Briefing Paper SMART PROCUREMENT: MARINE LUBRICANTS AND FUELS

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1 SMART PROCUREMENT: MARINE LUBRICANTS AND FUELS Marine Trader is pleased to present another in our series of technical pull-out guides on essential products and services. Welcome to the latest in the current series of briefing papers from Marine Trader, offering guidance on products, services and strategy that are essential to the marine purchaser. These guides are created as reference tools for your daily practise as a marine purchaser and are intended to supplement your learning on the job and through more traditional educational pathways, such as the IMPA PG Certificate in Supply Chain Management. Suggestions for future topics are always welcome, so please contact Our thanks for this update goes to ExxonMobil, who give their recommendations on making the best decision when purchasing marine lubricants and fuels. Briefing Paper Sponsored by

2 SMART PROCUREMENT: MARINE LUBRICANTS AND FUELS WEIGHING UP YOUR PURCHASE Making the best decision when purchasing marine lubricants and fuels requires more than an assessment based on price. In order to choose the most appropriate product it is essential that a range of issues are considered of which up-front cost is just one. The most appropriate product will ultimately be one that maintains optimum system performance, keeps vessels operating reliably, offers a favourable return on investment and that meets or exceeds any applicable legislative constraints, such as mandated environmental impacts. These need not be conflicting requirements but in order to best balance these demands it is essential that purchasing personnel have pertinent technical knowledge and work with a supplier that can offer the most appropriate products for any given application. When it comes to choosing lubricants and fuels there is no substitute for a thorough understanding of the total cost of ownership as this will enable procurement professionals to turn what are often deemed commodity purchases into strategic advantages. Engine protection Vessel operators, and particularly container ship operators, are having to deal with the consequences of part-load operation, sometimes referred to as slow steaming, as they look to manage fuel costs. An unforeseen consequence for older engines modified for part-load or low-load operation can be cold corrosion. This is a highly damaging and costly problem where sulphuric acid forms on the liner walls in an engine cylinder and corrodes the liner surface. This has also become an issue in new slow speed twostroke engines that are designed to comply with the Tier II NOx regulations and Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) guidelines. To meet the regulations, engine cylinders must operate under increased pressures and reduced operating temperatures. This creates conditions below the dew point that allow water to condense on the cylinder liner walls. This then combines with sulphur from the combustion process to form sulphuric acid, which leads to cold corrosion. Fortunately it can be controlled by selecting the most advanced cylinder oils. These lubricants not only offer full engine protection at ultra-low feed rates, which helps reduce costs, they can additionally protect against cold corrosion at these low load levels. Not all fuels and lubricants are created equal Legislative pressures The roll-out of environmental legislation, such as the revised 0.10 per cent sulphur cap for fuels used inside Emission Control Areas (ECA) that came into force at the start of 2015, has also complicated buying decisions. Vessel operators increasingly have to consider a world where running multiple fuels and cylinder oils is the norm. Once again an informed purchasing decision can help address these issues but choosing the right supplier is also important as they will be able to help ensure you optimise overall performance. For the purchasing professional it is worth remembering that not all fuels and lubricants are created equal. exxonmobil.com readmt.com impa.net

3 CHOOSING THE BEST CYLINDER OILS There are a number of issues that need to be taken into consideration when choosing a cylinder oil, not least its effective lifespan and the level of protection it offers. Clearly, extended liner life, defence against deposit formation, the mitigation of cold corrosion where appropriate and overall engine protection are all of paramount importance. A cylinder oil that has these characteristics will not only help ensure good overall engine performance, it will also save on the cost of maintenance and minimise downtime. Moreover, a failure to understand the performance a given cylinder oil has on engine performance and operation can compromise reliability, particularly under slow steaming conditions, or lead to increased cylinder oil feed rates if inappropriate products are used. Look at the total cost of ownership Base number benefits In some applications running a more costly 100 base number (BN) cylinder oil at a low feed, rather than a lower cost 70 BN alternative at a high feed rate, can actually prove more cost effective while at the same time providing the same or higher level of overall protection and performance. For example, a 100 BN cylinder oil is proven to be a more cost effective product for engines suffering from high-levels of cold corrosion versus the use of a lower BN oil at a higher feed rate. Tests have shown this can reduce cylinder oil consumption in corrosive engines by up to 30%, based on MAN recommendations for Mark 8.1 engines and above. ExxonMobil believes that when taking into consideration the challenges of slow steaming the best way to ensure optimal cylinder lubrication is to use the most applicable products. The company has therefore used its balanced formulation approach to devise a range of cylinder oils that offer full protection against scuffing-related engine wear and deposit formation at optimised feed rates. ExxonMobil has also devised best practice guidelines in order to help procurement professionals make informed decisions about which Mobilgard cylinder oil to purchase. ExxonMobil has devised best practice guidelines in order to help procurement professionals make informed decisions Sponsored by

4 COMBATING COLD CORROSION In order to identify the most appropriate cylinder oil and the optimum feed rate to combat cold corrosion it is essential that vessel operators instigate a cylinder condition monitoring (CCM) programme. Properly implemented it can provide information that can help improve engine reliability, reducing associated maintenance and repair costs. That is why ExxonMobil developed MobilGard CCM a suite of three simple-to-use on-board tests, coupled with prompt advice and a report with trend analysis from our technical team that provides a complete picture of engine and lubricant performance. MobilGard CCM analyses two key parameters: iron and BN. The tests detect how much corrosive iron and abrasive iron is present in a scrape down oil sample and also its residual BN level. Vessel operators need to know how much iron is coming from both sources in order to accurately dictate the type and level of lubrication needed. Feed rate optimisation Only by regularly carrying out the on-board tests can operators plot trends and fully understand the condition of the cylinder oil and engine. The results include data relating to cold corrosion, which can help vessel operators identify the most appropriate BN cylinder oil and feed rate for engine protection. The results of this detailed level of data analysis can help vessel operators lower oil consumption while maintaining full lubrication protection. Optimised feed rates ultimately control costs. A higher BN fuel at an optimised feed rate can offer savings while combating cold corrosion MAN engine Mark 7 and lower - power 25,000 kw - operating hours 6,500 p.a. Cylinder Oil Price Fuel Sulphur Level Feed Rate [g/kwh] Oil Consumption Total Cost p.a. Saving p.a. Saving Percentage Industry Standard 70BN Fuel $200 per Hectolitre 3.0% Cubic metres $295,000 Mobilgard 5100 [100BN Fuel] $225 per Hectolitre 3.0% Cubic metres $230,000 $64,000 22% Wärtsilä later model with PLS lubricator - power 25,000 kw - operating hours 6,500 p.a. Cylinder Oil Price Fuel Sulphur Level Feed Rate [g/kwh] Oil Consumption Total Cost p.a. Saving p.a. Saving Percentage Industry Standard 70BN Fuel $200 per Hectolitre 3.0% Cubic metres $399,000 Mobilgard 5100 [100BN Fuel] $225 per Hectolitre 3.0% Cubic metres $307,000 $92,000 23% NOTE: Prices may vary exxonmobil.com readmt.com impa.net

5 MAKING THE BEST FUEL PURCHASE Achieving optimal value from a fuel purchase is hugely important, especially since marine fuel typically accounts for more than half the total operating cost of a vessel. It is therefore necessary to consider key quality issues during the procurement process. For example, by opting for a high quality fuel with low water content, marine operators have the potential to save up to $6,000 per bunker. Currently it is permissible for marine fuel to have a water content of up to 0.5 per cent. However, ExxonMobil s marine fuel has an average of only 0.12 per cent 1. With water removal necessary before burning, this can lead to a difference of up to $3,000 2 per purchase. Water removal can also lead to additional disposal costs of up to $3,000 3, plus maintenance may be necessary to remove sludge from the purification systems. With this in mind it s essential to choose a high quality marine fuel. Cleaner fuels minimise engine wear, which is why it is also important to check a fuel s metal content. Aluminium and silicon, known as catalytic fines, have the potential to cause significant engine damage, leading to substantial repair costs and potential vessel delays. Optimised feed rates ultimately control costs Compliance levels for catalytic fines are up to 60mg/kg but major engine builders typically recommend the level be less than 15mg/kg at the engine inlet. ExxonMobil s marine fuels have an average level of 10mg/kg 4. This helps reduce abrasive wear on critical engine components, potentially avoiding the cost of additional maintenance and possible breakdowns. Sometimes marine fuels from a variety of sources are blended, which can lead to instability. Incompatible blends have the potential to cause sludge or heavy deposit build-up, which may prove costly to resolve. To negate this issue, ExxonMobil s marine fuels arrive from an integrated supply chain and are tested to strict standards before they leave the refinery or terminal, with systematic quality control throughout the supply chain. Incompatible blends can also lead to an inappropriate Calculated Carbon Aromaticity Index (CCAI) level, causing poor combustion, compounding the impact on vessel performance. A maximum ignition index of 870 is recommended for most common residual marine fuel grades; ExxonMobil s marine fuels sit within the working parameters of major engine manufacturers. 1 Source: DNVPS, 2013 ExxonMobil Singapore average 2 A 0.5 per cent water level would amount to 5mt in a 1,000mt delivery. At a cost of $600/mt, this is the equivalent of $3,000 3 Estimated sludge/slops removal cost in Singapore 4 Source: DNVPS, 2013 ExxonMobil Singapore average Cleaner fuels minimise engine wear Sponsored by

6 STABILITY AND COMPATIBILITY ISSUES Stability Bulk fuel stored for long periods can become unstable its asphaltene content can drop out of solution causing the formation of sludge. This has the potential to block filters and pipes, leaving tanks with an unpumpable residue. There are three sediment tests all use hot filtration and all aim to define the total amount of sediments contained in a fuel sample. Professional fuel testing laboratories will be able to advise on their use. Professional fuel testing laboratories will be able to advise Compatibility The industry best practice is to avoid mixing fuels from different sources and with different formulations as arbitrary comingling can lead to incompatibility problems such as sludge formation. The likelihood of incompatibility issues increases in tandem with fuel switching, such as when entering and leaving an ECA. Incompatibility must be treated as a critical concern as it can result in fuel systems becoming paralysed. In practise it is often not possible to ensure against a degree of comingling and although the rule of thumb is not to comingle or load on top in excess of 20 per cent mix ratio, the only way to ensure there are no issues is to test a sample mix. Once again professional fuel testing laboratories will be able to advise on the most appropriate tests regimes. Bulk fuel stored for long periods can become unstable its asphaltene content can drop out of solution causing the formation of sludge exxonmobil.com readmt.com impa.net

7 PRODUCT LISTING Mobilgard 5100 (100 BN) is an advanced cylinder oil that helps optimise the performance of two-stroke marine diesel engines operating on heavy fuel oil (HFO) with a sulphur range of up to 3.5%. It is specially formulated to help protect engines that are susceptible to high levels of cold corrosion. Mobilgard 570 (70 BN) is a high quality cylinder oil that helps optimise the performance of two-stroke marine diesel engines operating on heavy fuel oil with a sulphur content of up to 3.5%. It has been proven to help marine operators save operating costs by extending piston overhaul intervals and optimising feed rates. Mobilgard 525 (25 BN) is a high quality cylinder oil recommended for slow-speed engines when operating on low sulphur distillate fuels. It has been introduced to support marine operators entering into Emission Control Areas (ECA). Mobilgard 525 has been designed to ensure vessel operators can meet the new ECA sulphur requirements without compromising on engine protection and performance. MobilGard Cylinder Condition Monitoring (CCM) is a comprehensive reporting service with a suite of three on-board tests that can help vessel operators optimise engine feed rates and extend piston overhauls. This can help to control cold corrosion, extend engine life and minimise maintenance costs. ExxonMobil has developed ExxonMobil Premium AFME 200 and ExxonMobil Premium HDME 50 as part of a new category of specialist marine fuel to meet the 2015 ECA fuel sulphur limit of 0.10 per cent. These low-sulphur fuels are formulated to help to reduce operational complexity by providing safe switchovers thanks to a higher viscosity and flashpoint than marine gas oil (MGO). They also minimise the risk of thermal shock shutdowns as handling and preheating practices are similar to HFO. ExxonMobil has developed ExxonMobil Premium AFME 200 and ExxonMobil Premium HDME 50 as part of a new category of specialist marine fuel to meet the 2015 ECA fuel sulphur limit of 0.10 per cent Sponsored by

8 2015 ExxonMobil. The user may forward, distribute, and/or photocopy this copyrighted document only if unaltered and complete, including all of its headers, footers, disclaimers, and other information. The information in this document relates only to the named product or materials when not in combination with any other product or materials. We based the information on data believed to be reliable on the date compiled, but we do not represent, warrant, or otherwise guarantee, expressly or impliedly, the merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, suitability, accuracy, reliability, or completeness of this information or the products, materials, or processes described. The user is solely responsible for all determinations regarding any use and any process. We expressly disclaim liability for any loss, damage, or injury directly or indirectly suffered or incurred as a result of or related to anyone using or relying on any of the information in this document. There is no warranty against patent infringement, nor any endorsement of any product or process, and we expressly disclaim any contrary implication. The terms, we, our, ExxonMobil Chemical, or ExxonMobil are used for convenience, and may include any one or more of ExxonMobil Chemical Company, Exxon Mobil Corporation, or any affiliates they directly or indirectly steward. The ExxonMobil Chemical Emblem, the Interlocking X Device, and Vistalon are trademarks of Exxon Mobil Corporation. ExxonMobil Marine Limited Ermyn Way Leatherhead, Surrey United Kingdom KT22 8UX exxonmobil.com readmt.com impa.net

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