ENGLISH GRAMMAR WITH RUSSIAN EXPLANATIONS*

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1 ENGLISH GRAMMAR WITH RUSSIAN EXPLANATIONS* PAST CONTINUOUS ПРОШЕДШЕЕ ДЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ ВРЕМЯ* Practice Ex. 16. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла голы в Past Simple или Past Continuous. 1. They (to drink) tea when I (to come) home. 2. He (to walk) along the river when a boat (to pass). 3. The old man (to think) about his plan when he (to fall) asleep. 4. We (to listen) to an interesting lecture 5. When I (to enter) the classroom, the teacher (to write) words on the blackboard and the pupils (to copy) them into their exercise-books. 6. They (to get) ready to go out when it (to begin) raining. 7. Yesterday at one o clock I (to have) lunch at the canteen. ИЗУЧАЕМ ГРАММАТИКУ Плукчи И. В. 8. When he (to come) in, I (to do) my exercises. 9. What you (to do) at eight o clock yesterday? 10. At this time yesterday I (to go) home. 11. You (to sleep) when I (to go) out. 12. He (to read) on the sofa when I (to come) in and (to sit) down beside him. 13. I (to walk) along the street with my friend when a tram (to pass). 14. She (to look) out of the window when I (to see) her. 15. We (to answer) the teacher s questions when the head-mistress (to enter) the classroom. Ex. 17. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла голы в Past Simple или Past Continuous. 1. When I (to ring) up my friend, he (to sleep). 11. When I (to look) out of the window, the children 2. When grandfather (to watch) TV, he (to fall). (to play) hide-and-seek. 3. When my friend (to come) to see me, I (to do) my 12. I (to go) to the theatre homework. 13. At seven o clock yesterday I (to go) to the thea tre. 4. When I (to go) to the stadium, I (to meet) Kate 14. What you (to do) at 5 o clock yesterday? I (to and Ann. play) the piano. 5. When Nick (to ring) me up yesterday, I (to help) 15. When I (to come) to school, the children (to stand) mother. near the classroom. 6. When the children (to walk) through the wood, 16. We (to play) in the yard the whole evening they (to see) a fox. 7. When I (to come) home, my mother (to wash) the 17. When I (to prepare) breakfast in the morning, floor. I (to cut) my finger. 8. When Mike (to play) in the yard, he (to find) 18. Last year I (to go) to the United States. a ball. 19. You (to go) to Great Britain last year? No, I (to 9. When I (to draw) yesterday, I (to break) two go) to France. pencils. 20. What you (to do) yesterday? I (to translate) 10. When I (to visit) Tom, he (to go) to the shop. a very long article. * Окончание. Начало см. в 1 (37) за 2015 г. АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. ВСЁ ДЛЯ УЧИТЕЛЯ! 21

2 Ex. 18. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла голы в Past Simple или Past Continuous. 1. Не (to get) up at seven o clock 13. When I (to come) home, Kate (to play) the piano. 2. Father (to come) home at six o clock 14. When I (to meet) John, he (to go) to the railway 3. I (to read) a book at six o clock station. 4. She (to fall) asleep at eleven o clock 15. When I (to go) to the museum, I (to see) a big 5. Mother (to drink) tea at eleven o clock crowd of people in the street. 6. Fa ther (to watch) TV at ten o clock 16. They (to play) in the yard in the evening yester - 7. I (to go) to bed at nine o clock day. 8. I (to finish) my homework at nine o clock yesterdayterday. 17. They (to play) in the yard the whole evening yes- 9. I (to play) the piano at five o clock 18. I (to clean) my teeth at eight o clock in the morning 10. He (to begin) to do his homework at four o clock 19. We (to go) to the wood in summer. 11. She (to wash) the floor at four o clock yes terday. 20. When the teacher (to open) the door of the classroom, the pupils (to sit) at their 12. I (to meet) Nick at three o clock yester day. desks. Ex. 19. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла голы в Past Simple или Past Continuous. 1. At this time yesterday I (to sit) at the thea tre. 2. He (to come) back to St. Petersburg on the 15 th of January. 3. I (to go) to the institute when I (to see) him. 4. At this time yesterday we (to have) dinner. 5. He (to write) a letter when I (to come) in. 6. He (to make) a report when I (to leave) the meeting. 7. Yesterday he (to write) a letter to a friend. 8. When I (to look) at them, they (to smile) me. 9. What you (to do) at six o clock yesterday? 10. I (to go) to bed at half past eleven. 11. Yesterday the lesson (to begin) at nine o clock. 12. The cat (to take) a piece of fish. 13. He (to read) a newspaper when I (to come) in. 14. Yesterday I (to get) up at seven o clock. 15. The train (to start) at fifteen minutes to ten. 16. He (to put) on his coat and cap (to open) the door and (to go) out. Ex. 20. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла голы в Past Simple или Past Continuous. 1. (to feed) my cat with fish 2. What you (to do) at four o clock yesterday? I (to feed) my cat. 3. What your brother (to do) yesterday? He (to play) computer games (to begin) re pairing my camera at six o clock 5. At five o clock yesterday Helen (to cook) soup. 6. We (to play) badminton from nine till eleven 7. Kate (not to go) for a walk She (to write) a composition the whole day 8. When your father (to come) home yesterday? He (to come) home at seven o clock. 9. When my father (to come) home yesterday, my mother (to make) supper. 10. We (not to go) on a tramp last summer. 11. What you (to do) when your sister (to come) home yesterday? 12. You (to have) supper at nine o clock yesterday? 13. He (not to go) to the shop 14. Nick (to go) to bed at ten o clock 15. Rick (to sleep) at eleven o clock yes terday. 16. When we (to play) in the yard yester day, it suddenly (to start) raining heavily. 17. I (to see) Mike when he (to cross) the street. 18. He (to begin) repairing his bicycle in the morning 19. He (to repair) his bicycle the whole day 20. He (to finish) repairing his bicycle in the evening Ex. 21. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла голы в Past Simple или Past Continuous. 1. They (to meet) at the station two hours ago. 2. Where you (to spend) last Sunday? 3. We (to be) in a hurry because only twenty minutes (to be) left before the beginning of the performance. 4. I (to play) the violin when my friend (to come) in. He (to invite) me to the theatre and I (to accept) the invitation with pleasure. 5. He (to ring) up his friend and (to ask) him about the homework. 6. When I (to come) to the theatre, my friend al - ready (to wait) for me. 7. Last Sunday we (to go) skiing in the country. There (to be) already a lot of snow in the fields and we (to enjoy) ourselves. We (to ski) for two hours and a half. 22 АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. ВСЁ ДЛЯ УЧИТЕЛЯ!

3 Ex. 22. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла голы в Past Simple или Past Continuous. 1. They (to translate) a difficult text 12. When they (to sail) down the river they (to see) 2. I (to open) the window at six o clock a little island. 3. You (to go) to the cinema yesterday? 13. We (to work) the whole morning 4. I (not to see) Mike last week. 14. Mother (to cook) dinner at three o clock 5. When I (to open) the door, my friends (to sit) around the table. 15. She (to finish) cooking at four o clock 6. When you (to begin) doing your homework yes At half past four yesterday we (to have) dinner. terday? 17. You (to watch) TV yesterday? Yes, we (to 7. We (to discuss) the latest news from three till watch) TV the whole evening four 18. When you (to go) to bed yesterday? 8. When I (to read) the newspaper yesterday, I (to 19. I (to go) to bed at ten o clock find) an interesting article on UFOs. 20. At half past ten yesterday I (to sleep). When 9. Lena (to sweep) the floor on Sunday. I (to come) home from school yesterday, my little brother (to sit) on the floor with all his toys 10. Lena (to sweep) the floor from eleven till twelve on Sunday. around him. He (to play) with them. I (to tell) him 11. They (to go) to the wood last Sunday? to put his toys into the box as he (to make) too much noise. Ex. 23. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла голы в Past Simple или Past Continuous. The sun (to go) down behind the hills when I (to reach) a village which (to be) only a few miles from the sea. The working day (to be) over, and the vil - lagers (to come) home from the fields. Along the road two boys (to drive) cows and sheep in the direction of the village. I (to approach) a group of people standing near the road and (to ask) them if I could find a place in the village to spend the night. An old man (to say) he would help me. He (to take) me to his small cottage at the far end of the street. A fire (to burn) in the stove when we (to enter) the house. One girl of about eighteen (to prepare) supper in the kitchen while two other girls still (to do) something in the kitchen garden near the house. The old man (to invite) me to have sup per with them. They all (to seem) to be nice people and we (to have) a friendly talk. After supper my new friends and I (to go) out into the garden. The moon (to shine) high in the sky, and the night (to be) warm and beautiful. That evening (to be) very pleasant, and I shall remember it a long time. Ex. 24. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple или Past Continuous. We (to walk) down the street in the direction of Mike s house, when we (to see) him in the window of a bus that (to pass) by. He (to recognize) us, too, but he could not get off as the bus (to be) over crowded. We (to be) very sorry that we (to have) no chance to speak to him. But we could do nothing and (to decide) to go back. At that very moment we (to hear) Mike s voice behind us. How funny, he (to say), I (to go) to your place when I suddenly (to see) you here. I am so glad to see you. Ex. 25. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла голы в одном из следующих времён: Present Simple, Past Simple, Present Continuous, Past Continuous. 1. Nina (to celebrate) her birthday Her room looked beautiful, there (to be) many flow ers in it. When I (to come) in, somebody (to play) the piano, two or three pairs (to dance). 2. Listen! Somebody (to play) the piano. 3. I (to like) music very much. 4. When I (to look) out of the window, it (to rain) heavily and people (to hurry) along the streets. 5. What you (to do) at seven o clock yes terday? I (to have) supper. 6. When I (to come) home yesterday, I (to see) that all my family (to sit) round the table. Father (to read) a letter from my uncle who (to live) in Kyiv. 7. Where you (to do) yesterday? I (to be) at home the whole day. How strange. I (to ring) you up at two o clock, nobody (to answer). Oh, I (to be) in the mini. I (to read) your book and (not to hear) the telephone. 8. What you (to do) at five o clock yesterday? I (to work) in the library. I (to be) lire, too, but I (not to see) you. 9. Yesterday I (to do) my English from five till seven. АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. ВСЁ ДЛЯ УЧИТЕЛЯ! 23

4 GRAMMAR TIME 3 Name I. Make sentences with was or were. 0. They / in Paris last week 1. Where / you? 2. Nick / at the party on Saturday? 3. George and Brian / here / ten minutes ago / 4. I / at home last night 5. The party / great / 6. There / a lot of people on the beach today II. Make sentences using the Past Simple. 0. You / have a good time yesterday? 1. We / not know the answer. 2. Tim / like his present? 3. I / get up at 7.00 on Sunday! 4. Why / you close the window? 5. They / buy a new car last week. Date Total 6. You / buy the tickets for the football match? 7. He / not come with us on Friday. 8. I / not see David last night. 9. We / go / to the new supermarket this morning. III. Write full answers to the questions. 0 Did you watch the football match last night? No. 1 Was John in the football team last year? Yes. 2 Did it rain last week? Yes. 3 Were there any hotels in this town 20 years ago? No. 4 Did you have breakfast this morning? Yes. 5 Did Peter and Stanley go to the park on Sunday? No. PRESENT PERFECT / НАСТОЯЩЕЕ ЗАКОНЧЕННОЕ ВРЕМЯ Сегодня вас ожидает новое время глагола Present Perfect Simple. Не из лёгких, но если в нём как следует разобраться, то не будет особых проблем в дальнейшем, с остальными перфектами (Past и Future). Рассмотрите такую ситуацию: Tom is looking for his key. He can t find it. He has lost his key. (Has lost это и есть Present Perfect) Вот как оно образовывается: I / You / We / They have (= I ve) He / She / It has (= he s) finished lost done been Вспомогательные глаголы have / has + V3 (3 фор - ма глагола), т. е. если глагол правильный (finish, work), то просто добавляем к нему окончание -ed. Если же он неправильный (lose, do), то нужно смотреть таблицу неправильных глаголов Past Participle (обычно в 3 столбике). Используется Present Perfect, когда действие про изошло в прошлом, но нас интересует не само действие, а его результат в настоящем. Всегда должна быть какая-нибудь связь с настоящим. Например: Where s your key? I don t know. I ve lost it. (У ме ня его сейчас нет.) He told me his name but I ve forgotten it. (Я не могу сейчас вспомнить.) Is Sally here? No, She s gone out. (Сейчас она вышла.) I can t find my bag. Have you seen it? (Ты не знаешь, где она сейчас?) Часто Present Perfect используется, когда нужно рассказать о событии, которое произошло совсем недавно и, опять же, когда нас интересует результат, а не время, в котором действие имело место быть: Oh! I ve cut my finger. (Не важно, где и когда, важно, что сейчас имею результат порезанный палец.) The road is closed. There s been (= there has been) an accident. The police has arrested two men in connection with the robbery. Present Perfect очень часто используется с такими обстоятельствами, как just, already, yet: Just недавно, короткое время тому назад: Would you like something to eat? No, thanks. I ve just had lunch. Hello. Have you just arrived? Already уже, раньше чем ожидалось: Don t forget to post the letter, will you? I ve already posted it. What time is Mark leaving? He s already gone. Yet ещё, до сих пор (используется только в вопросах и отрицаниях): Has it stopped raining yet? I ve written the letter but I haven t posted it yet. Также обратите внимание на разницу между gone (to) и been (to). Gone уехал и не вернулся. Been был, ездил и вернулся: Jim is away on holiday. He has gone to Spain. (Он сейчас находится там или по пути туда.) Jane is back home from holiday now. She has been to Italy. (Была и вернулась.) 24 АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. ВСЁ ДЛЯ УЧИТЕЛЯ!

5 Ещё один случай употребления Present Perfect. Рассмотрите следующую ситуацию: Have you traveled a lot, Jane? Yes, I ve been to lots of places. Really? Have you ever been to China? Yes, I ve been to China twice. What about India? No, I haven t been to India. Во всех этих случаях Present Perfect использовался, чтобы выразить жизненный опыт. Запомните это вы ражение оно здесь ключевое. Действие идёт как бы из неуточненного прошлого (нас не интересует, когда оно началось) и длится до сих пор (то есть, опять же, есть связь с настоящим). Вот ещё несколько примеров: Have you ever eaten caviar? (За всю свою жизнь) We ve never had a car. Have you read Hamlet? No, I haven t read any of Shakespeare s plays. Susan really loves that film. She s seen it eight times! What a boring film! It s the most boring film I ve ever seen. В следующих примерах речь идёт также о жизненном опыте, только в ближайшем прошлом. Обратите вни мание на обстоятельства времени, которые обычно ис поль зуются вместе с Present Perfect: Have you heard from George recently? I ve met a lot of people in the last few days. Everything is going well. We haven t had any problems so far. I m hungry. I haven t eaten anything since breakfast. (=с завтрака и до сих пор). It s nice to see you again. We haven t seen each other for a long time. Мы часто используем Present Perfect с выражениями today, this morning, this evening, когда они ещё не за кончены и продолжаются к моменту речи: I ve drunk four cups of coffee today. (Возможно, выпью ещё, т. к. день ещё не закончился.) Have you had a holyday this year? (Еще) I haven t seen Tom this morning. Have you? Ron hasn t worked very hard this term. Спряжение глагола to write (писать) в Present Perfect (действие, совершившееся в прошлом, связано с настоящим) I have written Не has written She has written It has written We have written You have written They have written I have not written He has not written She has not written It has not written We have not written You have not written They have not written Have I written? Yes, I have No, I haven t Has he written? Yes, he has No, he hasn t Has she written? Yes, she has No, she hasn t Has it written? Yes, it has No, it hasn t Have we written? Yes, we have No, we haven t Have you written? Yes, you have No, you haven t Have they written? Yes, they have No, they haven t Запомните типичные для Present Perfect обсто - ятельства: already, not yet, just, ever, never. Сравните также: I have bought a book today (this week, this month). Неистекший отрезок времени Present Perfect. I bought a book yesterday (last week,last month). Истекший отрезок времени Past Simple. Запомните также следующие предложения: I have never been to France. Have you ever been to London? I haven t seen you for ages. I haven t met him for a long time. I haven t been to Moscow since last year. Practice Ex. 1. В следующих предложениях измените время глагола на Present Perfect. Переведите предложения на русский язык. 1. I m eating my breakfast. 9. My friend is helping me to solve a difficult problem. 2. We are drinking water. 10. I am learning a poem. 3. He is bringing them some meat and vegetables. 11. She is telling them an interesting story. 4. You are putting the dishes on the table. 12. Kate is sweeping the floor. 5. They are having tea. 13. The waiter is putting a bottle of lemonade in front 6. She is taking the dirty plates from the table. of him. 7. The children are putting on their coats. 14. Susan is making a new dress for her birthday party. 8. The pupils are writing a dictation. 15. She is opening the box of chocolates. АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. ВСЁ ДЛЯ УЧИТЕЛЯ! 25

6 Ex. 2. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла голы в требу ющейся форме, так, чтобы получить Present Continuous или Present Perfect. 1. What are you (to talk) about? 13. What is he (to do)? He is (to read) a newspaper. 2. We have just (to talk) about it. 14. Have you (to read) any stories by Jack London? 3. He has just (to say) some thing about it. 15. What are you (to do) here? I am (to write) a letter to my friends. 4. She is (to tell) them some interesting story. 5. He has (to tell) us nothing about it. 16. Who has (to write) this article? 6. She has (to tell) them some stories about dogs. 17. What language are you (to study)? 7. We have (to have) two lessons today. 18. We have already (to learn) a lot of English words. 8. They are (to have) a meeting. 19. What is she (to teach) them? 9. She has not (to speak) yet. 20. Who has (to teach) you to do it? 10. They have (to ask) me several ques tions. 21. He has just (to do) something for us. 11. He has already (to learn) the rule. 22. Have you (to find) the book? 12. I am (to write) an exercise. 23. What are you (to look) for? Ex. 3. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Present Continuous. 1. Я только что позавтракал. 2. Он уже позавтракал. 3. Мы ещё не завтракали. 4. Они ещё пьют чай в столовой. 5. Я уже сделал свои уроки. 6. Он всё ещё делает свои уроки. 7. У них сегодня было три урока. 8. У них только что было и собрание. 9. Она ещё не читала этой книги. 10. Она всё ещё читает. 11. Кто это написал? 12. Что вы ему написали? Ex. 4. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла голы в Present Perfect или Past Simple. 1. We (to travel) around Europe last year. 2. My father knows so much because he (to travel) a lot. 3. I (to see) Pete today. 4. She (to see) this film last Sunday. 5. Alex (to meet) his friend two hours ago. 6. I just (to meet) our teacher. 7. The children already to decide) what to do with the books. 8. Yesterday they (to decide) to help their grandmother. 9. Helen speaks French so well because she (to live) in France. She (to live) there last year. 10. The rain (to stop) the sun is shining in the sky again. 11. The rain (to stop) half an hour ago. 12. Mary (to buy) a new I. 13. I (to buy) a pair of gloves 14. The wind (to blow) off the man s hat, and he cannot catch weather (to change) and we can go for a walk. 15. The wind (to change) in the morning. Ex. 5. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла голы в Present Perfect или Past Simple. 1. At last I (to do) all my homework: now I shall go out. 2. The building of the house (to begin) early in April. 3. The rain (to stop) but a cold wind is still blowing. 4. We already (to solve) the problem. 5. He (to come) a moment ago. 6. I never (to speak) to him. 7. We just (to finish) his work. 8. You (to make) any spelling mistakes in your dic - tation? 9. I (to be) very cold 10. When you (to meet) him? 11. I (not to see) him since How many mushrooms you (to gather)? 13. Where you (to put) the newspaper? I want to read it, but cannot find it anywhere. 14. The new school (to begin) working last year. 15. You (to read) all the books on this shelf? 16. I (not to see) my cousin since last year. 17. Why you (to put) these things in the wrong place? 18. Why you (to leave) the door open? You will catch cold sitting in the draught. 19. We (not to meet) for such a long time! said my friend. Yes, indeed, I answered, and we both (to grow). 20. What books you (to read) when you (to live) in the country? 21. They (not yet to come) from till south. 22. He (to be) ill last week, but now he (to recover). 23. If everybody (to read) this new novel let s discuss it. 24. You (to book) tickets? Yes, (I (to book) them several days ago. 25. I can hardly recognize you. I (not to see) you since you (to leave) for Moscow. And you (to change) so much. 26 АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. ВСЁ ДЛЯ УЧИТЕЛЯ!

7 Ex. 6. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла голы в Present Perfect или Past Simple. 1. Не (to be) abroad five years ago. 9. Last night I (to feel) tired and (to go) to bed very 2. You (to be) in the Caucasus last year? early. 3. They (to leave) England when he (to be) still 10. Where you (to spend) your holidays? a child. 11. You ever (to spend) your holidays in the Crimea? 4. He (not yet to come) back. 12. While travelling in the Crimea I (to meet) your 5. He (to go) already? friend. 6. When you (to see) him last? 13. I never (to visit) that place. 7. I (not to see) him for ages. 14. He (to visit) that place last year. 8. His health (to improve) greatly since I (to see) 15. It (to get) a letter from Tom. him last. 16. You (to take) any photographs while travelling in the south? Ex. 7. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла голы в Present Perfect или Past Simple. 1. She (to leave) the room a moment ago. 2. We (not yet to solve) the problem. 3. When it all (to happen)? 4. The morning was cold and rainy, but since ten o clock the weather (to change) and now the sun is shining brightly. 5. Show me the dress which you (to make). 6. Oh, how dark it is! A large black cloud (to cover) the sky. I think it will start raining in a few mi - nutes. 7. Oh, close the window! Look, all my papers (to fall) on the floor because of the wind. 8. When you (to open) the; window? I (to open) it ten minutes ago. Ex. 8. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect, Present Continuous, Present Simple или Past Simple. 1. Please give me a pencil, I (to lose) mine. 2. I (not to meet) Peter since Monday. 3. Nina just (to finish) work. 4. Where Sergei (to be)? He (to go) home. He (to leave) the room a minute ago. 5. What you (to read) now? I (to read) Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte. 6. They (to read) Ivanhoe by Walter Scott a month ago. What about you? You (to read) Ivanhoe? 7. My watch (to stop). There (to В something wrong with it. 8. You (to see) Jack today?! Yes, I (to see) him at the institute. 9. You (to hear! the new symphony by M.? Yes, I When (to hear) it? I (to hear) it last Sunday. 10. You (to change) so much. Anything (to happen)? 11. How you (to do) here at such a late hour? You (to w your composition? No, I (to write) it already. work) at my report. And when you (to write) a composition? I (to finish) it two days ago. 12. I say, Tom, let s have dinner. No, thank you, I al ready (to have) dinner. 13. What the weather (to be) like? It still (to rain)? No, it (to stop) raining. Ex. 9. Put the verb in brackets into the Present Perfect. 1. I don t know this girl. I never (meet) her before. 2. Where is Mother? She just (go) out. 3. Don t you know what the film is about? No, I (not / see) it. 4. Don t worry about the letter. I already (post) it. 5. Is he a good teacher? Oh yes, he (help) me a lot. 6. I know London perfectly well. I (be) there several times. 7. I can t find my umbrella. I think, somebody (take) it by mistake. 8. Do you speak Spanish? No, I never (stu - dy) it. 9. Do you know where they have gone? No, they (sell) their house and (not/leave) their new address. Ex. 10. Answer the questions. Put the verb in brackets into the Present Perfect. Example: Is his article ready? (Write) Yes, he has written it. 1. Are her rooms clean? (Do) 2. Is our dinner ready, Mother? (Cook) 3. Does she know the poem? (Learn) 4. Do you know this sort of pencil? (Use) 5. Does he know how nice the cake is? (Eat) 6. Do you know that your gloves are on the table? (Find) 7. Is Bobby s face clean? (Wash) 8. Do you know how beautiful these songs are? (Hear) АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. ВСЁ ДЛЯ УЧИТЕЛЯ! 27

8 Ex. 11. Put the verb in brackets into the Present Indefinite and the Present Perfect. 1. Look! They (stop). 8. There (be) a lot of things I (want) to do for a longtime and I (not/do) them. 2. I (want) to see you. I (not / see) you for ages! 3. What (be) your name? My name (be) always 9. You (know) the girl who just (leave) the shop? Cole. Yes, that (be) Bella York. She (be) a customer of yours? Not, exactly. She (be) here 4. You (read) this book? Yes. What you (think) of it? several times, but she never (buy) anything. 5. I (not / be) to a zoo before. It (be) a nice feeling to 10. Come in, I (be) awake since sun-up. go somewhere you never (be) before. 11. I (not/see) your pictures for a long time. Can 6. You (know) Nick? Yes. How long you I look round? (know) him? I (know) him for 10 years. 12. It ll be good to see him again. How long he (be) 7. You (realize) we (know) each other for quite a period of time now? And this (be) the first occasion 13. I (know) you nearly all my life, but f never (see) away? It (seem) ages. you (ask) me to come with you. you so excited about anything. Ex. 12. You are talking to a friend about the events in your family. Make sentences from the given words according to the pattern. Example: My brother Greg / graduate / from the University. My brother Greg has graduated from the Uni - versity. You know, Elinore, a lot has changed in our fa - mily since we last met. 1. Father / get / a new job / in South Africa. 2. He and Mother / leave / for Cape Town. 3. Mary / marry / an architect / from Canada. 4. I / pass / my / law / exams. 5. I / meet / the man / for me. Ex. 13. Use the verb to complete the answers to the questions. Use the verb in brackets. Example: 1. Is it a fast car? (Drive) Yes, it s the fastest. Is he handsome? (Seen) 2. Is it a warm coat? (Have) Yes, it s the. Yes, he is the most handsome man I ve ever seen. 3. Are they nice people? (Meet) Yes, they are. Ex. 14. Write questions and answers. Example: You and your friend are swimming in the open sea. You ask: Is this the first time you ve swum in the open sea? Your friend: Yes, I ve never swum in the open sea before. No, it s the second time I ve swum in the sea this year. Ex. 15. Make questions using the words given. Example: (anything / happen / recently?) Has anything happened recently? 1. (you / read / any books recently?) 2. (you / hear / from Tom in the past few days?) 1. Kate is skating. She s doesn t feel very confident. You ask: Is this the first time? Kate. Yes / No. 2. You are playing volley-ball. You ask: Ivy s not very good and isn t sure about the rules. I v y.yes / No. 3. You met Nat at In a party in London. He s from America. You ask: N a t. Yes / No. 3. (you / buy / any new records recently?) 4. (you / eat / anything today?) 5. (you / see / any good films recently? 6. (it / snow / here this year yet?) Ex. 16. Translate the questions and answers. Example: Когда ты в последний раз видел Аню. Я не видел ее с мая. When did you last see Ann? I haven t seen her since May. 1. Когда в последний раз шел дождь? Дождя не было целую вечность. 2. Когда они навещали вас в последний раз? Они не навещали нас с июня. 3. Когда ты в последний раз играл в теннис? Я уже давно не играл в теннис. 4. Когда ты в последний раз ела кокос? Я никогда не ела кокос. 5. Когда ты в последний раз водил машину? Я не водил машину много месяцев. 6. Когда ты в последний раз ездил в Канаду? Я никогда не ездил в Канаду. 7. Когда она тебе писала в последний раз? Она не писала с прошлого лета. 28 АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. ВСЁ ДЛЯ УЧИТЕЛЯ!

9 PAST PERFECT / ПРОШЕДШЕЕ СОВЕРШЕННОЕ Существует и такое время в английском языке. Рассмотрите ситуацию: Sarah went to a party last week. Paul went to the party too but they didn t see each other. Paul went home at and Sarah arrived at 11 o clock. So: When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul wasn t there. He had gone home. Had gone это и есть Past Perfect (Simple). Образовывается он при помощи вспомогательного глагола to have в прошедшем времени had и 3-й форме глагола. Т. е. если глагол правильный, мы добавляем стандартное окончание -ed, если же неправильный открываем таблицу неправильных глаголов и смотрим 3 столбик (Past Participle). I / we / you / they he / she / it had gone seen finished Употребляется Past Perfect преимущественно для то го, чтобы показать, что какое-то действие произошло рань ше другого действия. Обязательно должна быть некоторая точка для сравнения, будь то указание времени или другое действие. Например: When we got home last night, we found that somebody had broken into the flat. Karen didn t want to come to the cinema with us because she had already seen the film. At first I thought I d done the right thing, but soon I realised that I d made a serious mistake. The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. He hadn t flown before. Если вы хорошо усвоили Present Perfect, то c Past Perfect у вас не должно возникнуть никаких проблем. Разница в том, что в Present Perfect законченое действие показано относительно точки во времени, которое условно можно назвать сейчас (now), а в Past Perfect все действия смещаются в прошлое. Эта точка будет уже другим действием или указанием времени. Сравните примеры: Past Perfect I didn t know who she was. I d never seen her before. (До того времени) We weren t hungry. We d just had lunch. The house was dirty. They hadn t cleaned it for weeks. Practice Ex. 1. Complete the sentences using the verbs in brackets. You visited a friend and learned a lot of news about his family and other friends. Example: His father didn t work in the bank anymore. He had retired (Retire) 3. His house was larger. He (build) the third store. 2. His sister wasn t there either. She (get married). 1. His parents didn t live there any longer. They (go) 4. Your friends, Mike and Brenda, were away. They to live in the country. (leave) for Sweden. Ex. 2. Complete the sentences, using the verbs in brackets: 1. The teacher was late that morning. The class didn t know what to think (be / late). 2. Yesterday Larry taught Nell to play the guitar. She felt very unsure because she (play). Ex. 3. Make sentences using the words in brackets. Example: His hair was wet. (He / just / have / a shower). He just had had a shower. 1. There was nobody at the platform. (The train / just / leave) 2. We didn t find anybody at home. (Everybody / already / go out) 3. It was Miss Kelly s first day at school. She was very nervous because she (teach). 3. The children were playing in the garden. (They / just / come / from school) 4. Bob wasn t at home when I arrived. (He / arrange / to meet / some friends / at the club) 5. I couldn t recognize the child after all that time. (I / not / see / her / for seven years) Ex. 4. Put the verb into the correct form, the Past Perfect or the Past Simple. Examples: 2. There were voices heard from the kitchen, so Was Father at home when I phoned? No, he had I (go) straight there. already left. 3. He cannot take part in the competition. He (break) Was Father at home when I phoned? Yes, but his leg he left soon afterwards. 4. There was an accident at the mountain top. Some skier (break) his leg and the ambulance men were car- 1. The fiat was empty when he arrived. Everybody (go) to the party. rying him to the road. So we (stop) to let them pass. АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. ВСЁ ДЛЯ УЧИТЕЛЯ! 29

10 Ex. 5. Put the verb in brackets into the Past Indefinite and the Past Perfect. 1. She realized that she was going to faint. She (eat) 19. Within a week she (know) the fearful mistake she nothing since the picnic. (make). 2. His wife (not, be) in. She (go) out a quarter of an 20. We (sit) down to the table only when all the guests hour before. (arrive). 3. After dinner Mr Grag proposed a game о cards. 21. There (be) a curious expres sion on his face I never He (play) cards since his illness. (see) before. 4. Dr. Lecter (be) English, though he (live) in Ame Almost opposite (be) that gallery where she first rica for thirty years. (meet) him and John. 5. His smile (be) something she never (see) before. 23. He (be) a teacher at the University, as his father 6. He decided to wait till he (talk) to the man himself. 24. There (be) silence after she (go). (be) before him. 7. He (come) into the room a moment after I (get) 25. From downstairs (come) the sound of a radio playing a song he never (hear) before. there. 8. When he (return) at eleven o clock the telegram 26. And, paying for what he (not/eat), he (go) out, (arrive). passing two acquaintances without sign of recognition. 9. When they (go) I (get) busy at the desk. 10. When evening (fall) their son (leave) the house. 27. Very deliberately and carefully Poirot (retell) the 11. I hardly (be) there five minutes when Mrs. Brown conversation he (hold) with Saitrana at Wessex (come) in with the coffee. House. 12. He (promise) to ring me up when he (get) a definite ans wer. back. 28. Julia, who (go) half way down one flight, (come) 13. Scarcely they (move) into the new house when 29. There (be) something vaguely familiar about her their friends (come) in. face but I couldn t remember where I (see) her before. 14. The evening (go) off easier than she (expect). 15. But the village he (show) her (be) the best she ever 30. He (re-read) what he (write). (see). 31. When Vai (leave) them, Soames and Winifred 16. Just at that moment a boy and a girl (come) and (make) their way to the Cheshire Cheese. (sit) down where the old couple (be) before. 32. She (be) ill for two days when we (learn) about it. 17. I (keep) silence for a little while, thinking of what 33. About twenty people already (arrive) when they he (tell) me. (enter) the hall. 18. Soames (spend) the night at Winchester, a place 34. We (not/go) far when we suddenly (notice) the he often (hear) of but never (see). dark clouds on the horizon. Ex. 6. Put the verb in brackets into the Past Indefinite, the Past Continuous and the Past Perfect. 1. He (close) the window and (sit) in his armchair, reading a newspaper. 2. When I (arrive) the lecture already (start). 3. The rain (stop) and the sun (shine) brightly. 4. Unfortunately when arrived Ann just (leave), so we only had time for a few words. 5. I (watch) his eyes pretty closely while we (exchange) these remarks. 6. When we (reach) the field, the game already start). 7. He suddenly (realize) that he (travel) in the wrong direction. 8. When I (look) for my passport, I (find) this old photograph. 9. You looked very busy when I saw you last night. What you (do)? 10. He (not / be) there five minutes, when the storm (begin). 11. He (not / allow) us to go out in the boat yesterday as a strong wind (blow). 12. I (call) Paul at 7.00 but it wasn t necessary because he already (get) up. 13. When I (hear) his knock I (go) to the door and (open) it, but I (not / recognize) him at first because I (not / wear) my glasses. 14. When he (seal and stamp) the envelope, he (go) back to the window and (draw) a long breath. 15. I (see) you yesterday from the bus. Why you (use) a stick? I (use) because I (hurt) my leg that morning. 16. We (return) home at nightfall and we (be) very glad to get home again, but we (have) a wonderful day. 17. As they (walk) along the road they (hear) a car coming from behind them. Tom (turn) round and (hold) up his hand. The car (stop). 18. When I (arrive) at the station Mary (wait) for me. She (wear) a blue dress and (look) very pretty. 19. When I (see). he (paint) a portrait of his wife. 20. While I (say) goodbye to the rest of the guests Isabel (take) Sophie aside. 21. The men (say) that they (work) on the road outside my house and that they (want) some water to make tea. 30 АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. ВСЁ ДЛЯ УЧИТЕЛЯ!

11 Ex. 7. Do we use the Past Perfect. When I got to the car park I realised that I had lost my keys. She told me she had worked in France and Germany. He arrived late; he hadn t realised the roads would be so icy. She was upset because Andrew hadn t telephoned. 1. mostly in indirect speech? 2. to show that a past action was completed? 3. when we are already talking about the past, and want to talk about 4. an earlier past for a moment? 5. to talk about things that happened a very long time ago? 6. to say why something happened? Ex. 8. Put in the simple past or past perfect. 1. I (be) sorry that I (not be) nicer to him. 2. Nobody (come) to the meeting because Angela (forget) to tell people. 3. I (see) her before somewhere (know). 4. Because he (not check) the oil for so long, the car (break) down. 5. She couldn t find the book that I (lend) her. 6. All the people we (invite) turned up, and some that we (not invite). 7. They (never find) where he (hide) the money. 8. It was a firm that I (never hear) of. 9. When she (come) in, we all knew where she (be). 10. The lesson (already start) when I (arrive). Ex. 9. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла голы в Past Simple или Past Perfect. 1. When I (to come) home, mother already (to cook) dinner. 2. When father (to return) from work, we already (to do) our homework. 3. When the teacher (to enter) the classroom, the pupils already (to open) their books. 4. Kate (to give) me the book which she (to buy) the day before. 5. Nick (to show) the teacher the picture which he (to draw). 6. The boy (to give) the goats the grass which he (to bring) mm the field. 7. Mother (to see) that Nick (not to clean) his hands. 8. The teacher (to understand) t Lena (not to do) her homework. 9. I (to know) my friend (not yet to come). 10. Tom (to return) from the cinema at five o clock. 11. Tom (to come) from the cinema by five o clock. 12. I (to do) my homework at seven o clock. 13. I (to) my homework by seven o clock. 14. He (to that he (to lose) the money. 15. Ann (to tell), she (to see) an interesting film. 16. When I (get up) yesterday, father already (to go) to the cinema. 17. Nick (to think) that his father (not to be) yet home. 18. Mary (to tell) us that she (to cook) dinner. 19. Yesterday I (to find) that I (to lose) in summer. 20. When we (to be) on the station, the train already (to leave). Ex. 10. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла голы в Past Simple, Past Continuous и Past Perfect. Last night we (to go) to a football match. We (to take) abus. The bus (to be) full of people as main people (to want) to see the match. We (to get) off the bus and (to go) in the direction of the stadium. While we (to cross) the road, I (to see) Victor, lie (to stand) at the corner. He said he (to wait) to his friend who (to come) to St. Petersburg the day before and (to wish) to see the new stadium, I man (to come) up to me and asked if I (to have) I spare ticket for the match. Victor told us this. 11 boys just (to ask) him whether he (to have) a spun ticket. We (to enter) the stadium just as the football players (to come) out on to the field. He (to ask) me if I (to play) football in my childhood. Ex. 11. Раскройте скобки, употребляя гла голы в Past Simple, Past Continuous и Past Perfect. 1. I (to sit) in an armchair and (to think) of my coming trip across the North Sea when the door suddenly (to open) and an old friend of mine whom I (not to see) for a very long time (to enter) the room. 2. She (to come) to see us just at the time when we (to have) dinner. It (to be) the first time (to see) her. 3. I (to see) him just as he (to leave) he hotel. 4. I (not to see) him before we (to meet) he concert. 5. He (to leave) the house before I (have) time to ask him anything. 6. He (to tell) he (to learn) it from the newspaper. 7. He (to clean ) the room, (to take) something from the desk (to go) out. 8. There (to be) two men in the One of them (to write) something while I (to read) a newspaper. 9. He (not to tell) me (to receive) a telegram from her. АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. ВСЁ ДЛЯ УЧИТЕЛЯ! 31

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