Continuous ethanol fermentation using membrane bioreactors (MBR)

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Continuous ethanol fermentation using membrane bioreactors (MBR)"

Transcription

1 Continuous ethanol fermentation using membrane bioreactors (MBR) Johan Thuvander Department of Chemical Engineering, LTH, Lund University Abstract Continuous ethanol production using membrane bioreactors (MBR) for internal cell recycling was studied in this work. Diluted beet molasses was fermented by baker s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two MBR systems were studied, one system with a membrane module integrated in the fermentor and one system where the fermentor was equipped with an external membrane module. The membrane used was a microfiltration membrane normally used in waste water treatment applications. The ethanol productivity in the system with internal membranes was 2.7 g/l h. This shows the potential of an MBR system, even though far from optimized in this prestudy. Introduction Bioethanol has received a lot of attention as a new liquid fuel for vehicles. The production of bioethanol is today done by fermenting starch or sugars [1]. The fermentation method mainly used is batch fermentation with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae [2]. reactor [3, 4]. An MBR can be used to recycle yeast during ethanol fermentation, in very much the same way. In this study, the possibility to use a MBR module usually used for waste water treatment for ethanol fermentation was investigated. Materials and Methods Equipment A jacketed fermentor with the working volume of 14 liters was used for the fermentations. An MBR module from Alfa Laval (Denmark) was used in the experiment with an internal membrane module, Fig. 1. The module consisted of 9 cartridges that each was equipped with two 3x3 cm MFP 2 membranes (Alfa Laval, Denmark) with the pore size of 2 μm. The total membrane area of the module was 1.62 m 2. A diagram of the fermentation system with internal membranes can be seen in Fig. 2. The ethanol productivity during batch fermentation without cell recycle is g/l h [1].The productivity could be increased by making the process continuous and increasing the yeast concentration which would lower the cost of the produced ethanol. However, continuous processes require a yeast recycling system to reach high productivities and existing methods for achieving this are expensive [1]. MBR s have been used in waste water treatment applications to achieve long residence time of active sludge in a small Figure 1. Picture of the internal membrane module.

2 Figure 2. Equipment setup for continuous fermentation with internal membranes. An Alfa Laval PilotUnit Combi M39 L (Alfa Laval, Denmark) was used for the experiment with an external membrane module. The external module was equipped with.8 m 2 of flat sheet membranes of the same type as in the internal membrane module. A diagram of the fermentation system with external membranes can be seen in Fig. 3. Figure 3. Equipment setup for continuous fermentation with external membranes. Microorganism and fermentation medium The yeast was ordinary baker s yeast (S. cerevisiae) from Jästbolaget (Sweden) in the form of active dry yeast. Beet molasses from Nordic sugar (Sweden) was used as fermentation substrate. The molasses was diluted to the sucrose concentration 12 g/l and ph adjusted to ph 5.5 with sulfuric acid to minimize the risk and severity of infections [6]. The fermentation medium was sterilized through boiling for 3 minutes. Experimental procedure To ensure high cell viability, the active dry yeast was added to sterilized tempered water for slow rehydration for minutes before being gently stirred and added to the fermentor [5]. For each fermentation 28 g of active dry yeast was used, giving the initial yeast concentration 2 g/l in the fermentor.

3 The continuous fermentations were started as batch fermentations. The continuous fermentation was started after hours by extracting filtration permeate and adding an equal amount of feed solution to the fermentor. Permeate was extracted at the rate 9 l/h (5.6 l/m 2 h) in the continuous fermentation experiment with internal membranes. The continuous fermentation with external membranes had a constant transmembrane pressure of.8 bar and a cross flow velocity of.16 m/s. The temperature in the fermentors was kept constant at 3 C by feeding cooling water to the cooling jacket of the fermentor. Analysis The yeast concentration was measured by filtering 5 ml of the samples through.2 µm ME 24 filters (Schleicher & Schuell, Germany).The sample was washed with an equal volume of water and dried at 5 C for 24 hours. The yeast concentration was determined by weighing the filters before filtration and after drying. The concentration of sugar, ethanol, glycerol and organic acids in the samples was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Two HPLC setups (Shimadzu, Japan) were used, both with a refractive index detector (Shimadzu, Japan). The column used in the HPLC setup for analysis of ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid and glycerol was an Aminex HPX-87H column (Bio-Rad, USA). The eluent used was 5 mm sulfuric acid at 5 C with a flow rate of.5 ml/min. The HPLC setup for analysis of sucrose, glucose and fructose used an Aminex HPX- 87P column (Bio-Rad, USA) and.5 ml/min deionized water at 85 C as eluent. Results & Discussion Fermentation medium Besides sucrose the molasses mainly contained glucose, galactose, lactic and acetic acid, see Tab. 1. Yeast growth inhibition was expected as lactic and acetic acid start to cause yeast inhibitions at 8 and.5 g/l respectively [7]. The molasses was therefore diluted but had still a reasonable sugar concentration. Table 1. Concentration of sugars and organic acids in untreated and diluted molasses. Molasses Sucrose (g/l) Glucose (g/l) 46 9 Galactose (g/l) 16 3 Lactic acid (g/l) Acetic acid (g/l) Diluted molasses The maximal theoretical amount of ethanol that can be produced from this medium can be calculated using the stochiometrical equations of sugars converted to ethanol. Eq.1 is the conversion from glucose and galactose into ethanol and Eq. 2 is the conversion of sucrose into ethanol. 1 kg of glucose and galactose can produce.51 kg of ethanol and 1 kg of sucrose can produce.54 kg of ethanol, according to Eqs.1 and 2. The theoretical maximal ethanol concentration that can be reached with the used fermentation medium is thus 7 g/l. 2 2 (1) 4 4 (2) Batch fermentation Batch fermentation resulted in a final ethanol concentration of 5 g/l, 7 % the theoretical maximal ethanol concentration. Continuous fermentation with internal membranes The average ethanol concentration was 42 g/l, between 2 and 4 hours of fermentation, as shown in Fig. 4. This corresponds to 6 % of the theoretical maximum ethanol yield and the ethanol productivity rate 2.7 g/l h. The yeast quickly hydrolyze sucrose to glucose and fructose [8,9] which is why only the glucose concentration is shown in Fig 4.

4 Concentration (g/l) Figure 4. Ethanol and glucose concentration during the continuous fermentation experiment with internal membranes. As the glucose concentration decreased, the yeast growth rate decreased and leveled out at 9 g/l, as shown in Fig 5. Concentration (g/l) Figure 5. Yeast concentration during the continuous fermentation experiment with internal membranes. TMP increased when the yeast concentration increased during the experiment but was still below,15 bar after 4 hours of fermentation. Continuous fermentation with external membranes Ethanol Glucose The flux during the continuous fermentation experiment with external membranes was initially higher than for the experiment with internal membranes as a result of a higher TMP, but the flux decreased fast due to cake formation. The permeate flow was between 5 and 3.7 l/h during the main part of the experiment, as shown in Fig 6, which corresponds to a flux between 6.3 and 4.6 l/m 2 h. Permeate flow (l/h) Figure 6. Flux during the continuous fermentation experiment with external membranes. The average ethanol concentration was 55 g/l, 78 % of the theoretical maximal yield, during 34 to 58 hours of fermentation (see Fig 7). The average permeate flow rate was 4 l/h and the ethanol production rate was 1.6 g/l h. Concentration (g/l) Figure 7. Ethanol and glucose concentration during the continuous fermentation experiment with external membranes. The yeast concentration increased continuously during the experiment and reached almost 15 g/l at the end of the fermentation, as shown in Fig 8. Concentration (g/l) 15 Figure 8. Yeast concentration during the continuous fermentation experiment with internal membranes- Conclusions Ethanol Glucose Yeast tends to form filter cakes and high TMP shall be avoided because of that. It was observed that when using membranes integrated in the fermentor and the flux 5.6 l/m 2 h was used, the agitation in the fermentor

5 was sufficient to counteract most of the filter cake formation. The ethanol productivity is directly connected to the throughput of fermentation medium in the fermentor. Because of this, higher productivities would be possible if the amount of membrane area in the fermentor would be increased. The ethanol yield was low during the experiments which was due to unfavorable fermentation conditions such as high concentration of organic acids. If the fermentation conditions are optimized, higher yields would be reached, as well as significantly higher ethanol productivities. Future work The ethanol productivity can be increased if: More membrane area is used in the fermentor, which will enable higher throughput in the fermentor without increasing the flux. Higher yeast concentration is used which can ensure complete utilization of the added sugars. Fermentation conditions are made more favorable so higher ethanol yield is achieved. Higher flux and longer operation times can be reached if a cleaning cycle is integrated into the continuous operation. If the filtration operation is stopped periodically the accumulated material on the membranes can be swept away by the agitation in the fermentor. Acknowledgements The author would like to thank Holger Krawczyk and Anders Arkell for making this thesis possible and for their guidance and assistance through the work. Thanks go to Alfa Laval for providing the membranes and for adapting the internal membrane module for this work. Special thanks to Frank Lipnizki and Franck Hansen from Alfa Laval for their interest in this thesis and assistance. The author also like to thank Nordic Sugar and Jästbolaget that generously donated the beet molasses and yeast that were used in this thesis. Finally, thanks to the wonderful people at the Department of Chemical Engineering at Lund University for their support. References [1] Kosaric N., Duvnjak Z., Farkas A., Sahm H., Bringer-Meyer S., Goebel O., Mayer D., 211, Ethanol, Ullmann's Encyc. Ind. Chem.. [2] Logsdon J. E., 24, Ethanol, Kirk- Othmer Encyc. Chem. Tech.. [3] Le-Clech P., Chen V., Fane T. A. G., 26, Fouling in membrane bioreactors used in wastewater treatment, J. Membrane Sci., 284 (1-2), [4] Sutherland K., 2, The rise of membrane bioreactors, Filtr. & Separat.., 47 (5), [5] Jenkins D. M., Powell C. D., Fischborn T., Smart K. A., 211, Rehydration of Active Dry Brewing Yeast and its Effect on Cell Viability, Ins. Brew. Disti., 117( 3), [6] Narendranath NV., Power R., 25, Relationship between ph and medium dissolved solids in terms of growth and metabolism of lactobacilli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during ethanol production, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 71(5), [7] Jacques K., Lyons T.P., Kelsall D.R., 21, The alcohol textbook, Nottingham U. Press. [8] Anderson S. B., Luiz C. M., Boris U. S., 24, Sucrose fermentation by Saccharomyces Cerevisiae lacking hexose transport, J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 8( 1), [9] Fuente G., Sols A., 1961, Transport of sugar in yeast: II. Mechanisms of utilization of disaccharides and related glycosides, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 56(1962),

Control of fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates

Control of fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates Control of fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates Anneli Nilsson Department of Chemical Engineering II, Lund University P.O. Box 124, S-221 00 Lund, Sweden In this work substrate feeding rate to

More information

ANALYSIS OF FOOD AND NATURAL PRODUCTS LABORATORY EXERCISE

ANALYSIS OF FOOD AND NATURAL PRODUCTS LABORATORY EXERCISE ANALYSIS OF FOOD AND NATURAL PRODUCTS LABORATORY EXERCISE Determination of carbohydrates in foodstuff (LC/RID method) Exercise guarantor: Assoc. Prof. Karel Cejpek, Ph.D. CONTENT Required knowledge...

More information

The Fouling of Zirconium(IV) Hydrous Oxide Polyacrylate Dynamically Formed Membranes during the Nanofiltration of Lactic Acid Solutions

The Fouling of Zirconium(IV) Hydrous Oxide Polyacrylate Dynamically Formed Membranes during the Nanofiltration of Lactic Acid Solutions Membranes 213, 3, 415-423; doi:1.339/membranes34415 Article OPEN ACCESS membranes ISSN 277-375 www.mdpi.com/journal/membranes The Fouling of Zirconium(IV) Hydrous Oxide Polyacrylate Dynamically Formed

More information

Colligative Properties: Freezing Point Depression and Molecular Weight

Colligative Properties: Freezing Point Depression and Molecular Weight Purpose: Colligative Properties: Freezing Point Depression and Molecular Weight The first purpose of this lab is to experimentally determine the van't Hoff (i) factor for two different substances, sucrose

More information

Carbohydrate Analysis: Column Chemistries and Detection

Carbohydrate Analysis: Column Chemistries and Detection Carbohydrate Analysis: Column Chemistries and Detection Joe Romano Waters Corporation Carbohydrates in Feeds Methodology Forum AOAC 2007 Annual Meeting Anaheim, CA September 18, 2007 2007 Waters Corporation

More information

Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast A Bioengineering Design Challenge 1

Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast A Bioengineering Design Challenge 1 Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast A Bioengineering Design Challenge 1 I. Introduction Yeasts are single cell fungi. People use yeast to make bread, wine and beer. For your experiment, you will use the little

More information

The Determination of Sugars in Molasses by High-Performance Anion Exchange with Pulsed Amperometric Detection

The Determination of Sugars in Molasses by High-Performance Anion Exchange with Pulsed Amperometric Detection Application Note 9 The Determination of Sugars in Molasses by High-Performance Anion Exchange with Pulsed Amperometric Detection INTRODUCTION The accurate measurement of the amount of sugar in final molasses

More information

General Properties Protein Nature of Enzymes Folded Shape of Enzymes H-bonds complementary

General Properties Protein Nature of Enzymes Folded Shape of Enzymes H-bonds complementary Proteins that function as biological catalysts are called enzymes. Enzymes speed up specific metabolic reactions. Low contamination, low temperature and fast metabolism are only possible with enzymes.

More information

Exercise 4 - Biology 105 Respiration

Exercise 4 - Biology 105 Respiration Exercise 4 - Biology 105 Respiration Purpose: Introduce concepts of respiration Reinforce planning of controlled experiments Reinforce statistical analysis, graphing, and interpretation and discussion.

More information

FAO Symposium on. The role of agricultural biotechnologies for production of bio-energy in developing countries"

FAO Symposium on. The role of agricultural biotechnologies for production of bio-energy in developing countries FAO Symposium on The role of agricultural biotechnologies for production of bio-energy in developing countries" ETHANOL PRODUCTION VIA ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SUGAR-CANE BAGASSE AND STRAW Elba P. S. Bon

More information

Cross Flow Filtration Method Handbook

Cross Flow Filtration Method Handbook Cross Flow Filtration Method Handbook Page intentionally left blank Table of Contents Table of Contents 1 Introduction... 1.1 What is cross flow filtration?... 1.2 Key features of CFF... 1.3 CFF application

More information

INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY. Production hosts for real-life feedstock utilization

INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY. Production hosts for real-life feedstock utilization Selection of production hosts for real-life feedstock utilization Karl Rumbold (karl.rumbold@tno.nl) INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Industrial Biotechnology is the application of biotechnology for the processing

More information

COMPRESSIBILITY OF MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR SLUDGE: MODELLING CAKE BUILD-UP AND SPECIFIC CAKE RESISTANCE

COMPRESSIBILITY OF MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR SLUDGE: MODELLING CAKE BUILD-UP AND SPECIFIC CAKE RESISTANCE COMPRESSIBILITY OF MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR SLUDGE: MODELLING CAKE BUILD-UP AND SPECIFIC CAKE RESISTANCE T. V. Bugge 1, M. L. Christensen 1, A. D. Enevoldsen 2, P. E. Jørgensen 2, Jessica Bengtsson 3, Nicolas

More information

What are the similarities between this equation for burning glucose and the equation for cellular respiration of glucose when oxygen is available?

What are the similarities between this equation for burning glucose and the equation for cellular respiration of glucose when oxygen is available? Cellular Respiration in Yeast Adapted from Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast Investigation in the School District of Philadelphia Biology Core Curriculum 2009 by Dr. Jennifer Doherty and Dr. Ingrid Waldron,

More information

Cellulosic ethanol Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and HTec2 - Enzymes for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic

Cellulosic ethanol Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and HTec2 - Enzymes for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic Cellulosic ethanol Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and HTec2 - Enzymes for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic Application sheet Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol involves the liberation of sugars from

More information

APPLICATION SHEET. Novozymes Spirizyme products for use in saccharification and fermentation

APPLICATION SHEET. Novozymes Spirizyme products for use in saccharification and fermentation FUEL ETHANOL APPLICATION SHEET Novozymes Spirizyme products for use in saccharification and fermentation The Spirizyme product range offers a wide variety of possibilities to optimize yields, throughput,

More information

Activity Sheets Enzymes and Their Functions

Activity Sheets Enzymes and Their Functions Name: Date: Activity Sheets Enzymes and Their Functions amylase What are Enzymes? starch glucose Enzymes are compounds that assist chemical reactions by increasing the rate at which they occur. For example,

More information

MAKING & FERMENTING THE MASH

MAKING & FERMENTING THE MASH MAKING & FERMENTING THE MASH Contents 1. Table of Ingredients for the Mash 2. About Myths 3. Making and Fermenting Mash from Whole Corn or Directly from Corn Meal 4. For Starters in Distillation 5. Sugar

More information

What affects an enzyme s activity? General environmental factors, such as temperature and ph. Chemicals that specifically influence the enzyme.

What affects an enzyme s activity? General environmental factors, such as temperature and ph. Chemicals that specifically influence the enzyme. CH s 8-9 Respiration & Metabolism Metabolism A catalyst is a chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction. An enzyme is a catalytic protein. Hydrolysis of sucrose by

More information

IDENTIFYING CARBOHYDRATES

IDENTIFYING CARBOHYDRATES (adapted from Blackburn et al., Laboratory Manual to Accompany World of Chemistry, 2 nd ed., (1996) Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth) Purpose: To become familiar with some of the characteristic

More information

The Chemistry of Carbohydrates

The Chemistry of Carbohydrates The Chemistry of Carbohydrates Experiment #5 Objective: To determine the carbohydrate class of an unknown by carrying out a series of chemical reactions with the unknown and known compounds in each class

More information

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis INTRODUCTION Respiration is important in maintaining the energy needs of the cell. In photosynthesis light energy is changed to chemical energy and stored in food.

More information

Metabolism - Part 1 Glycolysis & Respiration

Metabolism - Part 1 Glycolysis & Respiration Metabolism - Part 1 Glycolysis & Respiration Cells harvest chemical energy from foodstuffs in a series of exergonic reactions. The harvested energy can then be used to power energy demanding processes

More information

Properties of Carbohydrates : Solubility, Reactivity, and Specific Rotation

Properties of Carbohydrates : Solubility, Reactivity, and Specific Rotation EXPERIMENT 5 Properties of Carbohydrates : Solubility, Reactivity, and Specific Rotation Materials Needed About 3-5 g each of Glucose, Fructose, Maltose, Ribose, Galactose, Lactose, Sucrose, Starch sodium

More information

Sugar utilization by yeast during fermentation

Sugar utilization by yeast during fermentation Journal of IndustriaI Microbiology, 4 (I989) 315-324 Elsevier 315 SIM00189 Sugar utilization by yeast during fermentation Tony D'Amore, Inge Russell and Graham G. Stewart Research Department, Labatt Brewing

More information

Production of 2nd generation bioethanol from lucerne with optimized hydrothermal pretreatment

Production of 2nd generation bioethanol from lucerne with optimized hydrothermal pretreatment Downloaded from orbit.dtu.dk on: Feb 03, 2016 Production of 2nd generation bioethanol from lucerne with optimized hydrothermal pretreatment Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

More information

TEACHER ACTIVITY GUIDE

TEACHER ACTIVITY GUIDE Page 1/5 EXPECTED OUTCOMES TEACHER ACTIVITY GUIDE ROOT BEER PRODUCTION Taken from IFT Experiments in Food Science Series This activity will allow student an opportunity to explore yeast fermentation by

More information

Development of a Monitoring Hybrid System for Bioethanol Production

Development of a Monitoring Hybrid System for Bioethanol Production 943 A publication of CHEMICAL EGIEERIG TRASACTIOS VOL. 32, 2013 Chief Editors: Sauro Pierucci, Jiří J. Klemeš Copyright 2013, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l., ISB 978-88-95608-23-5; ISS 1974-9791 The Italian Association

More information

NATIONAL STANDARD FOR FOOD SAFETY OF THE PEOPLE S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

NATIONAL STANDARD FOR FOOD SAFETY OF THE PEOPLE S REPUBLIC OF CHINA NATIONAL STANDARD FOR FOOD SAFETY OF THE PEOPLE S REPUBLIC OF CHINA GB 5413.9 2010 National food safety standard Determination of vitamin A, D, E in foods for infants and young children, milk and milk

More information

DETERMINATION OF THE PERCENT COMPOSITION OF A MIXTURE

DETERMINATION OF THE PERCENT COMPOSITION OF A MIXTURE Chemistry 111 Lab: Percent Composition Page D-3 DETERMINATION OF THE PERCENT COMPOSITION OF A MIXTURE In this experiment you are to determine the composition of a mixture containing unknown proportions

More information

The Processes of Life. Bicester Community College Science Department

The Processes of Life. Bicester Community College Science Department B4 The Processes of Life B4 Key Questions How do chemical reactions take place in living things? How do plants make food? How do living organisms obtain energy? How do chemical reactions take place in

More information

- Oxygen is needed for cellular respiration [OVERHEAD, fig. 6.2, p. 90 / 4th: 6.1] - lungs provide oxygen to blood, blood brings oxygen to the cells.

- Oxygen is needed for cellular respiration [OVERHEAD, fig. 6.2, p. 90 / 4th: 6.1] - lungs provide oxygen to blood, blood brings oxygen to the cells. Cellular respiration - how cells make energy - Oxygen is needed for cellular respiration [OVERHEAD, fig. 6.2, p. 90 / 4th: 6.1] - ATP - this is provided by the lungs - lungs provide oxygen to blood, blood

More information

Experiment 8 Synthesis of Aspirin

Experiment 8 Synthesis of Aspirin Experiment 8 Synthesis of Aspirin Aspirin is an effective analgesic (pain reliever), antipyretic (fever reducer) and anti-inflammatory agent and is one of the most widely used non-prescription drugs. The

More information

Wellsway school science dept. Curriculum 2011 AQA Additional Science Biology workbook - 1 -

Wellsway school science dept. Curriculum 2011 AQA Additional Science Biology workbook - 1 - - 1 - WORKBOOK 6 - AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION Respiration in cells can take place aerobically or anaerobically. The energy released is used in a variety of ways. The human body needs to react to

More information

Efficient conversion of starch and cellulose from co-products of food industry and agriculture to ethanol

Efficient conversion of starch and cellulose from co-products of food industry and agriculture to ethanol Efficient conversion of starch and cellulose from co-products of food industry and agriculture to ethanol Detmold, April 25-26, 2006 Johan van Groenestijn & Doede Binnema 3 projects Ethanol from starch

More information

GCSE Additional Science

GCSE Additional Science GCSE Additional Science Module B4 The processes of life: What you should know Name: Science Group: Teacher: R.A.G. each of the statements to help focus your revision: R = Red: I don t know this A = Amber:

More information

1. Explain the difference between fermentation and cellular respiration.

1. Explain the difference between fermentation and cellular respiration. : Harvesting Chemical Energy Name Period Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second to look at the big picture. Photosynthesis and cellular

More information

TECHNICAL CHLORPYRIFOS

TECHNICAL CHLORPYRIFOS TECHNICAL WHO/SIT/21.R3 TECHNICAL CHLORPYRIFOS Full specification WHO/SIT/21.R3 Revised 10 December 1999 1. Specification 1.1 Description The material shall consist of chlorpyrifos together with related

More information

Synthesis of Aspirin and Oil of Wintergreen

Synthesis of Aspirin and Oil of Wintergreen Austin Peay State University Department of hemistry hem 1121 autions Purpose Introduction Acetic Anhydride corrosive and a lachrymator all transfers should be done in the vented fume hood Methanol, Ethanol

More information

EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield

EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield INTRODUCTION Stoichiometry calculations are about calculating the amounts of substances that react and form in a chemical reaction. The word stoichiometry

More information

SUCRALOSE. White to off-white, practically odourless crystalline powder

SUCRALOSE. White to off-white, practically odourless crystalline powder SUCRALOSE Prepared at the 41st JECFA (1993), published in FNP 52 Add 2 (1993). Metals and arsenic specifications revised at the 63rd JECFA (2004). An ADI of 0-15 mg/kg bw was established at the 37th JECFA

More information

Metabolism: Manometric Measurement of the Fermentation of Sucrose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Introduction

Metabolism: Manometric Measurement of the Fermentation of Sucrose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Introduction Metabolism: Manometric Measurement of the Fermentation of Sucrose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Introduction Man has been brewing alcoholic beverages for thousands of years (longer than man has been making

More information

glycolysis + fermentation Lactose Glucose + Galactose lactic acid + acetaldehyde

glycolysis + fermentation Lactose Glucose + Galactose lactic acid + acetaldehyde MAKING YOGURT LAB BAC 1 INTRODUCTION Yogurt is made by the fermentation of lactose (milk sugar) by bacterial enzymes. This process is anaerobic, meaning that it occurs in the absence of oxygen. Lactose

More information

Treatment of oily wastewater produced from refinery processes using flocculation and ceramic membrane filtration

Treatment of oily wastewater produced from refinery processes using flocculation and ceramic membrane filtration Separation and Purification Technology 32 (2003) 93/98 www.elsevier.com/locate/seppur Treatment of oily wastewater produced from refinery processes using flocculation and ceramic membrane filtration Jing

More information

Lesson 6. BioMara gratefully acknowledges the following funders: Content Section - How Algae can be used to produce Biofuel.

Lesson 6. BioMara gratefully acknowledges the following funders: Content Section - How Algae can be used to produce Biofuel. Lesson 6 Content Section - How Algae can be used to produce Biofuel. From lesson 5 you have discovered that there are many uses for algae. You also have discovered that algae can be used to produce biofuels.

More information

Dissolved and precipitated oxalate

Dissolved and precipitated oxalate Accepted 2005 Process liquors from bleach plants Dissolved and precipitated oxalate Using Ion Chromatography 0 Introduction In bleach plants of pulp mills with a high degree of system closure, there is

More information

Making the Most of Milk Understanding Lactose Intolerance

Making the Most of Milk Understanding Lactose Intolerance Making the Most of Milk Understanding Lactose Intolerance Objective Students will learn what causes lactose intolerance and carry out a laboratory activity to test a treatment for lactose intolerance.

More information

Pall in the Brewery (more value per hectolitre) DE Free Clarification FB1795

Pall in the Brewery (more value per hectolitre) DE Free Clarification FB1795 Pall in the Brewery (more value per hectolitre) DE Free Clarification FB1795 The Pall World Pall Corporation is a world leader in the design, production and supply of filters, membranes and systems for

More information

Colligative Properties - Freezing Point Depression

Colligative Properties - Freezing Point Depression Purpose To observe freezing point depression of different solutions and calculate the molar mass of commercial antifreeze. Introduction In winter, trucks dispense dirt and salt onto the roads and antifreeze

More information

Natural and Advanced Treatment Systems for Wastewater Management at Municipal Solid Waste Disposal Site in Developing Countries

Natural and Advanced Treatment Systems for Wastewater Management at Municipal Solid Waste Disposal Site in Developing Countries Natural and Advanced Treatment Systems for Wastewater Management at Municipal Solid Waste Disposal Site in Developing Countries C. Chiemchaisri Department of Environmental Engineering, Kasetsart University

More information

10-ml Graduated cylinder 40 ml 3% Hydrogen peroxide solution (found in stores) Straight-edged razor blade Scissors and Forceps (tweezers)

10-ml Graduated cylinder 40 ml 3% Hydrogen peroxide solution (found in stores) Straight-edged razor blade Scissors and Forceps (tweezers) Name: Class: Date: Objectives * Measure the effects of changes in temperature, ph, and enzyme concentration on reaction rates of an enzyme catalyzed reaction in a controlled experiment. * Explain how environmental

More information

e ROI Improved Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) performance delivers superior effluent quality and major capital savings at Latte Trento Dairy in Italy

e ROI Improved Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) performance delivers superior effluent quality and major capital savings at Latte Trento Dairy in Italy Essential Expertise for Water, Energy and Air Improved Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) performance delivers superior effluent quality and major capital savings at Latte Trento Dairy in Italy Environmental Results

More information

Metabolism: Cellular Respiration, Fermentation and Photosynthesis

Metabolism: Cellular Respiration, Fermentation and Photosynthesis Metabolism: Cellular Respiration, Fermentation and Photosynthesis Introduction: All organisms require a supply of energy and matter to build themselves and to continue to function. To get that supply of

More information

Recovery of Elemental Copper from Copper (II) Nitrate

Recovery of Elemental Copper from Copper (II) Nitrate Recovery of Elemental Copper from Copper (II) Nitrate Objectives: Challenge: Students should be able to - recognize evidence(s) of a chemical change - convert word equations into formula equations - perform

More information

TANNIC ACID. SYNONYMS Tannins (food grade), gallotannic acid, INS No. 181 DEFINITION DESCRIPTION

TANNIC ACID. SYNONYMS Tannins (food grade), gallotannic acid, INS No. 181 DEFINITION DESCRIPTION TANNIC ACID Prepared at the 71 st JECFA (2009) and published in FAO JECFA Monographs 7 (2009), superseding specifications prepared at the 39 th JECFA (1992), published in the combined Compendium of Food

More information

HUBER Vacuum Rotation Membrane VRM Bioreactor

HUBER Vacuum Rotation Membrane VRM Bioreactor HUBER Vacuum Rotation Membrane VRM Bioreactor VRM The rotating plate membrane for clean water applications. The future-oriented solution designed for the ever increasing requirements in wastewater treatment

More information

PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF A SOAP

PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF A SOAP (adapted from Blackburn et al., Laboratory Manual to Accompany World of Chemistry, 2 nd ed., (1996) Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth) Purpose: To prepare a sample of soap and to examine its properties.

More information

STUDIES CONCERNING THE OBTAINING OF BIOMASS FROM LACTOBACILLUS PARACASEI SSP. PARACASEI USING CORN EXTRACT AS NITROGEN SOURCE

STUDIES CONCERNING THE OBTAINING OF BIOMASS FROM LACTOBACILLUS PARACASEI SSP. PARACASEI USING CORN EXTRACT AS NITROGEN SOURCE STUDIES CONCERNING THE OBTAINING OF BIOMASS FROM LACTOBACILLUS PARACASEI SSP. PARACASEI USING CORN EXTRACT AS NITROGEN SOURCE E. Vamanu 1,, A. Vamanu 1,, Diana Pelinescu, O. Popa 1,, Sultana Niţă 3, Despina

More information

Biology for Science Majors

Biology for Science Majors Biology for Science Majors Lab 10 AP BIOLOGY Concepts covered Respirometers Metabolism Glycolysis Respiration Anaerobic vs. aerobic respiration Fermentation Lab 5: Cellular Respiration ATP is the energy

More information

α-cyclodextrin SYNONYMS α-schardinger dextrin, α-dextrin, cyclohexaamylose, cyclomaltohexaose, α- cycloamylase

α-cyclodextrin SYNONYMS α-schardinger dextrin, α-dextrin, cyclohexaamylose, cyclomaltohexaose, α- cycloamylase α-cyclodextrin New specifications prepared at the 57th JECFA (2001) and published in FNP 52 Add 9 (2001). An ADI not specified was established at the 57th JECFA (2001). SYNONYMS α-schardinger dextrin,

More information

HOW YEAST WORKS 2011, 1997 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Reproduction permitted for education use provided original copyright is included.

HOW YEAST WORKS 2011, 1997 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Reproduction permitted for education use provided original copyright is included. HOW YEAST WORKS 2011, 1997 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Reproduction permitted for education use provided original copyright is included. Materials Needed active dry yeast, 6 packages or a jar

More information

Name Section Lab 5 Photosynthesis, Respiration and Fermentation

Name Section Lab 5 Photosynthesis, Respiration and Fermentation Name Section Lab 5 Photosynthesis, Respiration and Fermentation Plants are photosynthetic, which means that they produce their own food from atmospheric CO 2 using light energy from the sun. This process

More information

National 4&5 Biology. Cells Topic Summary Notes. Learning Outcomes (National 5 learning outcomes in shaded box)

National 4&5 Biology. Cells Topic Summary Notes. Learning Outcomes (National 5 learning outcomes in shaded box) National 4&5 Biology Cells Topic Summary Notes Learning Outcomes (National 5 learning outcomes in shaded box) What you should know about CELL STRUCTURE 1 Label a typical animal cell with cell membrane,

More information

A Complete Solution for Method Linearity in HPLC and UHPLC

A Complete Solution for Method Linearity in HPLC and UHPLC Now sold under the Thermo Scientific brand A Complete Solution for Method Linearity in HPLC and UHPLC Frank Steiner, Fraser McLeod, Tobias Fehrenbach, and Andreas Brunner Dionex Corporation, Germering,

More information

Cellular respiration

Cellular respiration Section 3 Cellular Respiration Objectives Summarize how glucose is broken down in the first stage of cellular respiration. Describe how is made in the second stage of cellular respiration. 4B Identify

More information

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION reflect Wind turbines shown in the photo on the right are large structures with blades that move in response to air movement. When the wind blows, the blades rotate. This motion generates energy that is

More information

Membrane Filtration Technology: Meeting Today s Water Treatment Challenges

Membrane Filtration Technology: Meeting Today s Water Treatment Challenges Membrane Filtration Technology: Meeting Today s Water Treatment Challenges Growing global demand for clean water and increasing environmental concerns make membrane filtration the technology of choice

More information

Respiration Worksheet. Respiration is the controlled release of energy from food. Types of Respiration. Aerobic Respiration

Respiration Worksheet. Respiration is the controlled release of energy from food. Types of Respiration. Aerobic Respiration Respiration Worksheet Respiration is the controlled release of energy from food The food involved in respiration is usually Internal respiration is controlled by which allow energy to be released in The

More information

Lecture 12 Recycle, Bypass, & Purge Calculations

Lecture 12 Recycle, Bypass, & Purge Calculations CHE 31. INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS Lecture 12 Recycle, Bypass, & Purge Calculations Recycle Stream Recycle stream is a term denoting a process stream that returns material from downstream

More information

Lab 9. Colligative Properties an Online Lab Activity

Lab 9. Colligative Properties an Online Lab Activity Prelab Assignment Before coming to lab: Lab 9. Colligative Properties an Online Lab Activity Chemistry 162 - K. Marr Revised Winter 2014 This lab exercise does not require a report in your lab notebook.

More information

Cell Membrane Permeability. Introduction: The membrane of a cell is only two molecules thick, but it is of incredible importance in.

Cell Membrane Permeability. Introduction: The membrane of a cell is only two molecules thick, but it is of incredible importance in. Cell Membrane Permeability Names: Date: Introduction: The membrane of a cell is only two molecules thick, but it is of incredible importance in terms of the evolution of life on the planet as we know it.

More information

About Coffee and Refractometers 2008-2010 Voice Systems Technology, Inc. (VST)

About Coffee and Refractometers 2008-2010 Voice Systems Technology, Inc. (VST) About Coffee and Refractometers 2008-200 Voice Systems Technology, Inc. (VST) www.mojotogo.us.0 Coffee and Refractive Index Refractive Index measurements have been used for process control in the food

More information

PHASE CHEMISTRY AND COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES

PHASE CHEMISTRY AND COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES PHASE CHEMISTRY AND COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES Phase Diagrams Solutions Solution Concentrations Colligative Properties Brown et al., Chapter 10, 385 394, Chapter 11, 423-437 CHEM120 Lecture Series Two : 2011/01

More information

Application Note. Determination of Nitrite and Nitrate in Fruit Juices by UV Detection. Summary. Introduction. Experimental Sample Preparation

Application Note. Determination of Nitrite and Nitrate in Fruit Juices by UV Detection. Summary. Introduction. Experimental Sample Preparation Application Note Determination of Nitrite and Nitrate in Fruit Juices by UV Detection Category Food Matrix Fruit Juice Method HPLC Keywords Ion pair chromatography, fruit juice, inorganic anions AZURA

More information

105 Adopted: 27.07.95

105 Adopted: 27.07.95 105 Adopted: 27.07.95 OECD GUIDELINE FOR THE TESTING OF CHEMICALS Adopted by the Council on 27 th July 1995 Water Solubility INTRODUCTION 1. This guideline is a revised version of the original Guideline

More information

Lab #1: Determining the Empirical Formula of a Compound

Lab #1: Determining the Empirical Formula of a Compound Ms. Sonderleiter AP Chemistry Name: Date: Lab #1: Determining the Empirical Formula of a Compound Background: How did early chemists ever manage to determine the chemical formulas of compounds? What kind

More information

Experiment #10: Liquids, Liquid Mixtures and Solutions

Experiment #10: Liquids, Liquid Mixtures and Solutions Experiment #10: Liquids, Liquid Mixtures and Solutions Objectives: This experiment is a broad survey of the physical properties of liquids. We will investigate solvent/solute mixtures. We will study and

More information

TEACHER ACTIVITY GUIDE

TEACHER ACTIVITY GUIDE Page 1/9 EXPECTED OUTCOMES TEACHER ACTIVITY GUIDE WHAT AFFECTS YEAST GROWTH? Taken from IFT Experiments in Food Science Series This experiment will illustrate that there are several factors that affect

More information

Figure 5. Energy of activation with and without an enzyme.

Figure 5. Energy of activation with and without an enzyme. Biology 20 Laboratory ENZYMES & CELLULAR RESPIRATION OBJECTIVE To be able to list the general characteristics of enzymes. To study the effects of enzymes on the rate of chemical reactions. To demonstrate

More information

Austin Peay State University Department of Chemistry CHEM 1111. Copper Cycle

Austin Peay State University Department of Chemistry CHEM 1111. Copper Cycle Cautions Nitric acid and sulfuric acid are toxic and oxidizers and may burn your skin. Nitrogen dioxide gas produced is hazardous if inhaled. Sodium hydroxide is toxic and corrosive and will cause burns

More information

Project 5: Scoville Heat Value of Foods HPLC Analysis of Capsaicinoids

Project 5: Scoville Heat Value of Foods HPLC Analysis of Capsaicinoids Willamette University Chemistry Department 2013 Project 5: HPLC Analysis of Capsaicinoids LABORATORY REPORT: Formal Writing Exercises PRE-LAB ASSIGNMENT Read the entire laboratory project and section 28C

More information

Dispose of all materials in the proper waste containers which are provided in the laboratory.

Dispose of all materials in the proper waste containers which are provided in the laboratory. THE EXTRACTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ARTIFICIAL FOOD COLORS 2009, 2003, 2000, 1997, 1975 by David A. Katz. All Rights reserved. Reproduction permitted for education use provided original copyright is included.

More information

EXPERIMENT 9 (Organic Chemistry II) Pahlavan - Cherif Synthesis of Aspirin - Esterification

EXPERIMENT 9 (Organic Chemistry II) Pahlavan - Cherif Synthesis of Aspirin - Esterification EXPERIMENT 9 (rganic hemistry II) Pahlavan - herif Materials Hot plate 125-mL Erlenmeyer flask Melting point capillaries Melting point apparatus Büchner funnel 400-mL beaker Stirring rod hemicals Salicylic

More information

Sterile ReadyToProcess Hollow Fiber Cartridges Instructions for Use

Sterile ReadyToProcess Hollow Fiber Cartridges Instructions for Use GE Healthcare Instructions 28-9226-84 AD ReadyToProcess Sterile ReadyToProcess Hollow Fiber Cartridges Instructions for Use 1 Introduction... 1 2 Inspect the Cartridge... 1 3 General Description... 2 4

More information

SYNERGISTIC APPLICATION OF ADVANCED PRIMARY AND SECONDARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

SYNERGISTIC APPLICATION OF ADVANCED PRIMARY AND SECONDARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS SYNERGISTIC APPLICATION OF ADVANCED PRIMARY AND SECONDARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS Published in Water and Waste Digest membrane issue, November 2008 Miroslav Colic; Chief Scientist, Clean Water Technology

More information

Distillation of Alcohol

Distillation of Alcohol CHEM 121L General Chemistry Laboratory Revision 1.6 Distillation of Alcohol To learn about the separation of substances. To learn about the separation technique of distillation. To learn how to characterize

More information

Factors affecting Respiration. Level 4/National 4

Factors affecting Respiration. Level 4/National 4 Factors affecting Respiration Level 4/National 4 Learning Intentions By investigating respiration, I can describe its purpose in living organisms and can describe factors that affect it. Success criteria

More information

# 14 Synthesis of Salicylic Acid from Aspirin Tablets

# 14 Synthesis of Salicylic Acid from Aspirin Tablets # 14 Synthesis of Salicylic Acid from Aspirin Tablets Purpose: Acetyl salicylic acid is extracted from aspirin tablets, then is hydrolyzed to form another white solid, salicylic acid. Introduction: The

More information

Glycolysis & Respiration

Glycolysis & Respiration Metabolism - Part 1 Glycolysis & Respiration Cells harvest chemical energy from foodstuffs in a series of exergonic reactions. The harvested energy can then be used to power energy demanding processes

More information

CHM111 Lab Enthalpy of Hydration of Sodium Acetate Grading Rubric

CHM111 Lab Enthalpy of Hydration of Sodium Acetate Grading Rubric Name Team Name CHM111 Lab Enthalpy of Hydration of Sodium Acetate Grading Rubric Criteria Points possible Points earned Lab Performance Printed lab handout and rubric was brought to lab 3 Safety and proper

More information

Respiration and Gas Exchange

Respiration and Gas Exchange MODULE 02 Respiration and Gas Exchange This is one of the characteristics of living things. We will study this in both plants and humans. Gas exchange structures and how they facilitate gas exchange in

More information

Energy Saving in Ethanol Production During the Mashing Process

Energy Saving in Ethanol Production During the Mashing Process Energy Saving in Ethanol Production During the Mashing Process 3. European Bioethanol Technology Meeting Association of Cereal Research, Detmold (Germany) 24. 25. April 2007 PD Dr. Thomas Senn Energy Saving

More information

Production of penicillin

Production of penicillin Production of penicillin Learning objective: To be able to identify useful products from microorganisms To be able to identify the microorganisms used and the main stages in the production of penicillin.

More information

Physical and Chemical Properties

Physical and Chemical Properties Physical and Chemical Properties Introduction Matter can be classified in different ways using physical and chemical properties. Physical properties include color, odor, density, hardness, structure, solubility,

More information

Beer Styles for the Novice Your Brew Day Sanitation

Beer Styles for the Novice Your Brew Day Sanitation Concepts for Novice Brewers Curtis Eulberg 4/2013 Beer Beer is a fermented beverage made most commonly from water, malted barley, hops, and yeast. These items when skillfully combined with proper time

More information

E. Özgür, B. Uyar, M. Gürgan, M. Yücel

E. Özgür, B. Uyar, M. Gürgan, M. Yücel Production by Hup- Mutant and Wild Type Strains of Rhodobacter capsulatus on Dark Fermenter Effluent of Sugar Beet Thick Juice in Batch and Continuous Photobioreactors E. Özgür, B. Uyar, M. Gürgan, M.

More information

SODIUM CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE

SODIUM CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE SODIUM CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE Prepared at the 28th JECFA (1984), published in FNP 31/2 (1984) and in FNP 52 (1992). Metals and arsenic specifications revised at the 55 th JECFA (2000). An ADI not specified

More information

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Name Period Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 1. The large molecules of all living things fall into just four main classes. Name them. 2. Circle the three classes that are called

More information

Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration. Hot Seat

Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration. Hot Seat Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Hot Seat Hot Seat Instructions You are competing against classmates in your row (across the classroom). The hot seat is the seat in each row closest to the outside

More information

Enzymes Help Us Digest Food 1

Enzymes Help Us Digest Food 1 Enzymes Help Us Digest Food 1 Introduction to Sugars and Enzymes The food you eat contains many different types of molecules, including two types of sugar molecules: monosaccharides and disaccharides.

More information