Study Source C. Does this source prove that the Munich Putsch was a disaster? Use the source and your knowledge to explain your answer.

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1 Model answers: How did the Nazis come to power in Germany? Study Source C. Does this source prove that the Munich Putsch was a disaster? Use the source and your knowledge to explain your answer. 7 marks The Munich Putsch was when the Nazi Party, led by Hitler shown in the source, invaded a meeting of important German leaders in Bavaria. However, the police arrived and 16 Nazis were shot, the rest, including Hitler, were put in prison, as shown in the picture. As the picture shows them in prison it might suggest that it was a disaster as Hitler was in prison and it could have meant the end of the Nazi Party. It did not seem that the Putsch had done very well in securing Nazi power in Germany. However, things were not as they seemed. Hitler and the other Nazis trial was publicised very much indeed and the whole incident made Hitler incredibly famous. A lot of the legal officials in fact supported Hitler and so were light on the sentence on the Nazis. In prison, Hitler didn t have a bad time. He had time to dwell on how to bring the Nazis to power and wrote a long book of his ambitions Mein Kampf. As the picture shows, the Nazis in prison were treated very well and one man is even holding a musical instrument. The Munich Putsch therefore created a lot of publicity to the Nazi Party, and as the source shows, people supported them and treated them well. Hitler got even of prison early. Therefore, the Munich Putsch was not a disaster at all for the Nazi Party, as you can see from the conquest of the men in the picture. However, by itself, the source only suggests that the Munich Putsch was not a failure, it does not prove it. Study Source D. Explain why this poster was published in 1932? Use the source and your knowledge to explain your answer. 6 marks At the time, Hitler had not come to power, but was drumming up support and converting Germans to Nazism whilst trying to worm his way into power. This poster was published to remind and amplify the feelings of many Germans of disappointment in the Weimar government, and the problems the country was facing at the time. 3 years after the Wall Street Crash, Germany s unemployment and inflation were very high, and people were getting frustrated at the indecisive Weimar democracy. This

2 poster is trying to tell people that the only way to get out of the country s problems is Hitler. Lastly the poster is trying to raise support for Hitler before the elections in the following year. He needed strong support to try and become Chancellor, and I think this poster is part of this. Study Source D. How far does this source prove that the Nazis had won the support of young Germans? Use the source and your knowledge to explain your answer. 7 marks Source E gives s view inside the Nazi Party to a historian studying the rise of Hitler as it was written by Goering s press officer. It also reveals many of the methods used by Hitler to make his way to the top. One sack of fire lighting material! No, we must say one hundred sacks! shows how they used propaganda to sway people s opinions. They are over-emphasising so as to turn people against the Communists. The whole thing was a signal for a Communist uprising shows them playing on people s fears of Communism, hoping to gain more support as they had made anti- Communist campaign promises. The source is highlighting the fact that the Nazis are clearly trying to frame the Communists for the Reichstag fire. The Reichstag fire burnt down government buildings. After the fire was lit, a Communist was found at the scene with matches and fire lighting material. Hitler pointed out to Hindenburg, the German president, that the fire must have been caused by Communists and asked for a law to be passes called the Law for the Protection and the State. This meant that Communists (and Spartacists) were now abolished and not allowed to run in political elections. The source shows how the Nazis swayed the events it heavily. The Nazis wanted to get rid of their biggest political rivals the Communists. Hindenburg passed the law without consulting the Reichstag and the Nazis got exactly what they wanted. This also shows the historian that very few sources can be trusted from this time as the Nazis had control over most of them. Neither does 7 show how else Hitler rose to power for example his force used with the SS and how he systematically removed all opposition. So whilst it gives and insight into how Hitler used propaganda to rise to power it does not give the full story of show other methods used. What were the main features of the Nazi police state?

3 4 marks The main features were control of the police and control of the courts. The SS and the Gestapo were also part of this police state. A main feature of the Nazi police state was the Death Head Units which were responsible for the concentration camps. Briefly describe the work of Goebbels. 4 marks Goebbels was the Minister of Enlightenment and Propaganda. He was a propaganda expert who took charge of propaganda for the Nazis in 1929 and controlled the media. He was a devoted follower of Hitler. Explain why the Night of the Long Knives took place. 6 marks Hitler became increasingly suspicious of Rohm who as leader of the SA controlled about four million men. He saw him as a personal rival because of Rohm s belief in socialism. This went against Hitler s dependence on Big business. As a result Rohm was someone who could undermine Hitler s power. The leaders of the army were also not impressed by Hitler and were suspicious of the SA because it was badly disciplined. Hitler needed support from the army in order to firmly secure his power over Germany. He therefore acted quickly and ruthlessly to rid himself of this threat by arresting and executing Rohm and his main followers. Explain how the events of resulted in Hitler becoming Chancellor. 6 marks The long-term events of resulting in Hitler becoming chancellor were that because Germany was dependent on the U.S. wealth via the Dawes plan, they sank into economic depression when in 1929, there was the wall streets crash. Hitler and the Nazis were thought to be able to help the people like chancellor Bronig was not doing. The communists had started to gain more votes and believed Hitler could help them. The short term effects were that there was political instability. Von Papens and schleichers hatred of each other caused them to want someone who was stable.

4 Hitler formed a coalition with von papen which made Hitler chancellor. This meant that von papen could get back into power by being vice president and schleicher would be out of the way. Hitler was smart enough to take this opportunity because in November 1932 election he lost some votes The most important reason why Hitler was able to strengthen his control over Germany during 1933 and 1934 was the Night of the Long Knives. Do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. 10 marks There were many reasons why Hitler was able to strengthen his control over Germany during 1933 and The night of the Long Knives in 1934 was when Hitler sent the SS to kill the SA and Khome (the leader of the SA) who Hitler saw as a threat. This factor helped Hitler strengthen his control over Germany because it meant that he had the support of the army, as the army did not support him with the SA. Hitler s support from the army meant that he had increased his power and control by adding to his ways of controlling and influencing people with violence and terror. However, another important factor helping Hitler strengthen his control over Germany was his introducing the Enabling Law. This law meant that he could ban Trade Unions and force workers to join the National Labour Front (thus reducing opposition). It also meant that he could make other parties in the Reichstag illegal. But most importantly, it meant that he could rule for 4 years without having to consult anything with the government which therefore made him a dictator. However, it could be said that in order for Hitler to be able to pass the Enabling Law, the Reichstag Fire in 1933 had to have happened first to allow him to get rid of Communist opposition and have enough of a majority to pass the law. The fire was blamed on Communists and the Nazis were quick to support the idea that the Communists were responsible, which therefore meant that the Communist party was rejected from the Reichstag and so Hitler could pass the Enabling Law. It is difficult to say whether one of the reasons above was more important than the others. This is because perhaps without the Reichstag fire, Hitler would not have been able to pass the Enabling Law, however once in power if Hitler had not gained the support of the army he may not have been able to hold onto his dictatorship and may have been overthrown. However, it could be said that Hitler s coming to power was more important due to it giving him control, but then again without the army, there is very limited control one can have.

5 Therefore, I think that the reasons I have stated are all as important as each other and I disagree with the statement that the Night of the Long Knives was the most important reason. All the following helped Hitler to take control over Germany; (i) The Reichstag Fire, (ii) The Enabling Law (iii) The Night of the Long Knives. Which of these was the most important? Explain your answer by referring to (i), (ii) and (iii). (10 Marks) All three of the above played their part in helping Hitler take control over Germany. He was made Chancellor in January 1933 but at that time there were more non- Nazis in the government than Nazis, so Hitler wanted to take control. He did this by calling another election.. Just before this election the Reichstag (German parliament) was burnt down and Hitler used this opportunity to blame the Communists and then conduct the elections in an atmosphere of violence and intimidation. Hitler also persuaded Hindenburg to pass an emergency law restricting peoples personal freedom and by using this law Hitler threw thousands of communist supporters into prison. This meant that the Nazis were able to increase their control over the Reichstag, although they still did not have an overall majority. However, the Reichstag Fire did allow the Nazis to get an electoral victory good enough to gain control of the Reichstag by combining with the Nationalists (another extreme right group) to form a majority. This was important because control of the Reichstag was necessary in order to get the Enabling Act. The Enabling Act allowed Hitler to pass laws for the next four years without having to ask the Reichstag for permission. Hitler used this Act to ban all other political parties and make Germany a one party state (country). This allowed him to increase his control, but there were still powerful men within his own party which might threaten his leadership. So on the 30th of June 1934, in the Night of the Long Knives Hitler's SS murdered many members of the SA leadership, including Ernst Rohm who Hitler saw as a threat. In doing this he was dealing with opposition from within his own party, but this could not be done without dealing with opposition" from without his party first. Now the army made Hitler Commander in Chief of Germany and when Hindenburg died Hitler had complete control over Germany. All three events were therefore necessary and interlinked in helping Hitler take control.

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