Scientific Revolution. Reactions to Absolutism

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1 High Middle Ages ( s) *Crusades Growth of Royal power -France -England Renaissance & Reformation ( s) Age of Discovery Scientific Revolution Age of Absolutism *Divine Right and the forging of Nation-states England 1600 s Parliament limits monarch Reactions to Absolutism Age of Reason 1700 s enlightened thought = concepts of social and political rights.

2 Next = Enlightenment (Age of Reason) HOMEWORK Due Monday 1. Read Chapter 14 Section 5 - The Scientific Revolution 2. Complete the Section 5 Review on page 359 #1-5, using COMPLETE SENTENCES

3 4 Principles **rooted in science 1. NATURALISM 2. RATIONALISM 3. PROGRESS 4. HUMANITARIANISM

4 Assignment: Complete BOTH charts. Be ready to present on Friday Use Chapter 18, Section 1 of your textbook to complete the chart The graphic organizer (web) is a SUMMARY of main ideas. Write brief responses for each question right on the web

5 Ch. 18 VOCABULARY Assignment: Complete ALL 18 vocabulary words from Chapter 18 The Enlightenment and the American Revolution Define each term AND describe the historical SIGNIFICANCE of the term. DUE TUESDAY OCTOBER 1

6 Enlightenment Thinker Works/ Writings Area of examination Philosophy (conclusions) Hobbes Locke Montesquieu Rousseau Voltaire Adam Smith

7 Enlightenment Thinker Works/ Writings Area of examination Philosophy (conclusions) Hobbes Leviathan Society and human nature People are naturally cruel greedy and selfish therefore absolute monarch to control and create order Locke Two Treatises on Government Society and human nature Humans all have natural rights to: life, liberty & property Montesquieu Spirit of the Laws government Separation of powers by checks and balances to prevent tyranny Rousseau The Social Contract Society and government Social Contract. Rule by majority "General Will" Voltaire Essays ( Candide ) The human condition Advocated religious toleration and freedom of speech Adam Smith Wealth of Nations Economics Free market forces of supply and demand ( laissez faire = hands off)

8 Thomas Hobbes - was a champion of absolutism for the sovereign (1651) Men in a state of nature, that is a state without civil government, are in a war of all against all in which life is hardly worth living. The way out of this desperate state is to make a social contract and establish the state to keep peace and order. Because of his view of how nasty life is without the state, Hobbes subscribes to a very authoritarian version of the

9 John Locke (1689 England?) Two Treatises of Government Natural Rights Life, Liberty and Property

10 Baron de Montesquieu Spirit of the Laws Separation of powers Checks and balances (1748)

11 Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1762) "The Social Contract" that describes the relationship of man with society. "The Social Contract" is the "compact" agreed to among men that sets the conditions for membership in society. The general will or consent of the governed

12 Francois Marie Arouet (pen name Voltaire) Voltaire was often an outspoken critic of religious intolerance and persecution. In 1726, Voltaire insulted the powerful young nobleman, "Chevalier De Rohan," and was given two options: imprisonment or exile. He chose exile and from 1726 to 1729 lived in England. I may not agree with what you have to say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.

13 Purpose/Goal of Government? To protect natural rights Power of Government? Absolute or limited? Structure of government? (debate) Separate powers w/ checks and balances Enlightenment Ideas & Philosophy in the Age of Reason When gov t fails? Right to overthrow / change Government and economy? Free market laissez faire Source of government s power? Consent of governed ( we ); aka general will

14 4 Principles **rooted in science NATURALISM RATIONALISM PROGRESS HUMANITARIANISM Philosophes Rousseau Voltaire Montesquieu John Locke vs. Hobbes Adam Smith Political Impact: concepts of social justice EQUALITY REFORM TOLERATION FREEDOM Historical application: Spread of new ideas Contribution of women Enlightened monarchs The arts Revolutionary spirit

15 HOMEWORK READ Chapter 18, Section 2 Enlightenment Ideas Spread Complete the Reading Focus questions and Vocabulary on top of page 451

16 Quiz covers: 1. English evolution of government (ch. 17, sect. 3) 2. Scientific Revolution (Ch. 14, Section 5) 3. Age of Reason Chapter 18, Sections 1 & 2 (including chart)

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