Global Poverty. Know the facts. Understand the issues. Engage in the solutions.

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1 Global Poverty Know the facts. Understand the issues. Engage in the solutions.

2 Global Poverty Who are the world s poor? How is being poor in a poor country different from being poor in a rich country? Why are countries poor in the first place? How can we help? Why does all this matter?

3 6 Billion People in the World: Haves and Have-Nots 1 billion people live in countries where they have what they need for a long quality life. 4 billion live in countries where they have the hope of getting what they need. 1 billion live in countries that have very little at all. Being poor in a poor country is different from being poor in a rich country.

4 The Bottom Billion* Live on $1 per day, many of them on less than $1 per day (the cost of an itunes song) Around $7 per week Close to $30 per month Less than $400 per year *Credit: Paul Collier

5 Where Do the Bottom Billion Live? In Poor or Least Developed Countries (LDCs) - also known as the Global South or Third World Concentrated in Sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean (Haiti) China and India are not considered LDCs.

6 Poor people in poor countries face huge challenges even if they work really hard. Water Food Electricity Roads Education Disease Health Care Rule of Law Land Rights Poor countries lack Infrastructure Like the systems of your body

7 Why Are Countries Poor? The Five Ps Place Past People Peace Politics

8 Why Countries are Poor: Size and Location Place Climate? Coastlines? Diseases? Natural resources? Neighbors?

9 Place: The United States (the world s wealthiest nation) The third-largest country in the world, spread out over high quality, arable land in a temperate climate. Abundant coastlines and rivers. Minimal climate-related pests and diseases. Diverse, rich base of natural resources. Only two land neighbors, both of whom are mostly friendly and stable.

10 Place: Chad (Central Africa) (one of the world s poorest nations) Small Land-locked Harsh climate with little arable land. Inadequate rainfall. Main water source is fast disappearing. High climate-related disease and pest burden. Few natural resources besides oil reserves, opening it up to the resource curse. Six land neighbors. Many are unfriendly and in crisis.

11 Why Countries are Poor: Past History of slave trade? Colonial history? How were borders drawn? When did independence come? Outsiders meddling during Cold War? Chance to develop own leaders?

12 Past United States British colony Independence 1776 Peace and expansion across continent Civil War 1860s Great Depression 1930s Superpower 1940spresent Chad French colony Independence 1960 Civil wars Invasions by Libya, Sudan Near constant civil war up to present day Involvement in neighbors civil wars

13 Why Countries are Poor: People How many? What age? How healthy? Are they educated? Where do they live? Different ethnic groups and languages?

14 United States 2 children born per woman 1 in 4800 women die during pregnancy, childbirth 6 of 1000 babies die Life expectancy 78 Average age 37 99% of adults can read 82% live in urban areas 3 main languages Immigrant destination People Chad 5 children born per woman 1 in of 10 women die during pregnancy, childbirth 100 of 1000 babies die Life expectancy 47 Average age 16 25% of adults can read 27% live in urban areas 2 main languages Refugee destination

15 Why Countries are Poor: Politics Is there rule of law? Are citizens and leaders educated about laws? Do citizens participate in making laws and choosing leaders? Do people know what leaders are doing? Are communities connected? Leaders too strong? Leaders too weak?

16 Politics United States Nearly all voters literate Government institutions Checks and balances Free press (2,218 tv stations) Connected communities Government is stable and secure Chad Less than 25% of voters literate Dictatorship Small group controls country State-controlled press (1 tv station) People spread out with few roads, phones President in constant danger of military coup

17 Why Countries are Poor: Peace Wars with other countries? Where are the wars fought? Civil wars? How many wars? How long are wars? Risk of wars resuming?

18 Peace United States Few wars on US mainland (1776, 1860) No danger of invasion by neighbors Oceans keep other enemies out Neighbors at peace Chad Constant civil wars War with neighbors Borders easily crossed Spill-over from neighbors wars (Darfur)

19 Poverty is a Cycle For individuals and for countries Things that make you poor in the first place create other disadvantages that keep you in poverty.

20 Especially in a globalized world LDCs are not part of the global economy that has lifted other countries like India and China to the middle income level. Technology is linked to development.

21 Why Should We Care? Data and Graphics: The United Nations

22 The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) End Poverty and Hunger Universal Education Gender Equality Child Health Maternal Health Combat HIV/AIDS Environmental Sustainability Global Partnership

23 International Development Assistance Helping the Bottom Billion Donor Countries The United Nations World Bank Foundations Individuals Corporations Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) Microfinance Institutions Public ~ Private Partnerships ~ Collaborations Global ~ Local

24 Some Types of Development Assistance Cash Aid and Grants Special Projects Loans Debt Relief Microfinance Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Trade Policy Peacekeeping Climate Change Prevention

25 Aid to the Bottom Billion is controversial Impact Mutual Accountability Best Practices How much? How? To Whom? Why?

26 Effects of the Global Recession on the Bottom Billion Economic isolation had its benefits initially. But the second wave has been devastating Aid levels Investment Consumers Remittances

27 Coming Soon: Haiti The 5Ps explain much about why the earthquake was so devastating, and why the relief and recovery process has been so daunting.

28 For More Information Grasp Global Poverty The World Savvy Monitor Global Poverty and International Development Edition and Update

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