Visual Communication Images with Messages. Chapter 7: Typography

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1 Visual Communication Images with Messages Chapter 7: Typography It is a rarer gift to lay words out properly than to write them. Nicolas Barker, 1942 BOOK COLLECTOR, TYPOGRAPHER, AUTHOR

2 Gutenberg Bible, 1456

3 The Curious History of Johannes Gutenberg Born in Mainz, Germany Learned Metalworking Family Fled to France: Guild Wars Borrowed Heavily for his Secret Art and had a Hot-Temper Lost Equipment and Books to Johannes Fust (Faust), a Creditor Fust Put His Logo in Books and Died of the Plague Gutenberg Bankrupt, But Supported Late in Life by an Archbishop Not Sure Where Buried in Mainz Portraits of Johannes Gutenberg? Johannes Gutenberg

4 Phaistos Disc, Greece, printed symbols, 3800 years old

5 Ts ai or Cai Lun, invention of paper, 1900 years old

6 Diamond Sutra, Chinese, 1100 years ago

7 Jikji, Korean, 600 years ago

8 The Canterbury Tales, c. 1410

9 The Book of Hours, c. 1450

10 The Gutenberg Bible Textur Typeface Mimicked Scribes Printed in Latin Mostly 42-Line Columns Two Volumes Weighing 50 Pounds 11 x 16 Inches Each Four Years in the Making 140 on Paper; 40 on Vellum Only 48 Exist Today Introduced in 1456 Gutenberg s Logo Not in Book Printing: The Birth of Typography Gutenberg Bible, 1456

11 Gutenberg s Legacy By 1500: 1,120 Print Shops in 17 Countries with 10 Million Books Literacy and Education Grew as More Wanted to Read Secular Criticism Democracy Flourished Beginning of Typography Seventeenth Century Print Shop

12 Gutenberg s Legacy By 1500: 1,120 Print Shops in 17 Countries with 10 Million Books Literacy and Education Grew as More Wanted to Read Secular Criticism Democracy Flourished Beginning of Typography Gutenberg Bible

13

14 Typographical artist Tauba Auerbach Blah, Blah, Blah by Tauba Auerbach personal perspective

15 Yael Kanarek

16 Barbara Krueger

17

18

19 The Birth of Writing, 30,000 BCE historical perspective: cave drawings, 32,000 years ago

20 cave of forgotten dreams, werner herzog, 2011

21 Charles R. Knight, American Museum of Natural History

22 street art by banksy

23

24 Cave Painters at EPCOT

25 A Cave Artist s Signature?

26 Historical Perspective Drawing Cave Painting Iconic and Symbolic Pictographs Writing Sumerians First Civilization Settled in Iraq Today About 2800 BCE, Cuneiform: Wedge-Shaped Writing Egyptians Hieroglyphs, Holy Writing Hieratic and Demotic Forms Rosetta Stone Cave Artists Gang?

27 Modern Equivalents

28 Insect Scribbling: Gave Humans the Idea of Writing

29 Unknown Canadian Petroglyphs (Rock Carvings)

30 Historical Perspective Drawing Cave Painting Iconic and Symbolic Pictographs Writing Sumerians First Civilization Settled in Iraq Today About 2800 BCE, Cuneiform: Wedge-Shaped Writing Egyptians Hieroglyphs, Holy Writing Hieratic and Demotic Forms Rosetta Stone Petroglyph Collection

31 Site of the Birth of Civilization The Fertile Crescent

32 Early Cuneiform Tablet Early Cuneiform, 5000 years ago

33 Historical Perspective Drawing Cave Painting Iconic and Symbolic Pictographs Writing Sumerians First Civilization Settled in Iraq Today About 2800 BCE, Cuneiform: Wedge-Shaped Writing Egyptians Hieroglyphs, Holy Writing Hieratic and Demotic Forms Rosetta Stone Formalized Cuneiform Writing

34 Epic of Gilgamesh, Oldest Written Story Cuneiform Text in 12 Tablets, 2700 BCE Cuneiform story, The Epic of Gilgamesh, 4000 years ago

35 Historical Perspective Drawing Cave Painting Iconic and Symbolic Pictographs Writing Sumerians First Civilization Settled in Iraq Today About 2800 BCE, Cuneiform: Wedge-Shaped Writing Egyptians Hieroglyphs, Holy Writing Hieratic and Demotic Forms Rosetta Stone Egyptian Words and Pictures

36 Rosetta Stone: Egyptian and Greek Rosetta stone, hieroglyphics, demotic, and Greek, 2300 years ago

37 Chinese writing Chinese Tablet

38 Chinese Calligraphy

39

40 Original Phoenician Alphabet Phoenician alphabet, 3500 years ago

41 Modern English Phonetic Alphabet

42 How to Spell the Alphabet by Tauba Auerbach

43 Greek Writing Reflects Mariner Roots Greek writing

44 Historical Perspective Writing Chinese Calligraphy, 1800 BCE About 44,000 Symbols Simplified to 1,000 Today Press Impractical Phoenicians Mariners, Lebanon Today Phonetic Alphabet: 22 Symbols for Sounds Made Simplified Communication Greeks Added Vowels & Aesthetics Romans Completed Alphabet Roman writing Roman Writing on Display

45 Historical Perspective Writing Chinese Calligraphy, 1800 BCE About 44,000 Symbols Simplified to 1,000 Today Press Impractical Phoenicians Mariners, Lebanon Today Phonetic Alphabet: 22 Symbols for Sounds Made Simplified Communication Greeks Added Vowels & Aesthetics Romans Completed Alphabet Mayan Writing Mesoamerican writing, 1000 years ago

46 Aldus Manutius historical perspective: hot type printing

47 First American Newspaper

48 Richard Hoe s Press

49 Richard Hoe s Press

50 Phototypesetting Machine historical perspective: cold type printing

51 Historical Perspective Cold Type Production Phototypesetting Uses Photography Digital Typesetting Uses Computer Desktop Publishing Ad for the Original Macintosh Computer

52 Technical Perspective Typeface Families Blackletter Ornate & Decorative Religious Connotation Roman Three Variations Most Common & Legible Script Initially for Everyday Uses Miscellaneous Advertising During the 1800s Square Serif Least Used, Wild West Sans Serif Fast Presses, Art Deco, Computers The Six Typeface Families technical perspective: the typeface families

53 Technical Perspective Typeface Families Blackletter Ornate & Decorative Religious Connotation Roman Three Variations Most Common & Legible Script Initially for Everyday Uses Miscellaneous Advertising During the 1800s Square Serif Least Used, Wild West Sans Serif Fast Presses, Art Deco, Computers Blackletter technical perspective: blackletter

54

55 Roman technical perspective: roman

56

57 Technical Perspective Typeface Families Blackletter Ornate & Decorative Religious Connotation Roman Three Variations Most Common & Legible Script Initially for Everyday Uses Miscellaneous Advertising During the 1800s Square Serif Least Used, Wild West Sans Serif Fast Presses, Art Deco, Computers Pride and Prejudice, by Christine Cirillo, 2010 Night, by xtine, 2001

58 Script technical perspective: script

59

60 V by Tauba Auerbach

61 Technical Perspective Typeface Families Blackletter Ornate & Decorative Religious Connotation Roman Three Variations Most Common & Legible Script Initially for Everyday Uses Miscellaneous Advertising During the 1800s Square Serif Least Used, Wild West Sans Serif Fast Presses, Art Deco, Computers Miscellaneous technical perspective: miscellaneous

62 teagan white

63

64 Square Serif technical perspective: square serif

65

66

67

68 Sans Serif technical perspective: sans serif

69 Technical Perspective Typeface Families Blackletter Ornate & Decorative Religious Connotation Roman Three Variations Most Common & Legible Script Initially for Everyday Uses Miscellaneous Advertising During the 1800s Square Serif Least Used, Wild West Sans Serif Fast Presses, Art Deco, Computers

70

71 Technical Perspective Typeface Attributes Size Measured in Points Color Type & Background Font Bold, Italic, Underlined Text Block Size Line Width & Column Length Justification Aligned Left, Right, Centered White Space Kerning: Between Letters Leading: Between Lines Alley: Between Columns technical perspective: attributes

72

73 Technical Perspective Typeface Attributes Size Measured in Points Color Type & Background Font Bold, Italic, Underlined Text Block Size Line Width & Column Length Justification Aligned Left, Right, Centered White Space Kerning: Between Letters Leading: Between Lines Alley: Between Columns

74 Technical Perspective Typeface Attributes Size Measured in Points Color Type & Background Font Bold, Italic, Underlined Text Block Size Line Width & Column Length Justification Aligned Left, Right, Centered White Space Kerning: Between Letters Leading: Between Lines Alley: Between Columns

75 ethical perspective: literal or artistic

76

77 Egyptian Scribe, 2500 BCE cultural perspective: pre-gutenberg era

78 Middle Ages Scribe

79 textur typeface Textur Script

80 Book of Kells, Ireland 800AD illustrated manuscripts

81 Persian Illuminated Manuscript

82 Middle Ages Illuminated Manuscript

83

84 The Hours of Catherine of Cleves, 1440

85

86 Early Print Operation cultural perspective: Gutenberg era

87

88

89 Advertising Typography cultural perspective: industrial era

90 Art Nouveau Typography cultural perspective: artistic era

91 Digital Typography cultural perspective: digital era

92 Future Directions Personal Typefaces Zine and Blog Uses Artistic Presentations Are Children the Audience? critical perspective: audience specific

93

94 Future Directions Personal Typefaces Zine and Blog Uses Artistic Presentations

95 Future Directions Personal Typefaces Zine and Blog Uses Artistic Presentations

96 Future Directions Personal Typefaces Zine and Blog Uses Artistic Presentations

97 Future Directions Personal Typefaces Zine and Blog Uses Artistic Presentations typography controversy

98 Critical Perspective Typography Reminds Us that Words are Highly Symbolic Line Drawings As Such, They are Emotionally Charged Best Typographical Choices Match Aesthetics, Content and Audience Future Directions Personal Typefaces Zine and Blog Uses Artistic Presentations Typography Controversy

99

100 trends to watch: printed and online zines

101 trends to watch: web pads, kindle and ipad with Vook

102 will we still go to bookstores?

Digital Interactive Media. The Art of Type. Copyright Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved. 1

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