# Understanding Inertia Ratio in Synchronous Motor Control

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1 Understanding Inertia Ratio in Synchronous otor Control Executive summary When sizing a motor for a particular application, the general rule of thumb is to keep the inertia ration below : meaning the motor moves a load X heavier than its rotor. If the ratio is too high, one solution is to add a gearbox to reduce inertia. However, this increases the amount of energy used. This paper presents a detailed quantitative comparison of response times between low-inertia and medium-inertia motors in both rigid and elastic systems, with calculations of limit criteria for inertia ratios. How to measure energy consumption of gearboxes is explained, showing why choosing the right gearbox can achieve significant savings AR

2 Introduction The electromagnetic interaction is the second 36 of the four elementary interactions; it is more intense than the gravitational interaction and is responsible for most visible phenomena: light, electricity, magnetism, etc. Three-phase synchronous motors work using this interaction: the wire-wound stator creates a rotating magnetic field which drives the permanent magnets fixed to the rotor. Indeed the magnetic field of the rotor is constantly trying to align with the stator field to minimize the system energy. In order to size the motor for an application, the inertia ratio is usually kept below :. This means that the motor moves a load which is ten times heavier than its rotor. It is a kind of rule of thumb to obtain a response of a system which is acceptable. When this ratio is too high, it is possible to add a gearbox that reduces the apparent inertia of the load to the views of the motor. With the controller integrated into the servodrive exium 3, Schneider Electric is increasing the maximum allowable inertia ratio. This reduces the size of motors, and sometimes allows doing without gearbox. White paper inertia ratio

4 Inertia issue f r = π k + Where: f r The mechanical resonance frequency in [Hz] The load inertia in [kg.m²] The motor inertia in [kg.m²] k The coefficient of elasticity of the coupling [N/m] When the motor is controlled, the resonant frequency is changed depending on the structure and the tuning of control loops. This kind of harmful frequency can be compensated by two ways. The first method is to place into the control loops some notch filters that reduce the oscillations. The second method is a natural phenomenon of compensation of the resonant frequency through the inertia ratio. Indeed the loopback of the control system generates a cancellation of a certain frequency. When the inertia ratio is low (close to :), the cancelled frequency is near the resonant frequency. It is therefore obvious that having a high inertia ratio in an elastic system is not good for the system response. Nevertheless, whatever is the method to cancel the resonant frequency, these problems from elasticity limit the response time of the system. White paper inertia ratio 4

5 echanical systems to the test Rigid system The round table (figure 4) consists of a motor coupled to a disk with or without gearbox. The disc has an inertia of 5 [kg.cm²]. The control and measurements are performed by the motor encoder. otion sequence mode [kg.cm²] GB X3 D3N4 + otor reduction ratios. The exium 3 controls the motor in order to follow a predefined trajectory in a "otion Sequence". Test sequence description The trajectory is the same for tests on the two mechanical systems. The goal is to shift the carriage of 5 [mm], with a speed limited to 3. [m/s] and acceleration/deceleration ramps of [m/s²]. These values have been calculated so that the motors operate in their linear range of operation. For the turntable, this means a rotation of 6 [ ], with a speed limited to [RP] and acceleration/deceleration ramps of 5 [rpm/s]. Figure 4: Round table Schema 3,5 Trajectory profile 6 A BSH motor and a BH motor are compared with three different reduction ratios. The exium 3 controls the motor in order to follow a predefined trajectory in a "otion Sequence". Speed [m/s] 3,5,5 inear Speed [m/s] Position reference [mm] Position [mm] Elastic system The linear belt axis (figure 5) consists of a motor coupled to the belt with or without gearbox. The belt moves a carriage bearing 6.5 [kg]. The inertia of the system in movement is estimated at 5. [kg.cm²]. The control and measurements are performed by the machine encoder to provide more precision in this type of elastic coupling. otion sequence mode the , Time [ms] Figure 6: Belt axis sequence The left scale represents the linear speed in [m/s], while the right scale represents the position of the carriage in [mm]. The objective is to reach the set-point without static error, with only one overshoot. The response time is here defined as the time which is necessary for the system to reach the set-point ±. [mm], from the time the reference has reached 5 [mm] in error window. For the turntable, the response time is defined as the time which is necessary for the system to reach the set-point ±.3 [ ], from the time the reference has reached 6 [ ] in the error window. X3 D3N4 + otor GB 6.5 [kg] Sensor otors Both motors under tests are from two separated ranges, differentiated by the inertia. The BSH motors are called low inertia motors, whereas the BH motors are called medium inertia motors. Feedback Figure 5: Belt axis schema ike for the rigid system, a BSH motor and a BH motor are compared with three different White paper inertia ratio 5

6 echanical systems to the test Type of servo-motor Switching frequency BSH73P BH73T [khz] 8 8 Continuous stall torque [Nm] Peak stall torque [Nm].3. Nominal torque [Nm] Nominal speed [rpm] Nominal servo motor output power [W] 3 9 aximum current [Arms] aximum mechanical speed [rpm] 8 8 Torque constant [Nm / Arms].78.6 Back emf constant [Vrms / krpm] Number of poles [ ] 6 Inertia (without brake) [kgcm²] Resistance (phase / phase) [Ω].7.3 Inductance (phase / phase) [mh] Both product lines coexist in order to cover different applications. BSH motors, thanks to their low inertia are effective on high dynamic applications. As for BH, they are dedicated to movement of heavier loads. Their larger inertia compensates phenomena of oscillations. Reduction ratio Rigid system inertia ratio with the BSH inertia ratio with the BH : 86 : 3 : 3 : 9.6 : 3.33 : 5 : 3.45 :. : The same calculation is done for the elastic system. Reduction ratio Rigid system inertia ratio with the BSH inertia ratio with the BH : 88 : 3 : 3 : 9.8 : 3.4 : 5 : 3.5 :. : Gearboxes The speed and acceleration/deceleration ramps of the motor depend on the gearbox which is used, so that the conditions on the load are met. Three types of ratio are used: No gearbox, ratio of : With a gearbox, ratio of 3: With a gearbox, ratio of 5: The load inertia is divided by the square of the reduction ratio. The image of the disc inertia reported to the motor can be calculated, and then the different inertia ratios of the rigid system can be deduced. White paper inertia ratio 6

7 Outcome performance Rigid System Response times versus the measured inertia ratio are summarized in the chart below. Response Time [ms] Response Time BSH, rigid system [ms] Response Time BH, rigid system [ms] Response Time Trendline Inertia Ratio Figure 7: Response time versus the inertia ratio for the rigid system For low inertia ratios, until :, the response time is less than a millisecond because the response follows exactly the reference. When the inertia ratio increases, oscillations appear gradually. Even if the system is "rigid", materials are deformed and have one or more resonant frequencies. The response time increases, since the response is overshooting. In the worst case, the response time is 5 [ms] for a measured inertia ratio of 93:. This is quite acceptable in most applications since this time represents only % of the rising time of 4 [ms]. Elastic system Response times versus the measured inertia ratio are summarized in the chart below. Response Time [ms] Response Time BSH, elastic system [ms] Response Time BH, elastic system [ms] Response Time Trendline Inertia Ratio Figure 8: Response time versus the inertia ratio for the elastic system The lowest inertia ratio is of.36:; in this configuration the response time is 5 [ms]. It seems that the mechanics do not allow going below this value. Gearboxes increase the motor inertia from the point of view of the load, making the command more robust and the resonance phenomena better controlled. Beyond an inertia ratio of 4:, the response time of the system is rapidly deteriorated. Of course it depends on the rigidity of the belt. A more rigid belt allows better performance. The measurements indicate that for this test, the elastic coefficient k is approximately [N/m] for a length of [m]. The difference between the two motor ranges is very obvious since without gearbox, the BSH motor has a response time of 86 [ms] because of the oscillations. The BH motor, thanks to its greater inertia, compensates these oscillations and managed to stabilize the position in 8 [ms]. Comparisons The purpose of this section is to determinate a limit criterion of inertia ratio not to exceed. This criterion depends on the type of controlled system. Position [mm] Time [ms] Current position, elastic system Current position, rigid system Final Value inimum Value aximum Value Figure 9: Comparison between the rigid and the elastic system for a high inertia ratio (BSH73P motor without gearbox) The oscillations of the elastic system have a low frequency with high amplitude compared to the rigid system. As we have seen in the theoretical calculation, more the system is rigid, more the resonant frequency is high. To define the criterion, the maximum response time is set at 4 [ms], which represents % of the rising time. For a back and forth sequence, with a perfect system (response time of [ms]), the working rate would be of 5 [strokes/min]. With a response time of 4 [ms], the working rate reduces to 3.64 [strokes/min], which represent a diminution of 9%. The chart of the response times for both systems allows deducing a limit. White paper inertia ratio 7

8 Outcome performance Response Time [ms] Response Time BSH, elastic system [ms] Response Time BH, elastic system [ms] Response Time BSH, rigid system [ms] Response Time BH, rigid system [ms] imit [ms] Inertia Ratio Figure : Response time versus inertia ratio The two measures added with an inertia ratio around : are performed on a BSHP motor to obtain a better precision in the trend lines. The limit inertia ratio is of 35: for the elastic system, and of 4: for the rigid system. White paper inertia ratio 8

10 Energy consumption The rising time is determined by the sequence of previous tests, the stabilization time depends on the gearbox. The number of back and forth per minute and the electrical consumption are deduced. The studied system is the linear belt axis of [m] with the BH motor. The position to reach is still 5 [mm]. Once the position is reached and stable, a [ms] delay is added to simulate an action. Rate [Strokes / min] Without gearbox (:) With gearbox (5:) Figure 3: Work rate versus reduction ratio Power [W] Without gearbox (:) With gearbox (5:) Figure 4: Electrical consumption versus reduction ratio The addition of the gearbox allows gaining a few more than one stroke per minute, which represents only.% of gain. However, the difference concerning consumption is much more obvious since the average power increased from 358 [W] to 743 [W] with the addition of the gearbox. This represents a consumption raise of 8%. White paper inertia ratio

11 Conclusion This is not an easy thing to conclude on the inertia ratio to recommend in the general case. This heavily depends on the elasticity of the system and performance which are expected. In theory, for rigid systems the response depends on the maximum torque developed by the motor. In practice, any coupling is more or less elastic and therefore includes phenomena of resonance, which deteriorate the response time. The limit criterion for the inertia ratio, which is deduced from the tests, is of 35: for the linear belt axis, and 4: for the round table. The issue of gearbox is more obvious: by maintaining an inertia ratio below a limit allowing to reach the expected performance, the reduction ratio must be chosen as low as possible to minimize the energy consumed. Since this energy increases with the square of the reduction ratio, it is possible to save a lot by carefully choosing its gearbox. White paper inertia ratio

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