Ashridge MBTI research into distribution of type. By Melissa Carr, Judy Curd, Fiona Dent Alex Davda and Naomi Piper.

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1 Ashridge MBTI research into distribution of type By Melissa Carr, Judy Curd, Fiona Dent Alex Davda and Naomi Piper Second edition

2 Contents Section 1: Background of the MBTI 1 The data 1 Aims of the research 2 The findings 2 Recommended reading 5 Section 2: Type Tables 6

3 Ashridge Management Type Research Background of the MBTI One of the most widely used personality instruments, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator provides a useful tool for understanding differences between people. The instrument offers individuals an insight into where they get their energy from, how they take in information and make decisions, and the way they prefer to live their lives. The tool has many different applications including helping people to understand why they may find some occupations more rewarding than others and why certain roles can provide frustrations. Each of the 16 types has its own strengths and areas for development; however, it does not give an indicator of skills or abilities. The MBTI only really adds value when used in a developmental setting. The MBTI has been used world-wide across many different languages and cultures. Research has suggested that type theory is meaningful across all cultures but the expression and interpretation of behaviours will vary according to culture (Kendall, 1998). This means that it is particularly useful in global management development and can be used with audiences other than the white, middle class Americans on which the original research was based. The MBTI has a long history and many people have written and researched about the development and application of type. Ashridge research aims to build upon some of these previous studies: specifically, the 1998 research project carried out by Oxford Psychologists Press (Kendall, 1998), which has been used as a basis for comparison with the Ashridge data. This research, which was part of the validation study of the UK form of the MBTI, presented the first type tables for the UK population. The OPP study aims to provide an important benchmark for many research initiatives such as exploring similarities and differences with other countries and cultures (Kendall, 1998, p5). The Ashridge study aims to develop and build upon some of these research initiatives. The data Ashridge, one of the world s leading business schools, delivers executive education and development to individuals and organisations. As well as having a comprehensive portfolio of open programmes, Ashridge provides tailored programmes to a range of client organisations that span all industry sectors. Every year, about 5000 managers attend programmes at Ashridge; of these 42% are international programme participants. Many of these programmes have aspects of individual and team development for which participants complete a range of psychometric instruments, one of which is the MBTI. The data was collected from managers who have attended a variety of the programmes. The research was carried out in January 2011 using the reported types of over 22,000 managers who have attended both open and tailored executive education programmes in the past ten years. When the data was collected, permission was sought to use the findings for research purposes, and all data was anonymised. 1 1

4 The sample population Subjects in this research were all participants on management development programmes at Ashridge from 2000 to The participants ranged in age from 20 to 78. Management levels ranged from junior manager to senior executive and chief executive. The participants in this sample population came from 116 different countries: 96% were European, with 52% of the total population coming from the UK. The gender split was 76% male and 22% female with 2% unspecified. The largest individual industry sectors are manufacturing with 24%, and public sector workers with 25% of the sample population. Aims of research The research had the following aims, the findings of which are summarised later: to build on previous research and explore further some of the differences that exist in the distribution of types to compare managerial type tables with the UK population and examine differences that exists. Anecdotal evidence suggested that some types more than others seemed to appear in management. The research aimed to discover the extent to which this is true and, if this is the case, which were the more prevalent previous research has suggested that there are some gender differences in the MBTI, specifically around the dichotomies of Thinking and Feeling (Kendall, 1998). This research aimed to see if these patterns still held true when looking at a managerial population limited research has examined differences in type distribution within Europe. This research aimed to see if there were any significant differences in the distribution of type for European managers again, limited research is available about the distribution of managers across industry sector. This research aimed to go some way to providing this data finally, to provide resources for MBTI users to use with their clients both individually and at an organisational level. The findings The MBTI is different from many other psychometric instruments in that it is not normative; therefore it is more useful to look at whole types and the frequency with which they appear in different populations. Research has been carried out on the population distribution of type within the UK (Kendall, 1998) and this study aimed to extend this by looking at type distributions for managers across different countries and industries. To be able to make conclusions on whether a certain group of people differ significantly in the type distribution to the general population, we used a formula called the Self Selection Ratio (SSR). This calculates whether a certain type is more or less likely to self-select into an area than would be suspected. A score of greater than one means that more of that type than would be expected are found in this area, a score of less than one shows an under-representation of this type, while a score of one means you would find as many as the general population mean. 2

5 Modal types The modal type for Ashridge s management population is ESTJ (22.5%), followed by ENTJ, ISTJ and ENTP. The least frequent types are ISFP, INFJ, ESFP and INFP. This demonstrates the most pronounced findings; the under-representation of people with a Feeling preference in management. 86% of Ashridge managers had a reported Thinking preference compared to the general population where 46% had this reported type. Also pronounced was the difference in Sensing and Intuition; in the management population, this was split 50/50: however, in a UK population only 23% of people report a preference for Intuition. Gender differences In the UK population, the Thinking-Feeling dichotomy is the only one that shows some gender differences, with women being more likely to report a Feeling preference than men (70% women compared to 35% men). This pattern does not hold true for a managerial population, where more women (76%) had a reported preference for Thinking. This is the same pattern that male managers display. This finding would provide the basis for interesting research into why this occurs; are women managers more similar to their male counterparts, or do they adopt behaviours that they see as the norm in a managerial population? European differences The UK managerial patterns are also true when looking at Europe. Across the European countries represented in the type tables, the modal types seem to be ESTJ, ENTJ and ISTJ followed by ENTP. Over half of all European managers had a TJ preference. Industry differences Industry sector type tables were calculated by breaking down the total Ashridge type table into industry sectors. Self-selection ratios were used to look at how specific industry sectors compared to the general managerial population. For most industries there were no significant differences in type distribution according to the industry sector. Some differences did occur: for example, in retail, ENTP was over-represented compared to the general managerial population. However the modal types still remained the same with ESTJ, ENTJ and ISTJ dominant. An accurate reflection of my type ISTJ Product Development Manager, API Group Plc 3

6 Summary of findings The research showed that there are differences in the type distributions of managers compared to a UK population, more specifically: Some types are more prevalent than others in management and these seem to be largely focused in the four corners of the type table (ESTJ, ENTJ, ISTJ and INTJ) Gender differences do not appear to exist in a managerial population, with as many male managers reporting to have a Thinking preference as female managers. The striking difference though is in the prevalence of managers generally reporting to have a Thinking preference and the under-representation of managers with a Feeling preference. Type tables for European managers show no significant difference in profiles across different countries There does not appear to be a significant difference in managerial types across different industry sectors. Conclusion The main aim of the research was to provide type practitioners with up-to-date type tables. The research indicated that there are some significant differences in the types found in management compared to the general UK population. The Ashridge study has raised some interesting questions that could form the basis for further research. For instance, the research was based on reported types and it would be useful to see how this may differ from their best-fit. More specifically, looking at some of the biases that seem to occur, it would be valuable to gain an understanding of whether managers are recognising that in order to cope with a managerial role, they need to develop the ability to behave in ways typically reported for ESTJ, ENTJ, ISTJ or ENTP types. 4

7 Recommended reading Briggs Myers, Isabel and Myers, Peter B. (1995) Gifts Differing, Understanding Personality Type, Davies Black Publishing Kendall, Elizabeth. (1998) Myers Briggs Type Indicator European English Editions Manual Supplement, OPP Ltd. Krebs Hirsh, Sandra and Kummerow, Jean M. (1990) Introduction To Type In Organisations, CPP Inc, USA Kroeger, O and Thuesen, J.M. (1988) Type Talk, Dell Publishing, USA. Myers, Katherine D, and Kirby, Linda K. (1994) Introduction to Type Dynamics and Development, CPP Inc, USA Myers, S. (1995) Influencing People Using Myers Briggs, Team Technology UK Rogers, Jenny. (1997) Sixteen Personality Types At Work In Organisations, Cambridge Management Centres plc and Management Futures Ltd. 5

8 Table 1: Ashridge managerial type: All data (n = 22,783) ISTJ % SSR = 1.03 ISFJ % SSR =.13 INFJ % SSR =.52 INTJ % SSR = 5.14 ISTP % SSR =.59 ISFP % SSR =.09 INFP % SSR =.40 INTP % SSR = 2.33 ESTP % SSR = 1.01 ESFP % SSR =.12 ENFP % SSR = 0.57 ENTP % SSR = 4.03 ESTJ % SSR = 2.16 ESFJ % SSR =.22 ENFJ % SSR =.92 ENTJ % SSR = 5.20 Very insightful ESFP HR Manager, Publishing House 6

9 Dichotomous pairs E % S % I % N % T % J % F % P % Pairs and temperaments IJ % TJ % IP % TP % EP % FP % EJ % FJ % ST % IN % SF % EN % NF % IS % NT % ES % SJ % ET % SP % EF % NP % IF % NJ % IT % This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to The population is made up of males and 4968 females, with 543 participants unspecified. The ages range from 20 to 78 and they come from 116 different countries. The most common reported types are: ESTJ 22.5% ENTJ 15.1% ISTJ 14.2% ENTP 11.3% 63.1% 7

10 Table 2: Ashridge managerial type: Males (n = 17,272) ISTJ % SSR =.76 ISFJ % SSR =.19 INFJ % SSR =.45 INTJ % SSR = 3.0 ISTP % SSR =.38 ISFP % SSR =.11 INFP % SSR =.36 INTP % SSR = 1.41 ESTP % SSR =.77 ESFP % SSR =.15 ENFP % SSR =.59 ENTP % SSR = 3.14 ESTJ % SSR = 1.99 ESFJ % SSR =.33 ENFJ % SSR = 1 ENTJ % SSR = 3.56 I would say that the MBTI type did provide an accurate description ESTJ Research Fellow, University of Manchester 8

11 Dichotomous pairs E % S % I % N % T % J % F % P % Pairs and temperaments IJ % TJ % IP % TP % EP % FP % EJ % FJ % ST % IN % SF % EN % NF % IS % NT % ES % SJ % ET % SP % EF % NP % IF % NJ % IT % This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the male participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to They make up 76% of the sample population. Ages range from 20 to 78 and they come from 113 different countries. The most common reported types are: ESTJ 23.1% ENTJ 15.3% ISTJ 15.0% ENTP 11.3% 64.7% 9

12 Table 3: Ashridge managerial type: Females (n = 4,968) ISTJ % SSR = 1.26 ISFJ % SSR =.15 INFJ % SSR =.82 INTJ % SSR = 12 ISTP % SSR = 1.08 ISFP % SSR =.12 INFP % SSR =.60 INTP % SSR = 4.9 ESTP % SSR = 1.27 ESFP % SSR =.17 ENFP % SSR =.72 ENTP % SSR = 5.38 ESTJ % SSR = 2.17 ESFJ % SSR =.29 ENFJ % SSR = 1.35 ENTJ % SSR = 8.64 Hugely useful for Putting leadership qualities in context ENTP Consultant Surgeon, University of Liverpool 10

13 Dichotomous pairs E % S % I % N % T % J % F % P % Pairs and temperaments IJ % TJ % IP % TP % EP % FP % EJ % FJ % ST % IN % SF % EN % NF % IS % NT % ES % SJ % ET % SP % EF % NP % IF % NJ % IT % This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 4968 female participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to They make up 20% of the sample population. Ages range from 21 to 62 and they come from 76 different countries. The most common reported types are: ESTJ 20.6% ENTJ 14.7% ENTP 11.3% ISTJ 10.8% 57.4% 11

14 Table 4: Ashridge managerial type: Belgium (n = 278) ISTJ n = % SSR = 1.31 ISFJ n = 5 1.8% SSR =.75 INFJ n = 1 0.4% SSR =.4 INTJ n = % SSR = 2.4 ISTP n = 4 1.4% SSR = 2.42 ISFP n = 4 1.4% SSR = 1.27 INFP n = 0 0.0% SSR = 0 INTP n = % SSR = 1.54 ESTP n = % SSR = 1.23 ESFP n = 4 1.4% SSR =.42 ENFP n = 4 1.4% SSR =.23 ENTP n = % SSR = 1.22 ESTJ n = % SSR = 1.15 ESFJ n = 6 2.2% SSR =.36 ENFJ n = 5 1.8% SSR =.45 ENTJ n = % SSR =.92 MBTI well presented and consistent ENFP Director of Specialist lines, MMA Insurance Group 12

15 Dichotomous pairs E % S % I % N % T % J % F % P % Pairs and temperaments IJ % TJ % IP % TP % EP % FP % EJ % FJ % ST % IN % SF % EN % NF % IS % NT % ES % SJ % ET % SP % EF % NP % IF % NJ % IT % This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 278 Belgium participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to They make up 1.2% of the sample population. Ages range from 26 to 58. There were 222 male and 56 female participants. The most common reported types are: ESTJ 24.8% ISTJ 13.7% ENTP 13.3% ENTJ 12.9% 64.7% 13

16 Table 5: Ashridge managerial type: Germany (n = 2,132) ISTJ n = % SSR = 1.02 ISFJ n = % SSR =.35 INFJ n = 7 0.3% SSR =.27 INTJ n = % SSR =.83 ISTP n = % SSR = 1.11 ISFP n = 6 0.3% SSR =.43 INFP n = % SSR = 2.64 INTP n = % SSR = 1.16 ESTP n = % SSR = 1.31 ESFP n = % SSR =.35 ENFP n = % SSR =.83 ENTP n = % SSR = 1.04 ESTJ n = % SSR = 1.20 ESFJ n = % SSR =.36 ENFJ n = % SSR =.68 ENTJ n = % SSR = 1.07 Fascinating and very useful ISTP Procurement Officer, Civil Service 14

17 Dichotomous pairs E % S % I % N % T % J % F % P % Pairs and temperaments IJ % TJ % IP % TP % EP % FP % EJ % FJ % ST % IN % SF % EN % NF % IS % NT % ES % SJ % ET % SP % EF % NP % IF % NJ % IT % This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 2132 German participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to They make up 9.4% of the sample population. Ages range from 24 to 77. There were 1881 male and 233 female participants, with 18 participants unspecified. The most common reported types are: ESTJ 30.0% ENTJ 19.6% ISTJ 12.7% ENTP 9.1% 71.4% 15

18 Table 6: Ashridge managerial type: France (n = 542) ISTJ n = % SSR = 1.08 ISFJ n = % SSR =.46 INFJ n = 3 0.6% SSR =.31 INTJ n = % SSR = 1.88 ISTP n = % SSR = 1.33 ISFP n = 4 0.7% SSR =.41 INFP n = % SSR =.92 INTP n = % SSR =.82 ESTP n = % SSR = 1.58 ESFP n = 8 1.5% SSR =.42 ENFP n = % SSR =.83 ENTP n = % SSR = 1.29 ESTJ n = % SSR =.98 ESFJ n = % SSR =.6 ENFJ n = % SSR =.73 ENTJ n = % SSR =

19 Dichotomous pairs E % S % I % N % T % J % F % P % Pairs and temperaments IJ % TJ % IP % TP % EP % FP % EJ % FJ % ST % IN % SF % EN % NF % IS % NT % ES % SJ % ET % SP % EF % NP % IF % NJ % IT % This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 542 French participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to They make up 2.4% of the sample population. Ages range from 25 to 59. There were 451 male and 91 female participants. The most common reported types are: ESTJ 21.0% ISTJ 13.7% ENTJ 11.3% ENTP 9.0% 55% 17

20 Table 7: Ashridge managerial type: Italy (n = 293) ISTJ n = % SSR =.87 ISFJ n = 3 1.0% SSR =.33 INFJ n = 2 0.7% SSR =.39 INTJ n = % SSR = 1.33 ISTP n = % SSR = 1.58 ISFP n = 2 0.7% SSR =.63 INFP n = 5 1.7% SSR = 1.21 INTP n = % SSR =.85 ESTP n = % SSR = 1.30 ESFP n = 5 1.7% SSR = 1.13 ENFP n = % SSR =.95 ENTP n = % SSR = 1.68 ESTJ n = % SSR =.99 ESFJ n = 7 2.4% SSR =.4 ENFJ n = 7 2.4% SSR =.48 ENTJ n = % SSR = 1.18 MBTI is very revealing, and when one reflects, spot on INFJ Training Officer, Civil Service 18

21 Dichotomous pairs E % S % I % N % T % J % F % P % Pairs and temperaments IJ % TJ % IP % TP % EP % FP % EJ % FJ % ST % IN % SF % EN % NF % IS % NT % ES % SJ % ET % SP % EF % NP % IF % NJ % IT % This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 293 Italian participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to They make up 1.3% of the sample population. Ages range from 28 to 58. There were 241 male and 46 female participants, with 6 participants unspecified. The most common reported types are: ESTJ 23.5% ENTJ 18.4% ISTJ 13.0% ENTP 10.6% 65.5% 19

22 Table 8: Ashridge managerial type: Irish Republic (n = 494) ISTJ n = % SSR = 1.43 ISFJ n = % SSR =.90 INFJ n = 8 1.6% SSR =.68 INTJ n = % SSR = 1.02 ISTP n = % SSR = 1.09 ISFP n = 4 0.8% SSR =.88 INFP n = 5 1.0% SSR =.66 INTP n = % SSR = 1.7 ESTP n = % SSR = 1.03 ESFP n = 8 1.6% SSR =.64 ENFP n = % SSR =.72 ENTP n = % SSR =.99 ESTJ n = % SSR = 1.07 ESFJ n = % SSR =.49 ENFJ n = % SSR =.43 ENTJ n = % SSR =.95 My MBTI type is a mirror of my true self ESTJ Operations Maintenace Manager, Shell Nigerian Gas Ltd 20

23 Dichotomous pairs E % S % I % N % T % J % F % P % Pairs and temperaments IJ % TJ % IP % TP % EP % FP % EJ % FJ % ST % IN % SF % EN % NF % IS % NT % ES % SJ % ET % SP % EF % NP % IF % NJ % IT % This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 494 Irish participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to They make up 2.2% of the sample population. Ages range from 26 to 58. There were 361 male and 119 female participants, with 14 paricipants unspecified. The most common reported types are: ESTJ 23.3% ISTJ 16.4% ENTJ 11.7% ENTP 9.3% 60.7% 21

24 Table 9: Ashridge managerial type: The Netherlands (n = 1,023) ISTJ n = % SSR =.96 ISFJ n = 7 0.7% SSR =.24 INFJ n = 2 0.2% SSR =.25 INTJ n = % SSR = 1.70 ISTP n = % SSR =.87 ISFP n = 6 0.6% SSR =.42 INFP n = % SSR =.83 INTP n = % SSR = 1.20 ESTP n = % SSR = 1.14 ESFP n = % SSR =.4 ENFP n = % SSR =.73 ENTP n = % SSR = 1.43 ESTJ n = % SSR = 1.13 ESFJ n = % SSR =.41 ENFJ n = % SSR =.43 ENTJ n = % SSR = 1.37 MBTI is very useful for me with very interesting points which I am sure will be to the benefit of my career ESTJ Director, Eureko Sigorta 22

25 Dichotomous pairs E % S % I % N % T % J % F % P % Pairs and temperaments IJ % TJ % IP % TP % EP % FP % EJ % FJ % ST % IN % SF % EN % NF % IS % NT % ES % SJ % ET % SP % EF % NP % IF % NJ % IT % This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 1023 Dutch participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to They make up 4.5% of the sample population. Ages range from 23 to 58. There were 838 male and 185 female participants. The most common reported types are: ESTJ 21.0% ENTP 18.7% ENTJ 13.9% ESTP 10.4% 64% 23

26 Table 10: Ashridge managerial type: Spain (n = 242) ISTJ n = % SSR = 1.47 ISFJ n = 1 0.4% SSR =.4 INFJ n = 3 1.2% SSR = 2.4 INTJ n = % SSR =.91 ISTP n = 9 3.7% SSR = 1.54 ISFP n = 2 0.8% SSR =.4 INFP n = 2 0.8% SSR = 1.6 INTP n = 9 3.7% SSR =.97 ESTP n = % SSR = 1.07 ESFP n = 2 0.8% SSR =.88 ENFP n = 4 1.7% SSR = 1.21 ENTP n = % SSR =.91 ESTJ n = % SSR =.91 ESFJ n = 4 1.7% SSR =.89 ENFJ n = 7 2.9% SSR = 2.07 ENTJ n = % SSR =.65 24

27 Dichotomous pairs E % S % I % N % T % J % F % P % Pairs and temperaments IJ % TJ % IP % TP % EP % FP % EJ % FJ % ST % IN % SF % EN % NF % IS % NT % ES % SJ % ET % SP % EF % NP % IF % NJ % IT % This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 242 Spanish participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to They make up 1.1% of the sample population. Ages range from 23 to 58. There were 197 male and 43 female participants, with 2 participants unspecified. The most common reported types are: ESTJ 33.5% ISTJ 17.8% ENTJ 11.6% ENTP 8.3% 71.2% 25

28 Table 11: Ashridge managerial type: Sweden (n = 586) ISTJ n = % SSR =.89 ISFJ n = % SSR =.28 INFJ n = 6 1.0% SSR =.41 INTJ n = % SSR = 1.9 ISTP n = % SSR =.58 ISFP n = 4 0.7% SSR =.22 INFP n = 6 1.0% SSR =.25 INTP n = % SSR = 1.06 ESTP n = % SSR = 2.2 ESFP n = % SSR =.32 ENFP n = % SSR =.51 ENTP n = % SSR = 1.9 ESTJ n = % SSR = 1.56 ESFJ n = % SSR =.4 ENFJ n = % SSR =.81 ENTJ n = % SSR = 6.11 I found the MBTI remarkably accurate. It s given me some very useful insights INTJ Stroke Rehabilitation Research Fellow, University of Manchester 26

29 Dichotomous pairs E % S % I % N % T % J % F % P % Pairs and temperaments IJ % TJ % IP % TP % EP % FP % EJ % FJ % ST % IN % SF % EN % NF % IS % NT % ES % SJ % ET % SP % EF % NP % IF % NJ % IT % This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 586 Swedish participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to They make up 2.6% of the sample population. Ages range from 24 to 63. There were 457 male and 121 female participants, with 8 participants unspecified. The most common reported types are: ESTJ 22.0% ENTJ 15.9% ENTP 11.3% ISTJ 10.2% 59.4% 27

30 Table 12: Ashridge managerial type: United Kingdom (n = 11,886) ISTJ n = % SSR = 1.06 ISFJ n = % SSR =.14 INFJ n = % SSR =.65 INTJ n = % SSR = 5.86 ISTP n = % SSR =.62 ISFP n = % SSR =.11 INFP n = % SSR =.47 INTP n = % SSR = 2.88 ESTP n = % SSR = 5.2 ESFP n = % SSR =.12 ENFP n = % SSR =.57 ENTP n = % SSR = 4.25 ESTJ n = % SSR = 1.85 ESFJ n = % SSR =.23 ENFJ n = % SSR =.93 ENTJ n = % SSR = 5.00 I guessed there would be a MBTI that summed me up and indeed there was ISFJ Senior Lecturer, Kings College London 28

31 Dichotomous pairs E % S % I % N % T % J % F % P % Pairs and temperaments IJ % TJ % IP % TP % EP % FP % EJ % FJ % ST % IN % SF % EN % NF % IS % NT % ES % SJ % ET % SP % EF % NP % IF % NJ % IT % This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the UK participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to They make up 52% of the sample population. Ages range from 20 to 72. There were 8581 male and 3115 female participants, with 190 participants unspecified. The most common reported types are: ESTJ 19.2% ISTJ 14.6% ENTJ 14.5% ENTP 11.9% 60.2% 29

32 Table 13: Ashridge managerial type: United States (n = 785) ISTJ n = % SSR =.61 ISFJ n = % SSR =.10 INFJ n = 6 0.8% SSR =.53 INTJ n = % SSR = 2.8 ISTP n = % SSR =.88 ISFP n = 3 0.4% SSR =.04 INFP n = 9 1.1% SSR =.25 INTP n = % SSR = 1.3 ESTP n = % SSR = 1.18 ESFP n = % SSR =.16 ENFP n = % SSR =.38 ENTP n = % SSR = 3.7 ESTJ n = % SSR = 2.59 ESFJ n = % SSR =.21 ENFJ n = % SSR = 1.16 ENTJ n = % SSR = 7.33 I found it very accurate and even predicted my response to stress INTP Clinical Scientist, University College London 30

33 Dichotomous pairs E % S % I % N % T % J % F % P % Pairs and temperaments IJ % TJ % IP % TP % EP % FP % EJ % FJ % ST % IN % SF % EN % NF % IS % NT % ES % SJ % ET % SP % EF % NP % IF % NJ % IT % This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 785 USA participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to They make up 3.4% of the sample population. Ages range from 23 to 64. There were 618 male and 154 female participants, with 13 participants unspecified. The most common reported types are: ESTJ 22.5% ISTJ 18.9% ENTJ 13.2% ENTP 11.8% 66.4% 31

34 Table 14: Ashridge managerial type: Industry sectors: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing (n = 119) ISTJ n = % SSR = 1.66 ISFJ n = 1 0.8% SSR =.06 INFJ n = 0 0.0% SSR = 0 INTJ n = 8 6.7% SSR = 4.79 ISTP n = % SSR = 1.31 ISFP n = 1 0.8% SSR =.13 INFP n = 3 2.5% SSR =.78 INTP n = 8 6.7% SSR = 2.75 ESTP n = 7 5.9% SSR = 1.01 ESFP n = 3 2.5% SSR =.29 ENFP n = 4 3.4% SSR =.54 ENTP n = % SSR = 3.89 ESTJ n = % SSR =.56 ESFJ n = 1 0.8% SSR =.06 ENFJ n = 2 1.8% SSR =.60 ENTJ n = 9 7.6% SSR = 2.62 I found the MBTI to be very useful indeed. Hugely insightful and the practical application of the information was perfect ESTJ Regional Sales Manager, Friend First Life Assurance Company Ltd 32

35 Dichotomous pairs E % S % I % N % T % J % F % P % Pairs and temperaments IJ % TJ % IP % TP % EP % FP % EJ % FJ % ST % IN % SF % EN % NF % IS % NT % ES % SJ % ET % SP % EF % NP % IF % NJ % IT % This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 119 participants on Ashridge development programmes from the Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing industries from 2000 to They make up 0.5% of the sample population. Ages range from 24 to 61. There were 100 male and 19 female participants. The most common reported types are: ISTJ 22.7% ESTJ 18.5% ENTP 10.9% ISTP 8.4% 60.5% 33

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