1 Polyalphaolefin Synthetic Basestocks Group IV Basestocks Polyalphaolefins
2 What are Poly Alpha Olefins (PAO)? Synthetic high performance basestocks Hydrogenated (saturated) olefin polymers Manufactured by the catalytic oligomerization of linear alphaolefins Wax-free combination of molecules of predetermined chain length
3 PAO Manufacturing Process Alpha Olefins + Catalyst Monomer Hydrogen + Catalyst Oligomerisation Distillation Distillation Hydrogenation PAO
4 SpectraSyn PAO Structure Many Short Branches CH 3 Backbone Uniform Structure With Longer Branches CH 3 CH 3 H 3 C H2C H 3 C CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH H 3 C CH H 2 C CH H 2 C CH H 2 C CH H 2 C CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 Conventional PAO - prominent backbone and relatively uniform structure provides superior lubricating performance versus mineral oils CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 SpectraSyn Ultra High VI PAO - very uniform, comb-like structure - absence of short side chains results in rheological advantages providing unique lubricant benefits CH 3
5 ExxonMobil PAO Manufacture Dedicated reactor trains Full range of viscosity grades (2-1 C) Manufacturing Facilities: USA - Beaumont, Texas France - Port-Jerome Gravenchon Port-Jerome Gravenchon France Beaumont, TX USA
6 PAO Key Features Compared to conventional mineral oils, PAOs have Higher viscosity index Lower temperature fluidity Lower volatility Better oxidative stability Greater thermal stability Lower traction force Compared to Group III oils, PAOs have Much wider viscosity range Slightly higher viscosity index PAO Lower temperature fluidity Similar or lower volatility Gp III Better oxidative and thermal stability Viscosity Range
7 Viscosity Index Viscosity change with Temperature PAO s typcially have a higher viscosity index than mineral oil. Lower viscosity at low temperature Offers increased fluidity. Mineral Oil PAO Viscosity Equivalent viscosity Higher viscosity at high temperature: Offers improved oil film thickness Temperature, o C
8 SpectraSyn PAOs Have High Viscosity Indices 35 Viscosity Index PAO PAO Gp III Mineral Oil Mineral Oil SpectraSyn SpectraSyn Ultra Ultra PIB Kinematic C, cst At equivalent viscosity, SpectraSyn Ultra is 4 VI higher than high viscosity PAO, enabling formulations with better protection at high temperatures and reduced energy losses and easier starting at low temperatures
9 SpectraSyn PAO High VI Effect o C 4 o C 1 o C Lower Viscosity at low temperature Better fluidity & energy savings Thicker hydrodynamic film at high temperature Better protection Viscosity in cst ISO VG 22 Fluids with HVI-PAO PAO Mineral Oil
10 Low Temperature Fluidity Pour Point SpectraSyn PAO s s have lower pour points than mineral oil Group III Group II Pour Point, C PAO C (cst) Trends based on typical data points from product data sheets
11 SpectraSyn PAOs Have Low Pour Points -1 Pour Point, C Typical Mineral Oil Range SpectraSyn PAO SpectraSyn Ultra Kinematic C, cst Spectrasyn PAOs flow easily at low temperatures.
12 Low Temperature Fluidity Cold Cranking Viscosity Noack, wt% Conventional PAO SpectraSyn Plus cp SpectraSyn Plus PAO offers improved Low Temperature Fluidity
13 High Temperature Volatility Noack 4 SpectraSyn PAO s s generally have lower volatility than mineral oil. 35 Group II 3 Group III % Volatility SpectraSyn PAO C (cst) Projected trends based on typical data points from product data sheets
14 High Temperature Volatility Noack Noack, wt% Group III Conventional PAO SpectraSyn Plus cst SpectraSyn Plus PAO offers improved Noack Volatility
15 Oxidation Stability SpectraSyn PAO s s have better oxidative stability than mineral oil. Good oxidative stability is essential for applications at elevated temperatures with air contact Product Oxidation Stability Test PAO Vs. Mineral Oil (2% Antioxidant) Mineral Oil Group II 6 cst PAO 4 cst PAO 1 cst PAO PAO s show excellent oxidative stability when formulated with suitable antioxidants PAO s are more responsive to antioxidants than mineral oil. % Vis 1 C TAN change, mg Lead loss, mg Sludge moderate nil nil Test Conditions: 163 o C (325 o F), 72 hours trace
16 Thermal Stability Base Fluid 4. cst Mineral oil 4. cst PAO 4. cst PAO / polyol ester Cleanliness* (1 = Clean) Panel Coker Thermal Stability Test 31 o C aluminum panel splashed by test oil for 6 min baked for 1.5 min Panels rated for cleanliness, where 1 = clean. PAO withstands high temperatures with minimum decomposition.
17 Traction Maximum Shear Stress (psi) Lower Traction Maximum Contact Stress (psi) Note: Maximum shear stress is the maximum traction force divided by the contact area Mineral Oil Conventional PAO SpectraSyn Ultra PAO Scuffing Hypothesis: Scuffing occurs when Frictional Power Intensity (FPI) exceeds critical limit. FPI = (Traction)*(Power)*(V 2 -V 1 ) 2*A*λ The low traction of SpectraSyn PAOs may increase allowable gear loading / reduce scuffing & improve gear durability
18 SpectraSyn High Viscosity PAO Characteristics SpectraSyn 4 SpectraSyn 1 Specific 1ºC, cst 4ºC, cst Viscosity Index Flash Point, Open Cup, ºC Pour Point, ºC Total Acid Number (TAN), mg KOH/g Brookfield -26ºC, cp Fire Point, ºC 82ºC, 4-4-, min <.1 12, <.1 745, 33
19 SpectraSyn High Viscosity PAO ISO / Wt % VG 1 VG 15 VG 22 SpectraSyn TM SpectraSyn TM Synesstic TM ISO / Wt % VG 15 VG 22 VG 32 SpectraSyn TM SpectraSyn TM Synesstic TM ISO / Wt % VG 1 VG 15 VG 22 VG 32 VG 46 VG 68 SpectraSyn TM SpectraSyn TM Adipate Ester SpectraSyn High Viscosity PAO are are the the key key basestock in in formulating wide viscosity grade industrial lubricants.
20 SpectraSyn High Viscosity PAO comparison to PIB SpectraSyn 4 PIB A SpectraSyn 1 PIB B PIB C Kinematic 1ºC, cst ºC, cst ,24 3,3 1,225 Viscosity Index (VI) Pour Point, ºC Flash Point, ºC 281 > >19 >15 SpectraSyn High Viscosity PAOs have Higher VI, Lower Pour Points and Higher Flash Points than PIBs of Comparable Viscosity
21 SpectraSyn High Viscosity PAO comparison to PIB Outstanding Low Temperature Viscosity Excellent Tapered Roller Bearing Shear Stability 2 1 Brookfield -4 C, cp PIB SpectraSyn 1 SpectraSyn 4 % Viscosity Retention, 2 hours PIB SpectraSyn 1 SpectraSyn 4 SpectraSyn High Viscosity PAO performance advantages extend to to low low temperature viscosity and and shear stability.
22 SpectraSyn High Viscosity PAO in Mineral Oil 25 change Lead loss mg/ Tan increase mgkoh/g Percent of SpectraSyn 4 in Blend Change Lead Loss, mg TAN Change Additions of SpectraSyn High Viscosity PAO to mineral oils improve the oxidation stability of the blends
23 SpectraSyn PAO in Automotive Gear Formulation SAE Grade 75W-14 Additive Package, wt % 6.2 SpectraSyn 4, wt % SpectraSyn 1, wt % 57.4 Adipate Ester, wt % 2. 1 o C, cst o C, cp 12,2 Viscosity Index 172 Flash Point, o C 21 Pour Point, o C -48 Channel Point, o C <-45 Copper Corrosion, o C 1b Foaming Tendency, Seq. I, II, III, ml,, Storage Stability & Compatibility Pass Shear Loss after Tapered Roller Bearing Test 2 hr, % SpectraSyn High Viscosity PAO can can be be formulated in in wide cross grade automotive gear oil oil with with good shear stability.
24 SpectraSyn 1 in Industrial gear /Compressor Oil Formulations ISO VG* SpectraSyn 6. wt % SpectraSyn 1, wt % Synesstic 5, wt % PROPERTIES 1 C, cst C, cst Wide ISO grade Viscosity Index Better efficiency Specific 15.6/15.6 C Flash Point, C Fire Point, C Pour Point, C Reduce risk of ignition Good low temperature performance * Examples of basestock combination only. Will require appropriate additives and testing. SpectraSyn SpectraSyn High High Viscosity Viscosity PAO PAO can can be be formulated formulated into into wide wide ISO ISO grade grade industrial industrial gear/compressor gear/compressor oils oils that that have have high high VI, VI, high high flash/fire flash/fire points, points, and and good good low low temperature temperature performance. performance.
25 Other Key Features of PAO Low toxicity Hydrolytically stable Excellent additive response Compatible with mineral oils, Esters and Alkylated Napthalene All SpectraSyn TM grades are registered worldwide Meet FDA Requirement under 21 CFR (b) Technical White Mineral Oil Can be used to formulate lubricants for incidental food contact Kosher approved Halal approved NSF Approval For Incidental Food Contact (USDA H1)(except SpectraSyn 5) Listed in the NSF White Book (
26 PAO Typical Applications Gasoline & Diesel Engines Automatic Transmissions Industrial/Automotive Gears & Transmissions Hydraulic systems Industrial Bearings Rotary Air and Gas Compressor Hydrocarbon Refrigeration Compressor Grease Turbines Heat Transfer Fluid Automotive Hydraulic Fluids Mist Lubricant EMCC Product Names SpectraSyn 2 n n n n SpectraSyn 4 n n n n n n SpectraSyn 5 n n n n SpectraSyn 6 n n n n n n n n SpectraSyn 8 n n SpectraSyn 1 n SpectraSyn 4 n n n n n n n SpectraSyn 1 n n n n n n SpectraSyn Plus 3.6 n n n n SpectraSyn Plus 4 n n n n SpectraSyn Plus 6 n n n n n SpectraSyn Ultra 15 n n n n n n n SpectraSyn Ultra 3 n n n SpectraSyn Ultra 1 n n Most common application uses n Less commonly used
27 SpectraSyn PAO Product Line Summary Description Product o C o C VI Pour Point o C COC Flash point o C SpectraSyn TM Low and high viscosity PAO with excellent oxidative & thermal stability, low volatility and low temperature performance SpectraSyn TM 4 SpectraSyn TM 5 SpectraSyn TM 6 SpectraSyn TM 8 SpectraSyn TM SpectraSyn TM SpectraSyn TM Low viscosity PAO with enhanced volatility and low temperature fluidity SpectraSyn Plus TM 3.6 SpectraSyn Plus TM SpectraSyn Plus TM Very high viscosity PAO with high viscosity index, good shear stability, improved low temperature properties, enhanced oil film thickness & lower traction SpectraSyn Ultra TM 15 SpectraSyn Ultra TM 3 SpectraSyn Ultra TM
28 29 ExxonMobil. To the extent the user is entitled to disclose and distribute this document, the user may forward, distribute, and/or photocopy this copyrighted document only if unaltered and complete, including all of its headers, footers, disclaimers, and other information. You may not copy this document to a Web site. ExxonMobil does not guarantee the typical (or other) values. Analysis may be performed on representative samples and not the actual product shipped. The information in this document relates only to the named product or materials when not in combination with any other product or materials. We based the information on data believed to be reliable on the date compiled, but we do not represent, warrant, or otherwise guarantee, expressly or impliedly, the merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, suitability, accuracy, reliability, or completeness of this information or the products, materials, or processes described. The user is solely responsible for all determinations regarding any use of material or product and any process in its territories of interest. We expressly disclaim liability for any loss, damage, or injury directly or indirectly suffered or incurred as a result of or related to anyone using or relying on any of the information in this document. There is no endorsement of any product or process, and we expressly disclaim any contrary implication. The terms, we, our, "ExxonMobil Chemical", or "ExxonMobil" are used for convenience, and may include any one or more of ExxonMobil Chemical Company, Exxon Mobil Corporation, or any affiliates they directly or indirectly steward. ExxonMobil, The ExxonMobil Emblem, the Interlocking X Device, Synesstic, SpectraSyn, SpectraSyn Ultra and SpectraSyn Plus are trademarks of ExxonMobil.
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