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1 Pojer adapted by Anderson

2 Pre-Historic Africa

3

4

5 Kingdom of Kush [295 BCE 320 CE] Nubia [modern-day Sudan]

6 Pyramids of Kush at Meroë

7 Pyramids of Kush at Meroë

8 Kushite in Egypt, 23 BCE

9 Kingdom of Axum [ ]

10 Stele, Ezana s Royal Tomb, Aksum (4c)

11 Christian Church, Lalibela [Ethiopia]

12 Christian Church, Lalibela [Ethiopia] Coptic Christian Priest

13 Controlled NE African Trade AXUM S ACHIEVEMENTS Built Stelae Written Language Terrace Farming Spread Christianity in No. & E. Africa

14

15 2 GHANA Strong rulers united many farming villages to create the kingdom of Ghana. The king controlled goldsalt trade routes across West Africa and collected tolls on all goods entering and leaving Ghana. MALI Mansas, or kings, expanded their influence over goldmining regions and salt supplies. Mansa Musa pushed Mali s borders westward and northward. SONGHAI Sonni Ali forged the largest state that had ever existed in West Africa. The kingdom gained control of trade routes and wealthy cities like Timbuktu.

16 Gold-Salt Trade SALT Berbers GOLD

17 Ghana Empire [4c-11c] Gold Money, Ghana/Ivory Coast

18 Salt

19 Mali Empire [13c-15c] SALT GOLD

20 Timbuktu- Heavenly Clay

21 Timbuktu Rooftop, Mosque

22 Tuaregs The Tuareg are a Berber people with a traditionally nomadic pastoralist lifestyle. They are the principal inhabitants of the Saharan interior of North Africa.

23 Marketplace near the Niger River

24 Mosque in Gao

25 Great Mosque at Djenne, Mali

26 Distant Mosque at Djenne, Mali

27 Sundiata [ ] Lion Prince

28 Mansa Musa [r ]

29 European Map

30 Songhai Empire [15c-16c] SALT GOLD

31 Sunni Ali [r ]

32 Askia Mohammed [r ]

33 Askia Mohammed s Tomb [ ] Gao, Mali

34 Benin Empire [15c-19c]

35 r The Benin Bronzes led to the appreciation in Europe of African culture. highly developed objects. Skilled Metal Workers the majority depict noble dignitaries wearing splendid ceremonial dress Many of the figures depicted in the plaques may be identified only according to their roles at court via their clothing and emblems, which indicated their function in the court, but not their particular historical identities

36 assistants supporting his arms. On the Oba's chest are beaded bands that join with beaded sleeves. His skirt is decorated with crocodile heads. The assistants wear clothing that extends behind them, wide beaded collars, ankle bands, and pointed hats with beaded front bands. The chests of the three individuals are marked with scars. In the background are two pairs of crocodile

37

38 Bronze Heads from Benin (16c)

39 Benin Bronze Leopard

40

41

42 Bantu Migrations: 1000 BCE To 500 CE

43 Islamic Invasions

44

45

46 African Trade Routes

47 Swahili-Speaking Areas of E. Africa SWAHILI [ the coast ] = Bantu + some Arabic

48 Arab Dow off the coast of Zanzibar

49

50 Great Zimbabwe [ ] Zimbabwe = stone enclosure

51 Great Zimbabwe Street

52 Great Enclosure, Zimbabwe

53 Manamotopa Empire [ ]

54

55 Overland & Sea Trade Routes by 16c

56 African Trade [15c-17c]

57 4 Government, religion, and family held African societies together. GOVERNMENT RELIGION FAMILY Villages were tight knit communities. In most villages, power was shared among a group of elders. A village made decisions by consensus. Villages within a kingdom had to pay taxes and provide soldiers to the central government. Religious beliefs were varied and complex. People identified the forces of nature with divine spirits. Many Africans believed in a single supreme being, above all other gods. Christianity and Islam influenced people in some parts of Africa. The family was the basic unit of society. Some families were matrilineal, while others were patrilineal. Each family belonged to a lineage. Several lineages formed a clan. One s place in society was determined by age grades.

58 Art and Literature Artistic and literary traditions reflected the values of African societies. ART Art strengthened bonds within the community. Decorative patterns often identified a piece of art as the work of a particular clan. Artwork was closely tied to religion. LITERATURE African societies preserved their histories and values through oral and written literature. Griots, or professional poets, recited ancient stories. Histories and folk tales encouraged a sense of community and common values.

AFRICAN KINGDOMS. Ghana. Around AD 800 the rulers of many farming villages united to create the kingdom of Ghana.

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