1 Caches (Writing) P & H Chapter 5.2-3, 5.5 Hakim Weatherspoon CS 3410, Spring 2013 Computer Science Cornell University
2 Goals for Today: caches Writing to the Cache Write-through vs Write-back Cache Parameter Tradeoffs Cache Conscious Programming
3 Writing with Caches
4 Eviction Which cache line should be evicted from the cache to make room for a new line? Direct-mapped no choice, must evict line selected by index Associative caches random: select one of the lines at random round-robin: similar to random FIFO: replace oldest line LRU: replace line that has not been used in the longest time
5 Next Goal What about writes? What happens when the CPU writes to a register and calls a store instruction?!
6 Cached Write Policies Q: How to write data? CPU addr data Cache Memory SRAM DRAM If data is already in the cache No-Write writes invalidate the cache and go directly to memory Write-Through writes go to main memory and cache Write-Back CPU writes only to cache cache writes to main memory later (when block is evicted)
7 What about Stores? Where should you write the result of a store? If that memory location is in the cache? Send it to the cache Should we also send it to memory right away? (write-through policy) Wait until we kick the block out (write-back policy) If it is not in the cache? Allocate the line (put it in the cache)? (write allocate policy) Write it directly to memory without allocation? (no write allocate policy)
8 Write Allocation Policies Q: How to write data? CPU addr data Cache Memory SRAM DRAM If data is not in the cache Write-Allocate allocate a cache line for new data (and maybe write-through) No-Write-Allocate ignore cache, just go to main memory
9 Next Goal Example: How does a write-through cache work? Assume write-allocate.
10 Handling Stores (Write-Through) Using byte addresses in this example! Addr Bus = 5 bits Processor Assume write-allocate policy LB $1 M[ 1 ] LB $2 M[ 7 ] SB $2 M[ 0 ] SB $1 M[ 5 ] LB $2 M[ 10 ] SB $1 M[ 5 ] SB $1 M[ 10 ] $0 $1 $2 $3 Cache Fully Associative Cache 2 cache lines 2 word block 4 bit tag field 1 bit block offset field V tag data 0 0 Misses: 0 Hits: Memory
12 How Many Memory References? Write-through performance Each miss (read or write) reads a block from mem Each store writes an item to mem Evictions don t need to write to mem
13 Takeaway A cache with a write-through policy (and writeallocate) reads an entire block (cacheline) from memory on a cache miss and writes only the updated item to memory for a store. Evictions do not need to write to memory.
14 Next Goal Can we also design the cache NOT write all stores immediately to memory? Keep the most current copy in cache, and update memory when that data is evicted (write-back policy)
15 Write-Back Meta-Data V D Tag Byte 1 Byte 2 Byte N V = 1 means the line has valid data D = 1 means the bytes are newer than main memory When allocating line: Set V = 1, D = 0, fill in Tag and Data When writing line: Set D = 1 When evicting line: If D = 0: just set V = 0 If D = 1: write-back Data, then set D = 0, V = 0
16 Write-back Example Example: How does a write-back cache work? Assume write-allocate.
17 Handling Stores (Write-Back) Using byte addresses in this example! Addr Bus = 5 bits Processor Assume write-allocate policy LB $1 M[ 1 ] LB $2 M[ 7 ] SB $2 M[ 0 ] SB $1 M[ 5 ] LB $2 M[ 10 ] SB $1 M[ 5 ] SB $1 M[ 10 ] $0 $1 $2 $3 Cache Fully Associative Cache 2 cache lines 2 word block 3 bit tag field 1 bit block offset field V d tag data 0 0 Misses: 0 Hits: Memory
19 How Many Memory References? Write-back performance Each miss (read or write) reads a block from mem Some evictions write a block to mem
20 How Many Memory references? Each miss reads a block Two words in this cache Each evicted dirty cache line writes a block
21 Write-through vs. Write-back Write-through is slower But cleaner (memory always consistent) Write-back is faster But complicated when multi cores sharing memory
22 Takeaway A cache with a write-through policy (and writeallocate) reads an entire block (cacheline) from memory on a cache miss and writes only the updated item to memory for a store. Evictions do not need to write to memory. A cache with a write-back policy (and write-allocate) reads an entire block (cacheline) from memory on a cache miss, may need to write dirty cacheline first. Any writes to memory need to be the entire cacheline since no way to distinguish which word was dirty with only a single dirty bit. Evictions of a dirty cacheline cause a write to memory.
23 Next Goal What are other performance tradeoffs between write-through and write-back? How can we further reduce penalty for cost of writes to memory?
24 Performance: An Example Performance: Write-back versus Write-through Assume: large associative cache, 16-byte lines for (i=1; i<n; i++) A += A[i]; for (i=0; i<n; i++) B[i] = A[i]
25 Performance Tradeoffs Q: Hit time: write-through vs. write-back? Q: Miss penalty: write-through vs. write-back?
26 Write Buffering Q: Writes to main memory are slow! A: Use a write-back buffer A small queue holding dirty lines Add to end upon eviction Remove from front upon completion Q: What does it help? A: short bursts of writes (but not sustained writes) A: fast eviction reduces miss penalty
27 Write-through vs. Write-back Write-through is slower But simpler (memory always consistent) Write-back is almost always faster write-back buffer hides large eviction cost But what about multiple cores with separate caches but sharing memory? Write-back requires a cache coherency protocol Inconsistent views of memory Need to snoop in each other s caches Extremely complex protocols, very hard to get right
28 Cache-coherency Q: Multiple readers and writers? A: Potentially inconsistent views of memory net A A A A CPU L1 L1 A L2 CPU L1 L1 Mem CPU L1 L1 L2 CPU L1 L1 disk Cache coherency protocol May need to snoop on other CPU s cache activity Invalidate cache line when other CPU writes Flush write-back caches before other CPU reads Or the reverse: Before writing/reading Extremely complex protocols, very hard to get right
29 Takeaway A cache with a write-through policy (and write-allocate) reads an entire block (cacheline) from memory on a cache miss and writes only the updated item to memory for a store. Evictions do not need to write to memory. A cache with a write-back policy (and write-allocate) reads an entire block (cacheline) from memory on a cache miss, may need to write dirty cacheline first. Any writes to memory need to be the entire cacheline since no way to distinguish which word was dirty with only a single dirty bit. Evictions of a dirty cacheline cause a write to memory. Write-through is slower, but simpler (memory always consistent)/ Write-back is almost always faster (a write-back buffer can hidee large eviction cost), but will need a coherency protocol to maintain consistency will all levels of cache and memory.
30 Cache Design Tradeoffs
31 Cache Design Need to determine parameters: Cache size Block size (aka line size) Number of ways of set-associativity (1, N, ) Eviction policy Number of levels of caching, parameters for each Separate I-cache from D-cache, or Unified cache Prefetching policies / instructions Write policy
32 A Real Example > dmidecode -t cache Cache Information Configuration: Enabled, Not Socketed, Level 1 Operational Mode: Write Back Installed Size: 128 KB Error Correction Type: None Cache Information Configuration: Enabled, Not Socketed, Level 2 Operational Mode: Varies With Memory Address Installed Size: 6144 KB Error Correction Type: Single-bit ECC > cd /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0; grep cache/*/* cache/index0/level:1 cache/index0/type:data cache/index0/ways_of_associativity:8 cache/index0/number_of_sets:64 cache/index0/coherency_line_size:64 cache/index0/size:32k cache/index1/level:1 cache/index1/type:instruction cache/index1/ways_of_associativity:8 cache/index1/number_of_sets:64 cache/index1/coherency_line_size:64 cache/index1/size:32k cache/index2/level:2 cache/index2/type:unified cache/index2/shared_cpu_list:0-1 cache/index2/ways_of_associativity:24 cache/index2/number_of_sets:4096 cache/index2/coherency_line_size:64 cache/index2/size:6144k Dual-core 3.16GHz Intel (purchased in 2011)
33 A Real Example Dual 32K L1 Instruction caches 8-way set associative 64 sets 64 byte line size Dual 32K L1 Data caches Same as above Single 6M L2 Unified cache 24-way set associative (!!!) 4096 sets 64 byte line size 4GB Main memory 1TB Disk Dual-core 3.16GHz Intel (purchased in 2009)
34 Basic Cache Organization Q: How to decide block size?
35 Experimental Results
36 Tradeoffs For a given total cache size, larger block sizes mean. fewer lines so fewer tags (and smaller tags for associative caches) so less overhead and fewer cold misses (within-block prefetching ) But also fewer blocks available (for scattered accesses!) so more conflicts and larger miss penalty (time to fetch block)
37 Cache Conscious Programming
38 Cache Conscious Programming // H = 12, W = 10 int A[H][W]; for(x=0; x < W; x++) for(y=0; y < H; y++) sum += A[y][x];
39 Cache Conscious Programming // H = 12, W = 10 int A[H][W]; for(y=0; y < H; y++) for(x=0; x < W; x++) sum += A[y][x];
40 Summary Caching assumptions small working set: 90/10 rule can predict future: spatial & temporal locality Benefits (big & fast) built from (big & slow) + (small & fast) Tradeoffs: associativity, line size, hit cost, miss penalty, hit rate
41 Summary Memory performance matters! often more than CPU performance because it is the bottleneck, and not improving much because most programs move a LOT of data Design space is huge Gambling against program behavior Cuts across all layers: users programs os hardware Multi-core / Multi-Processor is complicated Inconsistent views of memory Extremely complex protocols, very hard to get right
42 Administrivia Prelim1: TODAY, Thursday, March 28 th in evening Time: We will start at 7:30pm sharp, so come early Two Location: PHL101 and UPSB17 If NetID ends with even number, then go to PHL101 (Phillips Hall rm 101) If NetID ends with odd number, then go to UPSB17 (Upson Hall rm B17) Closed Book: NO NOTES, BOOK, ELECTRONICS, CALCULATOR, CELL PHONE Practice prelims are online in CMS Material covered everything up to end of week before spring break Lecture: Lectures 9 to 16 (new since last prelim) Chapter 4: Chapters 4.7 (Data Hazards) and 4.8 (Control Hazards) Chapter 2: Chapter 2.8 and 2.12 (Calling Convention and Linkers), 2.16 and 2.17 (RISC and CISC) Appendix B: B.1 and B.2 (Assemblers), B.3 and B.4 (linkers and loaders), and B.5 and B.6 (Calling Convention and process memory layout) Chapter 5: 5.1 and 5.2 (Caches) HW3, Project1 and Project2
43 Next six weeks Administrivia Week 9 (Mar 25): Prelim2 Week 10 (Apr 1): Project2 due and Lab3 handout Week 11 (Apr 8): Lab3 due and Project3/HW4 handout Week 12 (Apr 15): Project3 design doc due and HW4 due Week 13 (Apr 22): Project3 due and Prelim3 Week 14 (Apr 29): Project4 handout Final Project for class Week 15 (May 6): Project4 design doc due Week 16 (May 13): Project4 due
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