 Greece The Classical period dates from 480 to 323 B.C.E. It is considered to be the height of Greek art. Athens was the cultural and artistic center at this time. Greeks invented the contrapposto stance. Bronze was the favored material for sculpture. Insert visual(s). Suggestion: Warrior A

34 CLASSICAL GREECE - Left Warrior A, 450BC, bronze. Top right *Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens,

35 *Three Goddesses, pediment of Parthenon, BC

36 Greece The last period of Greek art is called Hellenistic and begins ca. 323 B.C.E. This style emphasizes balance and restraint while also favoring dynamic poses and extreme emotion. Sculpture of this era possess a theatrical quality and complex poses. Insert visual(s). Suggestions: Aphrodite of Melos Laocoon Group

37 *Left Aphrodite of Melos (Venus de Milo), 150BC Right Laocoon Group, (Roman copyof bronze original ), late 1 st century BC

38 Rome The Roman era begins ca. 510 B.C.E. It overlaps the Greek era. The Romans admired Greek art and copied many of their works. Roman art tends towards realism. Roman artist created many portrait busts of ordinary citizens. Fides and Concordia: Highly esteemed Roman virtues; means faith, fidelity, and harmony.

39 Rome The eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 C.E. buried the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. We know of Roman fresco paintings because they were preserved and then excavated in 1748 from these sites. Equestrian Portrait: Portrayal of admired leader on horseback. Insert visual(s). Suggestion: 3.6 Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius

40 Double Portrait of Gratidia, 1 st century BC

41 Rome The Romans were best known for their architecture and engineering. Their most famous monument is the Colosseum. The Colosseum: Covers over 6 acres 3-tiered with 80 arched entryways/exits Accommodated over 50,000 people Symbol of Rome Insert visual(s). Suggestion: Colosseum

42 *Colosseum, Rome

43 Ancient Mediterranean Worlds: SUMMARY Time Periods and Key Terms covered: The Oldest Art (Paleolithic, Neolithic): Fertility Figure Mesopotamia (Sumerian, Assyrian, Babylonian): Nebuchnezzar, Ziggurat, Cuneiform Egypt: Hierarchical Scale, Sunken Relief The Aegean (Cycladic, Minoan, Mycenaean) Greece (Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic): Techne, Contrapposto, Kouros, Kore, Krater, Amphora, Red-figure style, Acropolis, Perikles, Entasis Rome: Fides/Concordia, Pompeii/Herculaneum, Equestrian Portrait

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