# Start of pump systems. Analysis and calculations

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1 Start of pump systems Analysis and calculations

2 Introduction Start calculation. Introduction A start calculation is performed in order to analyse the pump system starting cycle. The starting cycle stretches from the period in time where the system is at rest until the time where steady state conditions have been reached. Current, flow and head are examples of physical quantities which can be plotted as a function of time during the system start up. There are generally no problems when starting a centrifugal pump direct on-line. But it is always good engineering practice to make a start calculation. Axial flow (propeller-) pumps may however have starting problems when they are started against filled systems. Direct On-line Start (D.O.L.) is generally the best and the most economical starting method. The starting current is however high, it can be as high as 6 times or more than the nominal current. An induction motor can, without problems, withstand the thermal stresses induced by the starting current. But there are cases where a lesser starting current is desired. Such cases are: Weak power supply. The high current at a direct on-line start may affect other electric equipment connected to the grid. Local regulations. Some regions or areas require reduced current start for all pump installations. There are several methods to reduce the starting current: Star/Delta start Auto-transformer Solid state soft starter VFD Variable Frequency Drive The first three methods are examples of commonly used starting methods. All three methods control the voltage and hence available motor torque during the start up phase. Variable speed drive, VFD, is normally not used solely as a starting device. A VFD is mainly used to improve process control. The VFD has a positive side effect in that it can be set to reduce the starting current. The use of VFD as a starting method will not be analysed here. FLYGT has developed a method to analyse the starting process. This method has been incorporated in a computer program called SPAS Start of Pump Against System. A key feature of the SPAS program is its ability to account for the acceleration of the water column when analysing the starting process. This yields more accurate results than most methods found in handbooks etc. This program also calculates settings/switch times for soft starters, autotransformers and star delta start. See section 4 for more information.

4 Basic theory Torque [NM] Current [A] Tapping=% 4 Tapping=% 8% 8% 4 6% 6% 8% 8 % Fig. Torque curves for various tappings. Fig. Current curves for various tappings. Torque [Nm] 6 Current [A] Tapping % 6% Fig. Torque during starting cycle with 6 % tapping. Optimum switch over time. Fig.4 Current during starting cycle with 6 % tapping. Optimum switch over time. Torque [Nm] Current [A] Tapping % 6% Fig. Torque curve at too early change over. Fig.6 Current, too short switch time.

5 Starting methods. Star / Delta start The motor is during the accelerating of the pump/motor connected in star configuration. The voltage on each phase is times nominal voltage. The available starting torque is a third of nominal starting torque. The starting current is also reduced by a factor of. The switch over to delta connection is, as described above, done close to nominal speed. This starting method requires, of course, that the motor is connected in delta connection in continuos duty. One drawback with the star/delta start is that the switch over is done mechanically. The switch over can not be done faster than about a / of a second. The pump/motor will during this short period loose speed. The effect can in some cases be the same as a too early switch over, i.e. only a minor or no current reduction. Another drawback is the fact that the motor requires an extra set of power leads. One set when running in star connection and one set when running in delta connection. Fig.7 Star connection.. Auto transformer start The Auto transformer is a switchable transformer. The transformer has several secondary connections on the windings called tappings. Normal standard tappings are 8 % (same as start/delta), 6 %, 7 % and 8 %. The pump starts with a reduced voltage (one of the standard tappings) and will after a preset and adjustable time switch over to line voltage ( % tapping). Fig.8 Delta connection.. Soft starter start The voltage control for the solid state soft starter is not done in pre-defined steps as with the auto transformer, the voltage changes more continuously. The soft starter works with constant acceleration, i.e. the difference between available motor torque and load torque is constant. The soft starter matches the load torque with a slightly higher motor torque. 6

8 Start of pump against system. Start of propeller pump, filled system 6 4 Head [m] Power [kw ] 4 Start of propeller pumps against filled systems are in general not feasible. It can even in some cases be impossible to start the system direct on line. A propeller pump has opposite power characteristics than a centrifugal pump. The power is high at low flows (high head) and will decrease at higher flows. The pump curve consists of two parts. One part, at high flow and low head, where the pump is designed to operate at and a part, close to shut-off head, which is unsuitable for continuos operation. In between there is an unstable region where the propeller stalls. The start-up cycle is similar to the cycle for start of a centrifugal pump against a filled system. There is however a major difference, the head during start-up will meet the nominal pump curve () where the power is at a high level. The torque during the start up will be very high and it can in some cases be problems to start the system. The motor is designed for the operational part of the curve, i.e. the motor will be overloaded when running at the upper part of the curve. The power at shut-off head can be as high as times higher than the rated power Operating limit/ No continuos duty above this line Flow [l/s] Fig. Start of a propeller pump against a filled system Start of propeller pump, empty system 6 4 Head [m] Power [kw ] 4 This is the best and the recommended way to start a propeller pump. The start-up cycle is similar to the cycle for start of a centrifugal pump against an empty system. There is however a difference, the pressure head during start-up will meet the nominal pump curve () where the power is low Operating limit/ No continuos duty above this line Flow [l/s] Fig.6 Start of a propeller pump against an empty system. 9

9 4 SPAS software 4 SPAS A computer program for start analysis The SPAS program, Start of Pump Against System, can calculate the start-up sequence for both D.O.L. start and start with different tappings (i.e. star/delta, auto transformer and soft starter). If the tapping is unknown the program will calculate and recommend suitable tappings for the selected starting method and optimise for minimum starting current. 4 different outputs/printouts are available from the program: System specification Product Pipe system Start tappings Various parameters as function of time Head Flow Speed Load torque Voltage Current Torque and current as a function of time Head during start up displayed in QH-diagram Contact your local FLYGT office for a customised start calculation on your system. The information needed to make a start calculation is: Complete product denomination Product type Product installation Motor number E.g. 4--4AA 8 kw Motor rating Stator number Line voltage Line frequency Suction and discharge pipe system Diameter, length and elevation for each pipe section Inlet and outlet water levels Pipe material (used roughness factors, loss coefficients) Duty points Start method D.O.L. Star / Delta Auto-transformer Available tappings Soft starter Fig 4. Output/Printouts from the SPAS program.

10 Start Calculations..Eng.M.4. ITT Flygt AB 896 Trosa Tryckeri AB 99

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D.C. Motors Order/Technical Support - Tel: (8) 677-5 / FAX: (8) 677-865 / www.crouzet-usa.com / DC Motors Selection guide Gearbox Speed Torque max (Nm).5. Type of Gearbox 8 8 8. Power usable (w) Torque