Combustion characteristics of LNG

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1 Combustion characteristics of LNG LNG Fuel Forum, Stockholm 21. September 2011 Øyvind Buhaug, Principal Engineer - Fuels and Engine Technology, Statoil Content LNG compositions in the global market LNG engines for marine LNG combustion properties Finding the right gas for the engine 1

2 Statoil & LNG LNG plant operator Charterer of LNG fuelled vessels Supply vessels LNG tankers Product tanker 40% ownership in Gasnor Content LNG compositions in the global market k LNG engines for marine LNG combustion properties Finding the right gas for the engine 2

3 LNG production CO2 Water Sulphur Compounds Hg N2 Natural gas Condensate separator Pretreatment Liquefaction LNG LPG Condensate treatment CON LNG Quality Liquefaction plants have strict requirements on gas purity to prevent freeze out and corrosion Consequently, LNG contains no CO2 and no corrosive substances Otherwise, the composition is still variable 3

4 The market asks for different gas compositions Lean gas Rich gas Variable Suppliers provide different LNG compositions Methane > 95% Methane < 90% Methane % % Note: Figure based on a limited number random samples from regions. Not to be mistaken for a systematic survey of composition 4

5 LNG treatment options at terminal N2 LNG Gasification Pipeline quality gas LPG Content LNG compositions in the global market LNG engines for marine LNG combustion properties Finding the right gas for the engine 5

6 LNG Engine concepts: Premixed combustion 1 2 Gas injected before combustion Ignition by spark plug or diesel pilot flame Characteristics Very low NOx Risk of engine knock Methane slip Gas only or dual fuel 4 stroke only LNG Engine concepts: high pressure injection 1 2 Ignition by diesel pilot Gas injected during combustion Characteristics More NOx (poor mixture) No methane slip No engine knock Dual fuel 2 and 4 stroke 6

7 Marine gas engines Engine Example Concept Ignition & fuel Gas NOx Methane Rebuild Rolls Royce B & C Mitsubishi GS R Premixed 4 stroke Spark plug, pre chamber Gas only Sensitive* Tier III Challenge Less suitable Premixed 4 stroke Diesel pilot, Dual fuel Sensitive* Tier III Challenge Suitable Wartsila DF series MAN ME-GI Injection 2 stroke Diesel pilot, Dual fuel Robust NOx Measures needed for Tier III Controlled Suitable * Engine power and efficiency linked to methane number in gas Content LNG compositions in the global market LNG engines for marine LNG combustion properties Finding the right gas for the engine 7

8 LNG Combustion properties Parameter Significance Relevant for Wobbe index Heat output from burner All major Heating value Energy content All major Methane number Resistance to knock (gas octane number) Gas engines Methane number Gas equivalent of octane number Important for gas engines with premixed combustion Knock resistance Measured in CFR engine, compared with blends of H 2, CH 4 and CO 2 Calculated (most practical option) CH 4 : MN = 100 H 2 : MN = 0 CO 2 dilution: MN > 100 8

9 Methane number affects power and efficiency De rating practices for low methane number Methane number requirement 75 Required MN , , , ,5 BMEP [bar] Power density Thermal efficiency Left: Source: Ricardo (2006) LNG Methane number is variable LNG data Methane number ,0 50,5 51,0 51,5 52,0 52,5 53,0 53,5 54,0 Wobbe index 9

10 Content LNG compositions in the global market LNG engines for marine LNG combustion properties Finding the right gas for the engine 10

11 LNG piston engine fuel specification? Useful for Identifying suitable piston engine LNG (operators and traders) Fuel optimisation of engines (engine builder) Suppliers consider demand when specifying LNG Present demand for LNG Energy Piston engine fuel Prescriptive standard, not performance based 11

12 Approaches towards specification Prescriptive Performance based - Methane content range - Methane number - Ethane content range - Wobbe index - - Energy content Objective limit values Greater flexibility in supply Increased availability Better prices Conclusion The composition of LNG varies Not all LNG is equally suitable for all engines LNG fuel specification could be helpful for finding the LNG grades that are suitable as fuel criteria for optimising engines A LNG piston engine fuel specification, if developed, should be Gp g p, p, performance based 12

13 Thank you LNG Combustion characteristics Øyvind Buhaug Principal Engineer Fuels and Engine Technology tel:

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