# INTRODUCTION: BASIC GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS. Eric Jessup Associate Professor School of Economic Sciences

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "INTRODUCTION: BASIC GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS. Eric Jessup Associate Professor School of Economic Sciences"

## Transcription

1 INTRODUCTION: BASIC GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS Eric Jessup Associate Professor School of Economic Sciences September 13, 2010

2 Outline What is geographical / spatial analysis and why do we care? Different types of geographic data Vector Raster Topological GIS Terms / Definitions Coordinate Systems? Geographic Coordinate Systems Projected Coordinate Systems Minimizing Distortion Common File Types:

3 Where ever you are.that s where you ll be.

4 The Geographical Intersection of Information

5 How knowledge is obtained.. Information Geographical Non-Geographical Vector Data (Points, Lines, Areas) Socio Economic Raster Data (Grids/Cells) Descriptive Attributes

6 Why should you care? The most powerful analytical tool at your disposal!

7 Data Types Vector Data: A vector is made up of three different types of elements: 1) nodes, which are single sets of coordinates (x, y, z) which define a point (such as a spring); 2) lines, which are curvilinear strings of coordinates which define a curved line (such as a stream); and 3) polygons, which are collections of lines which inscribe an area (such as a lake). Raster Data: A data structure (logically, a 2-dimensional array) that contains rows and columns of numbers of a single data type. Each number represents the value of some parameter (like elevation or red spectral intensity). Each number (or cell value) is often used to control the color and intensity of one pixel on a computer s display screen. A complete computer image can be displayed from the values in a raster that has as many rows and columns as the computer has pixels for the screen.

8 Vector Data

9 Raster Data

10 Topological Data A description of the relationship between node, line, and polygon elements from vector data. Usually describing the intersection of two or more topologically coded data sets that produces one data set that is uniformly topologically coded with respect to graphic entities and to attribute data Line A level of spatial measurement referring to a one-dimensional defined object having a length and direction and connecting at least two points. Examples are roads, railroads, telecommunication lines, streams, etc. Node A single point defined by a set of coordinates in space, and one of the types of elements in a vector object. Nodes may be lone points, or may occur as the terminal point at the end of one or more line elements. Polygon A two-dimensional figure with three or more sides intersecting at a like number of points. In GIS systems, an area.

12 GIS Terms/Definitions Cadastral Mapping A mapping endeavor with ownership and value being the primary concerns. Principal usage is for tax analysis. Cardinal direction The four principal directions: North, South, East and West. Cartesian coordinates A coordinate system in which the locations of points in space are expressed by reference to three perpendicular axes, called the coordinate axes (x,y,z). Coordinate Systems A particular kind of reference frame or system, such as plane rectangular coordinates or spherical coordinates, which use linear or angular quantities to designate the position of points within that particular reference frame or system.

13 GIS Terms/Definitions Plane coordinates Coordinates specifying the locations of points in a plane. In cartography the plane usually is a projection of the Earth s surface onto a flattened cone or cylinder, and the x and y values scaled along the rectangular axes are called eastings and northings, respectively. Euclidean distance The shortest distance joining two points in the plane Join A process of connecting two or more separately digitized maps

14 GIS Terms/Definitions Label A vector element that contains text used to identify a node, line, or polygon element. Layer Refers to the various overlays of data, each of which normally deals with one thematic topic. These overlays are registered to each other by the common coordinate system of the database. Legend The part of the drawn map explaining the meaning of the symbols used to code the depicted geographical elements.

15 GIS Terms/Definitions Map scale The relationship that exists between a distance on a map and the corresponding distance on the Earth. It may be expressed as an equivalence, one inch equals 16 statute miles; as a fraction or ratio, 1:1,000,000; or as a bar graph subdivided to show the distance that each of its parts represents on the Earth. Network analysis Analytical techniques concerned with the relationships between locations on a network, such as the calculation of optimal routes through road networks, capacities of network systems, best location for facilities along networks, etc.

16 Coordinate Systems Observations about Earth It isn t flat, perfectly round or two dimensional It s a sphere Geographic Coordinate System Projected Coordinate System

17 Geographic Coordinate System Uses degrees of longitude (x), latitude (y) and sometimes height (z) to describe a precise location on the earth. The latitude reference is the equator and each hemisphere is divided into 90 sections, each representing one degree of latitude The longitude reference is the prime meridian, running perpendicular to the equator from the North Pole to the South Pole.

18 Geographic Coordinate System

19 Coordinate Systems

20

21 Geographic Coordinate System In order to achieve an acceptable degree of accuracy, degrees are divided into minutes and seconds. 1 degree = 60 minutes 1 minutes = 60 seconds 3600 seconds in a degree So at the equator, one 1 second of latitude and 1 second of longitude is equal to meters

22 Geographic Coordinate System Degrees of latitude and longitude can be further subdivided into minutes and seconds: there are 60 minutes (') per degree, and 60 seconds (") per minute. For example, a coordinate might be written 65 32' 15". Degrees can also be expressed as decimals: , degrees and decimal minutes: ', or even degrees, minutes, and decimal seconds: 65 32' ". All these notations allow us to locate places on the Earth quite precisely to within inches. A degree of latitude is approximately 69 miles, and a minute of latitude is approximately 1.15 miles. A second of latitude is approximately 0.02 miles, or just over 100 feet. A degree of longitude varies in size. At the equator, it is approximately 69 miles, the same size as a degree of latitude. The size gradually decreases to zero as the meridians converge at the poles. At a latitude of 45 degrees, a degree of longitude is approximately 49 miles. Because a degree of longitude varies in size, minutes and seconds of longitude also vary, decreasing in size towards the poles.

23 Projected Coordinate System Projected coordinate systems portray the earth in a two-dimensional flat surface (paper or computer screen). To more accurately represent locations on the earth's surface, map makers studied the shape of the earth (geodesy) and created the concept of the spheroid. A datum links a spheroid to a particular portion of the earth's surface. Recent datums are designed to fit the entire earth's surface well. The most commonly used datums in North America are: NAD 1927 (North American Datum 1927) using the Clarke 1866 spheroid NAD 1983 (North American Datum 1983) using the GRS 1980 spheroid WGS 1984 (World Geodetic System 1984) using the WGS 1984 spheroid

24 Projection Families

25 Geographic Distortion Every projection has some degree of distortion on: Angle Distance Area The goal is to minimize the distortion based the specific spatial analysis performed.

26 Minimizing Distortion Minimize All Aspects: Winkel Triple Projection Robinson Projection Minimize Angular Distortion (Conformal or Orthomorphic Projections): Mercator Projection Lambert Conformal Conic Projection

27 Minimizing Distortion Minimize Distance Distortion (Equidistant Projections) Plate Carree Equidistant Cylindrical Projection Equirectangular Projection Azimuthal Equidistant Projection Minimize Area Distortion (Equal Area Projections) Lambert s Equal Area Projection Mollweide Equal Area Cylindrical Projection

28 Common File Types Document type ArcMap document ArcGlobe document ArcScene document ArcGIS Layer file Shapefile Published Map File for ArcReader Filename extension.mxd.3dd.sxd.lyr.shp.pmf Notes A file containing a map, its layers, display information, and other elements used in ArcMap. A file containing a globe, its layers, and 3D display properties for use in ArcGlobe. Part of the 3D Analyst extension. A file containing a 3D scene, its layers, and 3D properties for use in ArcScene. Part of the 3D Analyst extension. A layer is a set of rules for displaying and working with datasets in ArcMap and ArcGlobe. Layer definitions include symbol assignments, classifications, labeling rules, and other map use properties. A file used for storing the geometric location and attribute information of geographic features. A read-only map file created using the ArcGIS Publisher extension. Read-only maps can be used in ArcReader and ArcMap. They can also be served on the Web. ArcGIS Style file ArcGIS Address Locator file.style.loc A predefined set of colors, symbols, and graphical elements used for displaying and representing geographic datasets according to a mapping standard. A Locator dataset and rules used for geocoding addresses in ArcGIS. Locators are types of geodatabase datasets and can be saved independently of the geodatabase as a disk file for sharing and use Metadata files.xml Metadata documents for individual file-based datasets are stored in XML files and often managed in ArcGIS workspace folders. Map projection file.prj Coordinate system and map projection information for a dataset Geoprocessing scripts.py. aml Python (.py) and ArcInfo Workstation AML scripts used for geoprocessing in ArcGIS

29 Type Extension Description ESRI Coverage ArcInfo Workstation coverages Grid Tin Shapefile (SHP) ArcInfo GRID raster format ArcInfo triangulated irregular network (TIN) format ESRI shapefile format Vector TIGER/Line U.S. Census Bureau's TIGER/Line Files MIF/MID TAB VPF GML MapInfo Vector Interchange File MapInfo Table Interchange for MIF MapInfo Native Dataset National Geospatial Intelligence Agency's Vector Product File format Open Geospatial Consortium's GML Interchange Specification Raster IMG Leica ERDAS Imagine image files BMP TIF JPG JP2 SID Bitmap raster format TIFF raster format JPEG raster compression format JPEG 2000 raster format MrSID raster format

30 Type Extension Description CAD DXF CAD transfer file. Uses ASCII or binary drawing file interchange. DGN MicroStation design file format DWG AutoCAD drawing file format Tables XLS Excel spreadsheets DBF dbase data file format Info Arc/Info Workstation INFO tables MDB File format for Microsoft's Access database TXT Text file often used to hold attribute columns delimited by commas or tabs

### GIS for Educators. Coordinate Reference System. Understanding of Coordinate Reference Systems.

GIS for Educators Topic 7: Coordinate Reference Systems Objectives: Understanding of Coordinate Reference Systems. Keywords: Coordinate Reference System (CRS), Map Projection, On the Fly Projection, Latitude,

### Welcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems.

Welcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems. A GIS without coordinates would simply be a database like Microsoft Excel

### G492 GIS for Earth Sciences Map Projections and Coordinate Systems

G492 GIS for Earth Sciences Map Projections and Coordinate Systems I. Introduction A. Fundamental Concern with Map Work 1. Maps / GIS a. 2-D representation of Earth surface b. locations of map features

### Tutorial GIS MAPPING. Can your current software do that?

CANVAS 11 GIS+ blends native support for Geographic Information System (GIS) data with the full range of illustration tools and features found within CANVAS 11 Professional Edition. This tutorial describes

### GIS FINAL EXAM. Meridians Lines of equal longitude. Begin at 0 degrees, starting in Greenwich, England. Goes 180 degrees West and East;

GIS FINAL EXAM Projecting GIS data & map projections Plannimetric coordinates - systems that are expressed in measures of x and y values. Geographic coordinates - systems, on the other hand, are expressed

### Coordinate Systems and Map Projections

Coordinate Systems and Map Projections Introduction Every map user and maker should have a basic understanding of projections and coordinate systems no matter how much computers seem to have automated

### EX 2 GEOREFERENCING. Part I - A theoretical background about Coordinate Systems

EX 2 GEOREFERENCING Introduction A coordinate system (CS) provides a fundamental spatial framework to support the planning and development of a nation. All spatial data has a coordinate system to define

### An Introduction to GIS using ArcGIS Spring Lab Workshop 5 March S.P.Harish PhD Candidate Department of Politics New York University

An Introduction to GIS using ArcGIS Spring Lab Workshop 5 March 2013 S.P.Harish PhD Candidate Department of Politics New York University Agenda What is GIS? Basic GIS Concepts Introduction to ArcGIS Coordinates

### f = difference/major axis = ~1/300 for earth

Map Projection and Coordinates The shape of the earth Models Sphere with radius of ~6378 km Ellipsoid (or Spheroid) with equatorial radius (semi-major axis) of ~6378 km and polar radius (semi-minor axis)

### GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS CERTIFICATION

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS CERTIFICATION GIS Syllabus - Version 1.2 January 2007 Copyright AICA-CEPIS 2009 1 Version 1 January 2007 GIS Certification Programme 1. Target The GIS certification is aimed

### Map Projections and Map Coordinate Systems

Map Projections and Map Coordinate Systems Jamie Wolfe CITE Marshall University Huntington, WV - 25755 304-696-6042 Jawolfe@marshall.edu IS 645 Introduction to GIS Lecture 03, May 23, 2000 Today s class

### Coordinate Systems. Every coordinate system has an initial reference point or origin All mapped features are represented in some coordinate system

Coordinate Systems Coordinate Systems A coordinate system is a 2- or 3-D reference frame used to specify locations on the earth. Many different coordinate systems exist, and each is defined by an origin,

### Ellipsoid and Datum, Projection, Coordinate system, and Map Scale

Ellipsoid and Datum, Projection, Coordinate system, and Map Scale Lectures 4 Sept 14, 2006 Why we need it? Earth Shape Models Flat earth models are still used for plane surveying, over distances short

### TeachGIS White Paper Number 1: A Few Words on Locations, Coordinate Systems, and Projections

1 TeachGIS White Paper Number 1: A Few Words on Locations, Coordinate Systems, and Projections When we hand draw a map on the back of an envelope or a napkin, it usually doesn t matter that the position

### GIS Spatial Data Standards

GIS Spatial Data Standards Manatee County, FL GIS Section, Information Services Department TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Introduction 2 A. Purpose 2 B. Reference 2 II. Spatial Reference Information 2 A. Projection:

### Lecture 4. Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS

Lecture 4 Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS GIS in Water Resources Spring 2015 Geodesy, Map Projections and Coordinate Systems Geodesy - the shape of the earth and definition of earth datums Map

### GIS for Disaster Management

GIS for Disaster Management Week 04 These slides are taken form Hongjie Xie; Earth shape models Flat earth models are still used for plane surveying, over distances short enough so that earth curvature

### Lecture 2. Map Projections and GIS Coordinate Systems. Tomislav Sapic GIS Technologist Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University

Lecture 2 Map Projections and GIS Coordinate Systems Tomislav Sapic GIS Technologist Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University Map Projections Map projections are mathematical formulas

### GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems

UTM Coordinate System GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems Why do we need the UTM coordinate system? - in a rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate system, with linear x and

### 2016/07/25. GIS 211 Map Projections & Coordinate Systems Chang Chapter 2. Why is this important to YOU? Dr W Britz

GIS 211 Map Projections & Coordinate Systems Chang Chapter 2 Dr W Britz Every map user and maker should have a basic understanding of projections no matter how much computers seem to have automated the

### Map Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems

Map Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems Geodetic Control Network Horizontal Control Network Datum A datum is a set of parameters defining a coordinate system, and a set of control points whose

### SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS

SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS We will begin today with the first of two classes on aspects of cartography. Cartography is both an art and a science, but we will focus on the scientific aspects. Geographical

### A GIS helps you answer questions and solve problems by looking at your data in a way that is quickly understood and easily shared.

A Geographic Information System (GIS) integrates hardware, software, and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information. GIS allows us to view,

### Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Urban Studies and Planning

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Urban Studies and Planning 11.520: A Workshop on Geographic Information Systems 11.188: Urban Planning and Social Science Laboratory Lecture 3: More

### Representing The Shape of the Earth

Representing The Shape of the Earth Geoids Ellipsoids Datums Coordinate Systems Projections The Shape of the Earth 3 ways to model it Topographic surface the land/air interface complex (rivers, valleys,

### EEOS 381 -Spatial Databases and GIS Applications

EEOS 381 -Spatial Databases and GIS Applications Lecture 3 GIS Data Models Data Formats Overview GIS Data Models Common GIS Data Formats EEOS 381 - Spring 2015: Lecture 3 2 Overview Key points: It is important

### The Earth's Graticule

Georeferencing How do we make sure all our data layers line up? Georeferencing: = linking a layer or dataset with spatial coordinates Registration: = lining up layers with each other Rectification: =The

### INTRODUCTION TO ARCGIS SOFTWARE

INTRODUCTION TO ARCGIS SOFTWARE I. History of Software Development a. Developer ESRI - Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., in 1969 as a privately held consulting firm that specialized in landuse

### Projections & GIS Data Collection: An Overview

Projections & GIS Data Collection: An Overview Projections Primary data capture Secondary data capture Data transfer Capturing attribute data Managing a data capture project Geodesy Basics for Geospatial

### MAPPING EXERCISE Map Projections

MAPPING EXERCISE Map Projections All too often emphasis in map production is placed on becoming operational with GIS software while neglecting basic, yet important, map design principals. For many mapmakers,

### Introduction to GIS (Basics, Data, Analysis) & Case Studies. 13 th May 2004. Content. What is GIS?

Introduction to GIS (Basics, Data, Analysis) & Case Studies 13 th May 2004 Content Introduction to GIS Data concepts Data input Analysis Applications selected examples What is GIS? Geographic Information

### Modeling CAD Data in ArcGIS

Modeling CAD Data in ArcGIS What You Will Need ArcGIS 8.1 Desktop (ArcInfo, ArcEditor, or ArcView license) Pentium III computer that meets ArcGIS requirements 50 MB of free disk space by Mike Price, ESRI

### IDENTIFYING THE TYPE OF COORDINATE SYSTEM FOR DATA USING ARCMAP

C H A P T E R 1 IDENTIFYING THE TYPE OF COORDINATE SYSTEM FOR DATA USING ARCMAP My boss told me to make a map using ArcMap, but when I add the data, I get an error message that says missing spatial reference

### From Topographic Maps to Digital Elevation Models. Anne Graham Daniel Sheehan MIT Libraries IAP 2013

From Topographic Maps to Digital Elevation Models Anne Graham Daniel Sheehan MIT Libraries IAP 2013 Which Way Does the Water Flow? A topographic map shows relief features or surface configuration of an

### City of Tigard. GIS Data Standards

City of Tigard GIS Data Standards City of Tigard 13125 SW Hall Blvd Tigard, Oregon 97223 503 639-4171 Page 1 of 5 1.0 Purpose The purpose of these standards is to provide guidance for geospatial data development

### Implementation Practice Web Mercator Map Projection

NGA.SIG.0011_1.0.0_WEBMERC NATIONAL GEOSPATIAL-INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (NGA) STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENT Implementation Practice Web Mercator Map Projection 2014-02-18 Version 1.0.0 OFFICE OF GEOMATICS NGA.SIG.0011_1.0.0_WEBMERC

### Coordinate Systems key concepts. Projections and Coordinate Systems Data Quality Meta Meta Data

Coordinate Systems Coordinate Systems key concepts Projections and Coordinate Systems Data Quality Meta Meta Data Projections and Coordinate Systems: Geographic Coordinate System Uses Uses 3D spherical

### GIS s s Roots in Cartography

Following up on the last lecture GIS s s Roots in Cartography Getting Started With GIS Chapter 2 Information ordering: Lists and indexes Organizing data and information Information can be organized as

### What is a map? A Map is a two or three-dimensional model or representation of the Earth s surface. 2-Dimensional map

What is a map? A Map is a two or three-dimensional model or representation of the Earth s surface. 2-Dimensional map Types of Maps: (just a few that we may be using) Political Maps Shows borders of states,

### Geographic Coordinates or longitude/latitude will vary depending on the assumed shape of the globe

Geographic Coordinates or longitude/latitude will vary depending on the assumed shape of the globe 1 Latitude is the angle north or south (think ladder going north south) Longitude is the angle east or

### Introduction to ArcGIS

UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN Introduction to ArcGIS ArcGIS 9.2 Elise Pietroniro September 2008/ Updates Fall 2009 Using ArcGIS ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

### State Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS

State Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS An overview of SPCS with emphasis on Grid vs. Ground coordinates. New Jersey Geospatial Forum Meeting Friday, March 18 th 2005 Jesse Kozlowski NJ PLS History of SPCS

### G302 Review of Maps / Topographic Maps

G302 Review of Maps / Topographic Maps I. Introduction A. Map- a 2-d, scaled representation of the earth's surface, 1. Model of Earth's Surface 2. Basic functions: to represent horizontal distance, direction,

### ES341 Overview of key file formats and file extensions in ArcGIS

ES341 Overview of key file formats and file extensions in ArcGIS Commonly Encountered File Types/Extensions in ArcGIS.mxd A file containing a map, its layers, display information, and other elements used

### ESRI China (Hong Kong) Limited

Transforming WGS84 Lat-Long Coordinate List to Hong Kong 1980 Grid Northing and Easting Coordinate List Article ID : 100013 Software : ArcGIS ArcView 9.1, ArcGIS ArcEditor 9.1, ArcGIS ArcInfo 9.1 Platform

### Introduction to GIS. http://libguides.mit.edu/gis

Introduction to GIS http://libguides.mit.edu/gis 1 Overview What is GIS? Types of Data and Projections What can I do with GIS? Data Sources and Formats Software Data Management Tips 2 What is GIS? 3 Characteristics

### Map Projection. Overview. Projection: An Introduction. LA561 Computer Applications in LA (GIS)

LA561 Computer Applications in LA (GIS) Map Projection Dr. Ragab Khalil Department of Landscape Architecture Faculty of Environmental Design King AbdulAziz University Room 103 Overview 1. Geographic coordinate

### UTM, State Plane Coordinates & Map Scale. Transverse Mercator. UTM Zones. UTM Grid System. UTM Grid System. Coordinate Systems - UTM.

UTM, State Plane Coordinates & Map Scale Coordinate Systems - UTM Convenience of a plane rectangular grid on a global level A section from a transverse Mercator projection is used to develop separate grids

### GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 09: Map Projections

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 09: Map Projections Earth Ellipsoid and Horizontal Datums (cont d) Components of a Geographic Coordinate System Recognize that there are three components to a geographic

### GIS Data in ArcGIS. Pay Attention to Data!!!

GIS Data in ArcGIS Pay Attention to Data!!! 1 GIS Data Models Vector Points, lines, polygons, multi-part, multi-patch Composite & secondary features Regions, dynamic segmentation (routes) Raster Grids,

### Chapter 6: Data Acquisition Methods, Procedures, and Issues

Chapter 6: Data Acquisition Methods, Procedures, and Issues In this Exercise: Data Acquisition Downloading Geographic Data Accessing Data Via Web Map Service Using Data from a Text File or Spreadsheet

### What are map projections?

Page 1 of 155 What are map projections? ArcGIS 10 Within ArcGIS, every dataset has a coordinate system, which is used to integrate it with other geographic data layers within a common coordinate framework

### Success with GPS Angie Schmidt, IDFG

Success with GPS Angie Schmidt, IDFG Geographic Coordinate Systems and Projections. Decimal Degrees and Degrees Minutes Seconds DNR Garmin for GPS waypoint management GPS tips Submitting coordinate information

### Geographic Datums & Coordinates

Geographic Datums & Coordinates What is the shape of the earth? Why is it relevant for GIS? 9-04-2012 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 2-1 From Conceptual to Pragmatic Dividing a sphere into a stack of pancakes

### Overview & Background Information. Learning Objectives: To be submitted: Procedure: Lab 6: Importing Data into a Geodatabase

Overview & Background Information In the first lab, we asked you to explore the availability of GIS data on the Internet. Your task was to identify data sets that could be used in support of specific research

### GIS IN ECOLOGY: SPATIAL REFERENCING

GIS IN ECOLOGY: SPATIAL REFERENCING Contents Introduction... 2 Coordinate Systems... 2 Map Projections... 3 Georeferencing... 5 Data Sources... 7 Tasks... 7 Undefined versus Unprojected Data... 7 Setting

### Surveying and Mapping coastal zones and local level coastal zone management plans ( CZMP)

Surveying and Mapping coastal zones and local level coastal zone management plans ( CZMP) Dr.S.S.Ramakrishnan Professor INSTITUTE OF REMOTE SENSING, ANNA UNIVERSITY, CHENNAI. Steps involved Demarcation

### GIS Data Structures: How do we represent the world in a GIS...

1. : How do we represent the world in a GIS... 2. Basic data structures for GIS Page - 1 3. Vector data structure: points, lines, and polygons 4. Vector data Page - 2 5. Raster data structure (grid) 6.

### GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 20: Adding and Creating Data

Adding Existing Data Into ArcGIS - there are many different ways to get data into ArcGIS GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 20: Adding and Creating Data Add Data - normally we use the Add Data button

### Map Projections & Coordinates. M. Helper 09-01-15 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 1

Map Projections & Coordinates 09-01-15 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 1 Laying the earth flat Why? Need convenient means of measuring and comparing distances, directions, areas, shapes. Traditional surveying

### WILD 3710 Lab 3: GIS Data Exploration Camp W.G. Williams

WILD 3710 Lab 3: GIS Data Exploration Camp W.G. Williams -Laboratory- TAs and Lab Instructors: Chris McGinty chris@gis.usu.edu Office: JQL 146 Office Hours: W 2:30 3:30 or by appt. Alex Hernandez alex@gis.usu.edu

### GED 554. Topology (for geometry) Working with Data Tables, Databases (for attributes) April 12, 2013

GED 554 Topology (for geometry) Working with Data Tables, Databases (for attributes) April 12, 2013 Supported Data Types ArcGIS supports three representations of geographic data. Vector data for representing

### Objectives. Geodesy, Coordinate Systems, and Map Projections

Geodesy, Coordinate Systems, and Map Projections Objectives Introduce the main concepts of geodesy coordinate systems, datums, ellipsoids, and geoids Describe map projections and coordinate systems we

### Oregon Geographic Information Council (OGIC) GIS Program Leaders Cartographic Elements Best Practices Version 1.0.7

Oregon Geographic Information Council (OGIC) GIS Program Leaders Cartographic Elements Best Practices Version 1.0.7 Introduction The purpose of this document is to serve as a set of Oregon best practices

### An Introduction to Coordinate Systems in South Africa

An Introduction to Coordinate Systems in South Africa Centuries ago people believed that the earth was flat and notwithstanding that if this had been true it would have produced serious problems for mariners

### WFP Liberia Country Office

1 Oscar Gobbato oscar.gobbato@wfp.org oscar.gobbato@libero.it WFP Liberia Country Office GIS training - Summary Objectives 1 To introduce to participants the basic concepts and techniques in using Geographic

### MVLWB. Guideline for Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Submission Standard

MVLWB Guideline for Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Submission Standard DATE Mackenzie Valley Land and Water Board Gwich in Land and Water Board Sahtu Land and Water Board Wek èezhìi Land and Water

### Using Geocoded TIFF & JPEG Files in ER Mapper 6.3 with SP1. Eric Augenstein Earthstar Geographics Web: www.es-geo.com

Using Geocoded TIFF & JPEG Files in ER Mapper 6.3 with SP1 Eric Augenstein Earthstar Geographics Web: www.es-geo.com 1 Table of Contents WHAT IS NEW IN 6.3 SP1 REGARDING WORLD FILES?...3 WHAT IS GEOTIFF

### Decoding the Mystery of Coordinates

Decoding the Mystery of Coordinates NHLSA TOWN MONUMENT LOCATION WORKSHOP UNH DURHAM, N.H. 8-11-2007 PART 1: THE DIFFERENT COORDINATE SYSTEMS Bob Moynihan UNH - TSAS Coordinate Systems 1 Decoding the Mystery

### Projections. Shape (angles) Distance Direction Area. Only a sphere can retain all four properties

Projections Projections Map projections are attempts to portray the surface of the earth (or a portion of the earth) on a flat surface. Four spatial relationships (or properties) between locations can

### Lab 9: TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS. I. Production of Topographic maps in the US

Lab 9: Topographic Maps 151 Lab 9: TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS Topographic maps are rich sources of geographic information. Geologic maps are commonly constructed upon topographic base maps, and much geological mapping,

### GIS EXAM #2 QUERIES. Attribute queries only looks at the records in the attribute tables to some kind of

GIS EXAM #2 QUERIES - Queries extracts particular records from a table or feature class for use; - Queries are an essential aspect of GIS analysis, and allows us to interrogate a dataset and look for patterns;

### 2 GIS concepts. 2.1 General GIS principles

2 GIS concepts To use GIS effectively, it is important to understand the basic GIS terminology and functionality. While each GIS software has slightly different naming conventions, there are certain principles

### An ArcGIS Tutorial Concerning Transformations of Geographic Coordinate Systems, with a Concentration on the Systems Used in Lao PDR.

An ArcGIS Tutorial Concerning Transformations of Geographic Coordinate Systems, with a Concentration on the Systems Used in Lao PDR. Introduction...3 PART 1, A Theoretical Background about Coordinate Systems...3

### Cookbook 23 September 2013 GIS Analysis Part 1 - A GIS is NOT a Map!

Cookbook 23 September 2013 GIS Analysis Part 1 - A GIS is NOT a Map! Overview 1. A GIS is NOT a Map! 2. How does a GIS handle its data? Data Formats! GARP 0344 (Fall 2013) Page 1 Dr. Carsten Braun 1) A

### UTM and UPS James R. Clynch 2003

UTM and UPS James R. Clynch 2003 I. Introduction The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection coordinates occur on most topographic maps. This is the Northing and Easting coordinates discussed below.

### Lecture 3: Models of Spatial Information

Lecture 3: Models of Spatial Information Introduction In the last lecture we discussed issues of cartography, particularly abstraction of real world objects into points, lines, and areas for use in maps.

### Coordinate Systems, Datum and Map Projection. Dr. Maher A. El-Hallaq Lecturer of Surveying The Islamic University of Gaza

Coordinate Systems, Datum and Map Projection Dr. Maher A. El-Hallaq Lecturer of Surveying The Islamic University of Gaza Every map user and maker should have a basic understanding of projections no matter

### Maps and Map Projections. How Maps Can Mislead Us

Maps and Map Projections How Maps Can Mislead Us A Globe Is the only truly accurate representation of the earth A flat surface It is easy to portray a flat surface on a flat piece of paper But there is

### Digitizing GIS Feature Information

Digitizing GIS Feature Information Digitizing The process of tracing an analog or digital image to create features (points, lines, or polygons) in a GIS data base Analog images are hard copy images such

### OBJECTIVES MATERIALS BACKGROUND. Maps and Mapping. Key Terms. Common units and conversions. Introduction. Page 1 of 10

OBJECTIVES This exercise involves understanding map scale and coordinate systems. You will learn to read geographic coordinates in latitude/longitude, the State Plane Coordinate System, and the Universal

### HOW TO CHOOSE AN APPROPRIATE

PTV VISUM TIPS & TRICKS: HOW TO CHOOSE AN APPROPRIATE COORDINATE SYSTEM? I imported network data in WGS84, calculated my link lengths, but they are all still zero. Why is that and how can I get to correct

### file://c:\documents and Settings\lisac\Local Settings\Temp\~hh92C4.htm

Page 1 of 36 What is GIS? ArcGIS 10 A geographic information system (GIS) is a system used to describe and characterize the earth and other geographies for the purpose of visualizing and analyzing geographically

### Map Projection Using ArcGIS

Map Projection Using ArcGIS Prepared by Francisco Olivera, Ph.D., P.E., Srikanth Koka and Lauren Walker Department of Civil Engineering September 25, 2006 Contents: Brief Overview of Map Projection Using

### Mann Library GIS Tutorial Geocoding Address Data Using ArcGIS

Mann Library GIS Tutorial Geocoding Address Data Using ArcGIS Introduction Address data can be applied to a variety of research questions using GIS. Once imported into a GIS, you can spatially display

### Creating Maps in QGIS: A Quick Guide

Creating Maps in QGIS: A Quick Guide Overview Quantum GIS, which is often called QGIS, is an open source GIS desktop application. Comparing to ArcGIS, QGIS can be installed on various operating systems,

### SESSION 8: GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND MAP PROJECTIONS

SESSION 8: GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND MAP PROJECTIONS KEY CONCEPTS: In this session we will look at: Geographic information systems and Map projections. Content that needs to be covered for examination

### FieldGenius Technical Notes GPS Coordinate Systems

FieldGenius Technical Notes GPS Coordinate Systems Definition of a Datum A datum is a reference coordinate system which is defined by an origin, orientation and is physically tied to the surface of the

### Geospatial Data Management. Jerrod Stutzman Devon Energy

Geospatial Data Management Jerrod Stutzman Devon Energy Geospatial Data Management Outline Geospatial Data Overview Why complete geospatial data is important Geospatial Data Management Spatializing Validating

### Map Making in ArcGIS 9.3

Map Making in ArcGIS 9.3 ArcGIS is a program that allows you to create maps by combining data with a shapefile. Maps created with the program are can be edited in many ways, allowing you to make maps that

### TRANSVERSE MERCATOR PROJECTIONS AND U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY DIGITAL PRODUCTS ABSTRACT

TRANSVERSE MERCATOR PROJECTIONS AND U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY DIGITAL PRODUCTS Larry Moore U.S. Geological Survey ABSTRACT A common question about U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) digital raster graphics (DRG)

### NGA GRID GUIDE HOW TO USE ArcGIS 8.x ANS 9.x TO GENERATE MGRS AND OTHER MAP GRIDS

GEOSPATIAL SCIENCES DIVISION COORDINATE SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TEAM (CSAT) SEPTEMBER 2005 Minor Revisions March 2006 POC Kurt Schulz NGA GRID GUIDE HOW TO USE ArcGIS 8.x ANS 9.x TO GENERATE MGRS AND OTHER MAP

### Geodatabase An Introduction

Esri International User Conference San Diego, California Technical Workshops July 23-27, 2012 Geodatabase An Introduction David Crawford and Colin Zwicker Session Path The Geodatabase - What is it? - Why

### GIS. Glossary of Terms. Hillsborough County Geographic Information System

GIS Glossary of Terms Hillsborough County Geographic Information System Hillsborough County Board of County Commissioners Information & Technology Services Department November, 2000 A Access rights The

### MERGING (MERGE / MOSAIC) GEOSPATIAL DATA

This help guide describes how to merge two or more feature classes (vector) or rasters into one single feature class or raster dataset. The Merge Tool The Merge Tool combines input features from input

### Using CAD Data in ArcGIS

Esri International User Conference San Diego, California Technical Workshops July 27, 2012 Using CAD Data in ArcGIS Jeff Reinhart & Phil Sanchez Agenda Overview of ArcGIS CAD Support Using CAD Datasets