Pollution and Purification of Water

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1 Pollution and Purification of Water 11/3/10 Chem Fall 2010 Lecture 14-1

2 Water disinfection Water disinfection involves the removal of suspended particles, organic mater, colloidal particles, and deactivation of pathogenic microorganisms (A) (B) (C) (D) 11/3/10 Chem Fall 2010 Lecture 14-2

3 Water disinfection A. Aeration Water is pumped into a non-pressurized tank and agitated Foul smelling gases are removed This physically removes many of the sulfur compounds e.g. H 2 S Oxidation of organic matter to form CO 2 Increases O 2 concentration and oxidizes Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ Fe OH Fe(OH) 3 (s) 11/3/10 Chem Fall 2010 Lecture 14-3

4 Water disinfection B. Precipitation of colloidal particles Particles with size to 1µm do not spontaneously precipitate Colloidal particles are precipitated using Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 or Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 In alkaline medium the added Fe and Al salts form Fe(OH) 3 and Al 13 O 4 (OH) that can settle down Filtration Large particles can be filtered Conventionally sand has been used for filtration for particles up to 10 µm 11/3/10 Chem Fall 2010 Lecture 14-4

5 Membrane Filtration 11/3/10 Chem Fall 2010 Lecture 14-5

6 Water disinfection C. Removal of hardness This refers to the presence of dissolved Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ions Temporary hardness : Can be removed by boiling the water 2 HCO 3 CO CO 2 The CO 3 2 reacts with Ca 2+ or Mg 2+ ions, to form insoluble calcium and magnesium carbonates which precipitate out Permanent hardness : Cannot be removed by boiling Treated using zeolites: 11/3/10 Chem Fall 2010 Lecture 14-6

7 Water disinfection C. Removal of hardness This refers to the presence of dissolved Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ions Temporary hardness : Can be removed by boiling the water 2 HCO 3 CO CO 2 The CO 3 2 reacts with Ca 2+ or Mg 2+ ions, to form insoluble calcium and magnesium carbonates which precipitate out Permanent hardness : Cannot be removed by boiling Treated using zeolites: 11/3/10 Chem Fall 2010 Lecture 14-7

8 Water disinfection D. Elimination of microorganisms Biological contaminants such as bacteria, viruses, and protozoa can be causes of sickness or fatal illnesses Common contaminants: Salomnella (typhoid), Escherichia coli, hepatitus-a virus, and single celled protozoans Common disinfection techniques: Membrane filtration Reverse Osmosis UV irradiation Chemical methods 11/3/10 Chem Fall 2010 Lecture 14-8

9 UV irradiation UVC (200-to-280 nm), is absorbed by DNA causing genetic damage and the inactivation of bacteria and viruses 254 nm which is most effective wavelength Benefits of utilizing UV technology for water purification: No need for toxic chemicals Fast treatment Scalable to treat millions of liters/day Extremely low cost operation Low maintenance 11/3/10 Chem Fall 2010 Lecture 14-9

10 Disinfection by chemical methods 1. Ozone Advantages can be generated relatively cheaply short lifetime of ozone prevents future contaminations Disadvantages some pollutants in water react with ozone to form radicals reaction with Br Br + 3O 3 BrO O 2 Disinfection byproducts 11/3/10 Chem Fall 2010 Lecture 14-10

11 Disinfection by chemical methods Chlorination Chorine used in the disinfection process normally is in the form of hypochlorite or free chlorine gas Hypochlorites and Bleaches: work by producing the disinfectant HOCl Work by producing the disinfectant HOCl Decompose due to Temperature and light Types of hypochlorites Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is up to 12% chlorine. Produces NaOH and HOCl Calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl) 2 ) is used in swimming pools. Its 65-70% concentrated Chlorox bleach is 5% chlorine 11/3/10 Chem Fall 2010 Lecture 14-11

12 Water Stra<fica<on 11/3/10 Chem Fall

13 Groundwater sink for organic contaminants 11/3/10 Chem Fall 2010 Lecture 14-13

14 In-situ Purification 11/3/10 Chem Fall 2010 Lecture 14-14

15 Sewage Treatment 11/3/10 Chem Fall 2010 Lecture 14-15

16 Primary treatment Mechanical treatment Large quan<<es of waste water is allowed to stand in a segng basin or flow slowly through a lagoon Lighter maker including fats and oils float to the top forming liquid grease that is skimmed off Heavier maker forms sludge insoluble par<cles like sand and grit sekle at the bokom About 30 % of BOD is removed by this treatment 11/3/10 Chem Fall 2010 Lecture 14-16

17 Disposal of sewage sludge 11/3/10 hkp://www.biosolids.com.au/index.php?page=what_are_biosolids Chem Fall 2010 Lecture 14-17

18 Secondary treatment Biological waste treatment Suspended organic par<cles are removed Well- aerated oxida<ve condi<ons are provided to expedite the process BOD of water is reduced to 100 ppm (10 % of original untreated water) Water is sprinkled on sand and gravel bed with aerobic bacteria (trickling filters) or agitated in aera<on bacteria (ac<vated sludge process) 11/3/10 Chem Fall 2010 Lecture 14-18

19 Tertiary treatment Chemical waste treatment Specific substances are removed before final disinfec<on Reduc<on of BOD by removing remaining colloidal maker Removal of dissolved organic maker by adsorp<on on ac<vated charcoal Heavy metal removal by addi<on of OH or S 2 to form insoluble precipitates Removal of excess inorganic ions like nitrates using methanol Phosphate removal 11/3/10 Chem Fall 2010 Lecture 14-19

20 Excess of Phosphates Eutrophication is an increase in chemical nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates in lakes and ponds constituents of detergents There occurs excessive plant growth and decay resulting in the lack of oxygen, reductions in water quality, and decrease in aquatic life 2 sources: point and non-point 11/3/10 Chem Fall 2010 Lecture 14-20

21 Electrodialysis for desalination Series of membranes permeable only to small inorganic ions Cations migrate towards cathode ( ve charged) Anions migrate towards the anode (+ve charged) 11/3/10 Chem Fall 2010 Lecture 14-21

22 Air purification techniques Used for water contaminated with VOCs 1. Air Stripping Air is passed upwards Downwards flow of water Vola<le materials are transferred form the liquid to gaseous state Not suitable for water soluble compounds 2. Cataly:c Oxida:on VOCs in the humid air are oxidized using cataly<c processes 11/3/10 Chem Fall 2010 Lecture 14-22

23 11/3/10 Chem Fall 2010 Lecture 14-23

24 Summary Pollution of water by biological and chemical contaminants is common worldwide Ground and fresh water need to be purified before drinking Treatment of water is being done by both conventional (filtration, chemical) and innovative ways (UV-irradiation, aeration, membrane technology, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, and air stripping) Urban sewage water is treated using primary, secondary, and tertiary treatments before dumping the water in streams and lakes 11/3/10 Chem Fall 2010 Lecture 14-24

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