CHAPTER 14 - The Roman Republic

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1 CHAPTER 14 - The Roman Republic 509 BC - 30 BC Section 1: The Government * Head of Roman Republic = - were administrators & - had the power to = * Senate men - chosen - handled - discussed ways to deal with other countries,, and approved * Tribunes = - all Roman citizens belonged to the assemblies, which could declare or * 450 BC, Twelve Tablets = - laws applied to and - became the for all * Election of tribunes and recording laws = - by 250 BC could hold public office Section 1 Assessment 1) Define a) republic b) patricians c) plebeians d) consuls e) veto f) tribunes 2) What were some of the restrictions placed on the plebeians during the early years of the Roman Republic? 3) Why do you think it was important for the Romans to have laws written down? 4) See pg Draw the diagram and use it to describe each part of Roman government.

2 Section 2: Roman Expansion * Worked to what they had set up - afraid the would try to gain control of Rome - crossed the and several Etruscan cities BC = BC = * Gained Territory - strong army that was organized into - legionaries = - Legion had several advantages - smaller and - fought as a group and attacked from only - well - hours practicing, long marches, built fortified camps * Romans As Rulers * At first they did not tax the people they conquered. - could keep their and take care of - conquered were expected to Section 2 Assessment 1) Define a) legions b) legionaries 2) Why were the Romans able to gain territory? 3) What was life like for a Roman legionary? 4) How would you describe the way the Romans treated people they conquered, and do you think this was wise? Explain 5) Draw a chart (see pg 222) and use it to show the cause and effects of Roman conquest of Etruscan cities.

3 Section 3: The Punic Wars The First Punic War * 1st Punic War * 264 BC = Romans clashed with * 1st of 3 wars known as the * Military * Carthage s = * Rome s = - had no navy - modeled their after a found - added a corvus = - allowed soldiers to board an enemy ship and fight hand to hand - Romans the Carthaginians in 241 BC Hannibal and the Second Punic War * Began 218 BC * Carthaginians led by attacked the * Hannibal s army fought its way to the - did not have heavy enough equipment to tear down the city s walls - could not get more supplies as the * Rome attacked causing to lose his 1st battle and war * Carthage gave up all its, including The Third Punic War * Peace for yrs. * Carthage began to show signs of wanting to regain power * attacked in 149 BC - and so nothing would grow - and/or sold into * Greek City State of Corinth - refused to obey - Romans and burned it to the ground - added Greece to its rule

4 Section 3 Assessment 1) What territory did Carthage control in 264 BC? 2) What happened to Carthage in the Third Punic War? 3) How did Rome become the leading power of the Mediterranean world? 4) What might have happened to Rome if it had lost the Punic Wars? 5) Fill in the chart and use it to summarize the outcome of each of the Punic Wars. PUNIC WARS OUTCOME First Second Third

5 Section 4: Effects of Conquest Agricultural Changes * 1st change = size & - latifundias = - produced,, also, * Main reason for change = - Roman farmers - By the 2nd Punic War most of the land * Workers on the Land * 146 BC = was widespread. Most lived/worked on From Farm to City * Most farmers moved to the and sold their land - lived in under terrible conditions - were not connected to the (nor sewers) - typhus = Decline of the Roman Republic * Romans began to and from areas they conquered * Publicans = - They paid Rome ahead of time for the contracts - They taxes from * Rome in Trouble BC - farmers lost their land, and - became poor because - The gap between the rich and grew - Rome was no longer politically stable.

6 Section 4 Assessment 1) Define a) latifundias b) publicans 2) How was Roman agriculture influenced by Hannibal? 3) What was it life like in Rome during the decline of the republic? 4) Why might a large gap between rich and poor present problems for an empire? 5) Using this diagram - compare Roman agriculture before and after the rise of the latifundias. BEFORE RISE OF LATIFUNDIAS AFTER > >

7 Section 5: Roman Leadership The Reformers * 1st Reformer = - wanted to the amount of land a - wanted to up public land and give them to the - the vetoed his ideas - ran for a 2nd term as a but the staged a and had him killed. * 2nd Reformer = (brother of Tiberius) - thought from the city back to the - government took over the to be able to sell it to the for below market prices - wheat ended up being - Senate felt and had him in 121 BC The Generals * Military Hero/became consul = - first Roman to be to the high office - thought he could end Rome s troubles by setting up a professional army - he opened the to everyone - convinced the poor to join by - booty = - this ended up hurting the government as the soldiers gave to the general to hired and paid them. * Commander Lucius Cornelius Sulla Marius - marched his army on and - civil broke out - Sull made himself dictator = - believed in increasing the power of the - doubled the Senate s size - Senators = - tribunes = - Generals could no longer hold the same for more than year at a time Julius Caesar * Sulla retired power passed to = * First Triumvirate - Marcus Licinius Crassus,, and - Pompeius (Pompey) believed in a that would be ruled by - Caesar believed

8 *Caesar - gained control after Pompey was murdered - had both and strong family - named of a Roman province in - built up a - Senate began to fear he was growing too strong and ordered him to - he became the of Rome - Caesar s Reforms - redistributed - built roads,, and - planned/paid for - doubled the - Roman citizenship to,, - adopted a new based on the - Caesar was to death as he entered the in 44 BC End of the Republic * Power was passed from Caesar to another triumvirate: 1) 2) 3) * Fights among the three leaders ended up with winning. - Sole ruler of Roman Empire =

9 Section 5 Assessment: 1) Define: a) dictator b) triumvirate 2) Why did civil war break out in Rome? 3) Why did a group of Roman senators murder Julius Caesar? 4) How effective do you think a triumvirate is as a form of government? Explain 5) Using the chart -- summarize the reforms supported by popular leaders during the closing years of the Roman Republic. LEADER REFORM EFFECT

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