The Pros and Cons of Using Career Interest Inventories with Students

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1 The Pros and Cons of Using Career Interest Inventories with Students The Holland Self Directed Search and Myers Briggs Type Indicator Nicole Darling, MS District Career Awareness Coordinator Dallas School District, Dallas, PA 1

2 2

3 Personality is what we see & Vocations are who we are! Educators Preparing Children For Who They Will Become 3

4 Six Steps to Career Success Preparing for future career goals: 1. ASSESSING your skills, interests and values 2. EXPLORING your career options & academic majors 3. BUILDING your job-search skills 4. EXPERIMENTING by gaining related experience 5. IMPLEMENTING your plan 6. PRACTICING life-long career management The BIG Three Skills Interests Values All Change with Age 4

5 Each one of us has a unique blueprint that for the most part stays with us throughout life. That Blue Print is our ~Personality~ Personality is how we naturally see the world and make decisions. It is a set of basic drives and motivations that remain relatively constant throughout a person's life. 5

6 The Pros and Cons of using Career Assessments lie within the understanding the use of these tools. What are we assessing? 6

7 Is the instrument valid and reliable. Do we understand the language of these tools in order to properly administer them? 7

8 Measures of Personality Interviews Unstructured: Tell me about yourself Structured: Set list of questions Observation: Psychologists learn about personality by observing the person Projective tests: subjects reveal aspects of their personality when they talk about ambiguous stimuli Objective tests: self inventories that involve paper and pencil tests or are administered online 8

9 The Value of Assessments Value to the Individual (face validity) Self insight Points of discussion Norms provide comparison info Value to Research (construct validity) Study relationships of personality with other variables Study changes over time Value for Counseling Marital therapy Career counseling centers Value for Personnel Management Screening Prediction of success Placement & counseling Disadvantage of Objective Assessments Social Desirability Faking Good Faking Bad Random Responding 9

10 A Look At The Holland Codes and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator John Holland Self-Directed Search Carl Jung Isabel Briggs Myers & Katherine Briggs Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 10

11 Holland s Typology John Holland, a psychologist who was drafted by the army in WW2 Developed a classification system for jobs in the military based upon his theory describing six work environments and six vocational personalities. Holland believed that career choice is an extension of a person's personality. People express themselves, their interests and values through their work choices and experience. Holland Created The Self Directed Search (SDS) The SDS was developed by Dr. John Holland, an American Psychologist. The Self Directed Search (SDS) has been used by over 22 million people worldwide. Form R: Standard Form Generates a 3 letter code Form E: Designed for limited reading skills and generates a 2 letter code Form CE Career Explorer: Designed for middle & high school students to help introduce vocational options and generates a 2 letter code 11

12 Holland s Working Assumptions: Most individuals can be described in terms of their resemblance to six personality types Each personality type has a characteristic set of attitudes and skills to use in response to problems encountered in the environment, and... Each encompasses preferences for vocational and leisure activities, life goals and values, beliefs about oneself, and problem solving style. Holland s Working Assumptions: Environments can be categorized as one of six model types. The environment s type is determined by the dominant type of the individuals who compose that environment. 12

13 Holland s Working Assumptions: People search for environments that will let them exercise their skills and abilities, express their attitudes and values, and take on agreeable problems and roles. The Holland Hexagon 13

14 Realistic Described as: frank genuine honest thrifty persistent modest practical shy natural sensible People who have athletic ability, prefer to work with objects, machines, tools, plants or animals, or to be outdoors. Focus is on Things Investigative Described as: analytical cautious complex critical curious pessimistic precise rational quiet logical People who like to observe, learn, investigate, analyze, evaluate, or solve problems. Focus is on Ideas & Things 14

15 Artistic Described as: complicated emotional idealist imaginative nonconforming original expressive disorderly impulsive creative open Focus is on People & Ideas People who have artistic, innovative, or intuitional abilities, and like to work in unstructured situations, using their imagination or creativity. Social Described as: cooperative friendly idealistic social sympathetic tactful warm/kind understanding helpful responsible patient Focus is on People People who like to work with people to inform, enlighten, help, train, develop or cure them or are skilled with words. 15

16 Enterprising Described as: adventurous energetic outgoing ambitious sociable self confident attention getting optimistic Focus is on People & Data People who like to work with people influencing, persuading, performing, leading, or managing for organizational goals or economic gain. Conventional Described as: careful conforming efficient orderly practical thrifty unimaginative Focus is on Things & Data People who like to work with data, have clerical or numerical ability, carrying things out in great detail or following through on other s instructions. 16

17 About Codes Congruency is the degree agreement between a person and an occupation (environment). Consistency Codes closer to each other on the hexagon are more similar than those farther apart. Consistency has to do with the relationship between the first two letters of a code. Adjacent types are most consistent. Opposite types are most inconsistent. Commonness Some combinations of codes are more common while others are more rare Differentiation Are two or three of the six areas higher (more distinctive) than the other areas? refers to the level of distinctiveness of a personality or occupational profile. (Differentiated vs. Undifferentiated; High Undifferentiated vs. Low Undifferentiated.) Levels of Consistency High level of consistency the first 2 letters are adjacent (e.g. RC) Moderate or Medium level of consistency the first 2 letters are alternate on the hexagon (e.g. RA) Low level of consistency the first 2 letters are opposite on the hexagon (e.g. RS) 17

18 Work Interest Examples Top Example: ASE are highest and fairly differentiated; all scores are low; ASE are all next to each other (consistent); Look at A & S with third being E,C or R. Don t rule out other types if they aren t a part of the two or three letter code. Bottom Example: ARS are highest (differentiated); Other than A, all scores are low; R and S are opposites. Would look at Artistic occupations. Note: If Artistic had much less interest, it might be helpful to see an advisor. Work Interest Examples Top Example: EC are highest (differentiated); Other than E, all scores are low; ECS are all next to each other (consistent). Look at Enterprising occupations with some consideration for Conventional. Flat profiles may mean: too young or inexperienced; well integrated person with multiple talents and interests, or confused and disorganized person Bottom Example: ASR; A & S next to each other (consistent), R opposite. All areas have strong interest. Look at Artistic and Social occupations. 18

19 Holland's Theory In reality, since everyone is a combination of personality types, one would probably consider careers from more than one type of work environment. No one is one personality type. Everyone is a combination or mixture of types. Your 3 highest scores indicates your personality type. But as an administrator of the Holland you should investigate the scores of all codes. People of the same personality type tend to group together because they find they have many things in common. A person who chooses a work environment that is similar to their personality type will be contented, satisfied and be able to contribute in their chosen vocation. SDS codes are approximate, not precise. Like any inventory, the SDS will not work for everyone. The first letter of the code is the most important, most descriptive and most reliable. Myers Briggs Type Indicator Type Theory Based on the work of Carl Jung Carl Jung Researched normal differences between healthy people Jung concluded that differences in behavior result from inborn tendencies to use your mind in different ways. As we act on these tendencies, we develop patterns of behavior. 19

20 Myers Briggs Type Indicator Helps students identify their unique gifts Helps students understand themself Motivations Natural strengths Potential areas for growth Helps students understand and appreciate people who differ from you Helps students make the best of their college experience Helps students begin the career exploration process Type with Students Make the best of a student s experience by helping them understand their type. Choosing a Major People are most attracted to careers that provide them the opportunity to express their preferences. Learning Styles Identify learning styles consistent with student preferences. Each type has a different style that works best for them. 20

21 Type with Students Reading, Writing and Studying Students of each type have unique ways of approaching the writing process Use type to help students understand their preferred style of writing Playing Type helps students understand their preferences for forming social relationships, getting along with roommates and participating in student groups Handling Stress Type helps students understand how they typically deal with stress What Are Preferences? Sign your name as you normally do. Sign your name again, but this time use your other hand. Everyone has a natural preference for one of the two opposites on each of the four MBTI dichotomies. When we use our preferred methods we are at our best and feel most competent. 21

22 Structure of the MBTI The MBTI instrument uses four dichotomies to identify preferences, which are then combined into one Type A dichotomy divides items into 2 groups where there is no continuum or value implied Type Helps Us To Understand Where you focus your attention and energy? How you acquire or gather information? How you make decisions or judgments? How you relate to the outer world? 22

23 Composite Type One letter from each dichotomy Sum equals more than the parts It represents the dynamic interactions among the preferences in your type No hierarchy among the types; each identifies normal and valuable personalities How To Interpret MBTI Results? Your type consists of four letters that represent your four preferences. The bars on the graph illustrate the clarity of your MBTI preferences. The longer bar suggests you are quite sure that you prefer that pole. The shorter bar suggests that you are less sure about your preference for that pole. 23

24 EXTRAVERSION Direct energy outward toward people and things Orientation after thinkers Work Environment Action oriented Prefer to be around others Many interests INTROVERSION Direct energy inward toward ideas and concepts Orientation fore thinkers Work Environment Quiet and concentrated Prefer to be alone Interests have depth SENSING Focus on five senses(experience) Details, practicality, reality Work Environment Prefer learned skills Pay attention to details Make few factual errors INTUITION Focus on the possibilities (sixth sense) Patterns and expectations Work Environment Prefer adding new skills Looks at the big picture Patient with complexity 24

25 THINKING Focus logic of a situation, truth and principles Work Environment brief and businesslike intellectual criticism solutions to problems FEELING Focus human values and needs, people and harmony Work Environment friendly and personal loyal support, care and concern for others JUDGING Attitude decisive, organized, self regimented, purposeful Work Environment focus on completing tasks, makes decisions quickly PERCEPTION Attitude curious, spontaneous, flexible, adaptable, tolerant Work Environment focus on starting tasks, postpones decisions 25

26 Occupational Trends by Type ISTJ Management Administration Law enforcement Accounting ISFJ Education Health care Religious settings INFJ Religion Counseling Teaching Arts INTJ Scientific or technical fields Computers Law ISTP Skilled trades Technical fields Agriculture Law Enforcement Military ISFP Health care Business Law enforcement INFP Counseling Writing Arts INTP Scientific or technical fields ESTP Marketing Skilled trades Business Law enforcement Applied technology ESFP Health care Teaching Coaching Childcare worker Skilled trades ENFP Counseling Teaching Religion Arts ENTP Science Management Technology Arts ESTJ Management Administration Law enforcement ESFJ Education Health care Religion ENFJ Religion Arts Teaching ENTJ Management Leadership Source: From Introduction to Type and Careers, A.L. Hammer, 1993, Consulting Psychologists Press Type and Career Type summary is designed to help explore career options Focus on the exploration process instead of the selection process Consider type in past and future activities Consider the strengths and challenges associated with each type Consider the relationship between your personality preferences and possible careers 26

27 MBTI GUIDELINES A person s psychological type should be regarded as a working hypothesis. Everyone uses every preference. We favor, however, one preference over the other on each of the four scales. MBTI scores should not be over interpreted. High scores do not indicate greater skill, magnitude, or use of a preference. Scores indicate clarity of choice. Psychological type can explain some human behavior not all. Type should not be used as an excuse for doing or not doing something. Avoid stereotyping someone on the basis of his or her type. Final Word... It s important for counselors to practice with full knowledge of the instruments, manuals, and theory. Nicole Darling, MS District Career Awareness Coordinator Dallas School District Dallas, PA 27

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