Adjustable Frequency Drive HVAC Application Fundamentals

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1 Adjustable Frequency Drive HVAC Application Fundamentals

2 COMMON TERMINOLOGY VFD (VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVES) AFC (ADJUSTABLE FREQ. CONTOLLER) ASD (ADJUSTABLE SPEED DRIVES) VSD (VARIABLE SPEED DRIVES) FREQ. DRIVE INVERTER DRIVE Inverter Duty Motors =?? = New motors meet NEMA MG 1, Part 31 = peak voltage of 1600 volts and a minimal rise time of 0.1 microseconds

3 Why Flow Control? HVAC systems are designed for worst case situations. Most of the time they have excess capacity. Controlling flow Saves energy Improves occupant comfort

4 Methods of Flow Control Air flow Inlet guide vanes Outlet dampers Variable pitch fan Adjustable speed Fluid flow Bypass valve (three way) Throttling valve (two way) Adjustable speed

5 Why Adjustable Speed? Energy savings System control Reduced maintenance Sound control

6 Why Adjustable Frequency Drives? Minimum maintenance High efficiency Easy retrofit Remote mounting Simple control Bypass capability

7 Cooling Tower & Fluid Cooler Fan Cooling Tower Cells Chiller Temperature Sensor Condenser Water Pump Cooling Tower Fan Drive

8 VAV AHU Supply Fan Outside Air Damper Supply Fan Conditioned Space Heating Coil Return Air Damper Cooling Coil Pressure Sensor Return Fan Relief Air Damper Supply Fan Drive

9 Secondary CHW (HW) Pump Secondary Chill Water Pump Chiller Air Duct Air Duct Air Duct Air Duct Differential Pressure Sensor Cooling Coil Cooling Coil Cooling Coil Cooling Coil Primary Chilled Water Pump Secondary Chilled Water Pump Drive

10 Smoke Extraction Outside Air Damper Supply Fan Conditioned Space Close this damper Return Air Damper Return Fan Reverse this fan Smoke Sensor Relief Air Damper Supply Fan Drive

11 CAV Fan & Clean Rooms Conditioned Space Supply Fan Air Filter Pressure Sensor Supply Fan Drive

12 Return Fan Outside Air Damper Supply Fan Air Flow Sensor Conditioned Space Heating Coil Cooling Coil Return Air Damper Relief Air Damper Return Fan Air Flow Sensor Return Fan Drive

13 Return Fan Outside Air Damper Heating Coil Return Air Damper Cooling Coil Supply Fan Inside Air Pressure Sensor Conditioned Space Relief Air Damper Return Fan Return Fan Drive Outside Air Pressure Sensor

14 Stairwell Pressurization Fan Pressure Sensor Fan Drive

15 Exhaust Fan Fan Pressure Sensor Fan Drive

16 Fume Hood Fan Fan Damper Positioning Motor & Limit Switch Fume Hood Fan Drive

17 Parking Garage & Tunnel Fan Vent. Fan Smoke Sensor CO Sensor Vent. Fan Drive

18 Primary CHW (HW, Water Source Heat Pump Circulating & Booster Pumps) Flow Sensor Flow Sensor Chiller Chiller Secondary Chilled Water Loop Primary Chilled Water Pumps Primary Chilled Water Pump Drives

19 Condenser Water Pumps Flow Sensors Cooling Tower Cells Chiller Chiller Condenser Water Pump Drives Condenser Water Pumps

20 Application Interfacing Operator s controls Plain language for Operation Fault display Programming Manual speed control Remote mounting Auto Application MACROs Hand/Off/Auto control OFF HAND

21 Single Motor Bypass Circuit Breaker, Bypass & Output contactors and fuses to service the drive while running Points to consider Can the system run at full speed? Drive fusing Safety interlocks Automatic bypass Run permissive circuit

22 Application Interfacing Operator s controls Bypass Single motor Multiple motor

23 PI and PID Controller (Closed Loop / Set Point) Compares the desired process variable with the set point value Proportional to the error Integral function adds errors over time Derivative function considers the rate of change of error (only for fast response systems) PID Speed Control Reference Set Point Feedback Sensor Controlled System

24 Other Considerations Environment Enclosure type NEMA 1 NEMA 12 Circulating dust Dripping non-corrosive liquid NEMA 3R Outdoor

25 Environment Other Considerations 1-50 HP: NEMA 1 & 12, & 3R Outdoors -15 to 50ºC (5 to 122ºF) No De-rate 60 HP HP: NEMA 1 & to 40C (5 to 104F) Not exceed 10% 122F

26 Harmonics What? Non-linear loads draw non-sinusoidal current from a sinusoidal line (current doesn t look like voltage): Non-incandescent lighting Computer Equipment UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supplies) Telecommunications equipment Copy machines Variable Frequency Drives Electronic/Controls for Facility Elec. Equip. / Systems, Security, HVAC / Mech. equipment Any load with a solid state AC to DC power converter

27 Harmonics Why worry? Harmonic Voltage Distortion Increased heating in motors and other electromagnetic equipment Noisy operation of electromagnetic equipment Malfunctioning of sensitive electronics Nuisance tripping of electronic circuit breakers Overheating of PF correction capacitors Tripping of PF protection equipment Equipment downtime Premature component failures Failed motors and capacitors

28 Harmonics Why worry? Harmonic Current Distortion Added heating in transformers and cables, reduces available capacity May stimulate a resonance condition Excessive voltage Shutdown / damage to electronic equipment May cause telephone or electronic interference Failed transformers, equipment Not in Compliance with CODES, STANDARDS, REGULATIONS, IEEE, GOOD DESIGN PRACTICE

29 Include: Reactors (Chokes) Least expensive when specified to be included with base drive package 5% impedance AC line reactors -or- DC link reactors Both types provide similar harmonic benefits Also Suppress voltage transients that can cause equipment damage Harmonic Distortion Calculations = only VFD contribution

30 RFI / EMI RFI = RADIO FREQ. INTERFERENCE conducted through the air EMI = ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE conduct through AC power line EFFECTS SIMILAR TO HARMONIC DISTORTION!

31 RFI / EMI Hardware RFI / EMI FILTERS: WILL BE INCLUDED IN ALL VFD SIZES ACH 550: Meets EMC PRODUCT STANDARD EN FOR THE FIRST Environment restricted level BENEFIT: VFD will not interfere with other electronic equipment Other electronic equipment will not interfere with VFD

32 Serial Communications BAS / DDC Company Alignment BACnet ALC (Automated Logic Corp.) Andover Controls Novar American Auto-Matrix Alerton Trane Delta Controls Teletrol Tridium JCI (Johnson Controls, Inc.) Honeywell KMC LonWorks Honeywell Invensys Distech Novar TAC (formally CSI) JCI Trane Staefa Circon ModBus RTU ASI Controls KMC Reliable Controls

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