Inflation Accounting. Advanced Financial Accounting

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1 Inflaion Accouning Advanced Financial Accouning

2 Inflaion: Definiions Decrease in purchasing power of money due o an increase in he general price level A process of seadily rising prices resuling in diminishing purchasing power of a given nominal sum of money The Penguin Dicionary of Economics Rise in prices brough abou by he expansion of he supply of bank money, credi, ec. Oxford Advanced Learner s Dicionary of Curren English

3 IAS 29: Financial Reporing in Hyperinflaionary Economies Effecive dae: Annual periods beginning on or afer January 2005 The financial saemens in a currency of a hyperinflaionary economy are saed in he end-of-period measuring uni curren Comparaive figure for prior periods are resaed ino he same curren measuring uni

4 IAS 29: Financial Reporing in Hyperinflaionary Economies The gain or loss on he moneary posiion is included in profi and loss An economy is hyperinflaionary if he cumulaive inflaion rae over hree years exceeds 100% (one of he necessary condiions) When an economy ceases o be hyperinflaionary, he balance a he end of he previous reporing period become he basis for he carrying amouns in subsequen financial saemens

5 Some Aspecs on Inflaion Accouning Problems: Subjeciviy Ofen complicaed calculaions Benefis: Mainaining producion capaciy Shows he inernal logic of accouning

6 Change in he price level is described by indexes General indexes Price Index of Gross Domesic Produc Cos-of-living Index Consumer Price Index Wholesale Price Index Producion Price Index Special indexes Indusry indexes Commodiy group indexes Commodiy indexes

7 The Finnish Wholesale Price Index Source: Saisical Yearbook of Finland 2011

8 Yearly Change (%) in he Finnish Wholesale Price Index Source: Saisical Yearbook of Finland 2011

9 Inflaion Accouning Mehods Curren Purchasing Power CCA Curren Cos Accouning The Finnish -mehod (Akivoiujen Hankinamenojen Indeksoinisovellus)

10 Inflaion Accouning Mehods Curren Purchasing Power CCA Curren Cos Accouning The Finnish -mehod (Akivoiujen Hankinamenojen Indeksoinisovellus)

11 Curren Purchasing Power () Reains hisoric cos accouning convenions In U.S. General Purchasing Power (GPP) Expresses accouns in erms of purchasing unis The purchase power of money a he end of he accouning period as he base Mainains he general purchasing power of he invesed capial The original purchasing coss are correced by correcion coefficiens applying some general index, for example Reail Price Index or Consumer Price Index

12 Curren Purchasing Power ()... Moneary iems financial asses and liabiliies remain unchanged Invenories: FIFO purchase cos is correced by a suiable correcion coefficien o correspond he purchase power of he end of accouning period Fixed asses: The purchase cos is correced o correspond he purchase power of he end of he accouning period The balance value of he fixed asses is he same percenage of he correced purchase cos as he book value is of he original purchase cos

13 Curren Purchasing Power ()... Equiy is defined as Asses Liabiliies Shareholders poin of view Unsuiable for financing decisions Work inensive mehod

14 Nominal Saemen of Income TO - VC = GP - FC = OP - IC - D = NP TO = Turnover VC = Variable Coss GP = Gross Profi FC = Fixed Coss OP = Operaing Profi IC = Ineres Coss D = Depreciaion NP = Ne Profi Below we also need: ( NG = Ne Gain from Liabiliies TP = Toal Profi )

15 Nominal Balance Shee FixAss Inv FA Asses Eq Deb FixAss = Fixed Asses Inv = Invenories FA = Financial Asses Asses = Toal Asses Eq = Owners Equiy Deb = Liabiliies

16 Saemen of Income TO - VC = GP - FC = OP - IC - D = NP +/- NG = TP TO TO VC Inv * 1,12 K k1 FC FC IC IC Purch * *,12,6,k,12,6,12,6 *,12,k Inv,12

17 Adjusmens o he Saemen of Income TO - VC = GP - FC = OP - IC - D = NP +/- NG = TP D NG N i1 Liab FA ΔFA D,i FixAss 1,12 ΔLiab 1,12, i FA ΔFA * FixAss * * 1,12,12,6 1,12,12,i Liab ΔLiab *,12 *,6 1,12,12 1,12

18 Balance Shee FixAss Inv FA Asses FixAss Inv FA K k1 FA N i1 Purch FixAss k * i, *,12 k,12 p Eq Deb Eq Asses Deb Deb -Deb

19 Curren Cos Accouning (CCA) Mainaining he producion level of he company Main focus on replacemen of producion capaciy Money is reained as he uni of measuremen Differen special indexes are applied o differen iems Work inensive

20 The Finnish -mehod A combinaion of he and CCA-mehods Specially developed for firm analysis Calculaions simple Lile exra informaion needed Change in he general price level is described by he Wholesale Price Index - WPI Adjusmens are made on a yearly basis The price level a he middle of he accouning period as he base

21 Saemen of Income Adjusmens on Variable Coss Depreciaion Oher iems remain unchanged Adjusmen on variable coss is compued by muliplying he opening invenory value by he relaive change in he index Adjusmen on depreciaion is he difference beween -depreciaion and he depreciaion in he income saemen

22 Saemen of Income TO - VC = GP - FC = OP - IC - D = NP TO VC FC IC D TO WPI VC WPI FC IC N i1 D i, -1 WPI Di, * FixAss WPIp p purchase dae, i asse i * Inv i,p -1 Inv -1 EconLife i

23 Adjusmens o he Balance Shee Asses Financial Asses and Invenories (FIFO) remain unchanged Fixed Asses firs -year The original purchase cos is revaluaed o he price level of he curren year Depreciaion/year is compued according o he economic lifeime of he asse The depreciaions up o he curren year are subraced from he revaluaed purchase cos Fixed Asses afer he firs year The -balance value of he previous year is revaluaed o he curren year New depreciaion is compued based on he remaining economic lifeime

24 Adjusmens o he Balance Shee Equiy and Liabiliies Equiy The accouning resul is replaced by he -resul Liabiliies Liabiliies remain unchanged Inflaion Reserves Correspond o he adjusmens made in he Saemen of Income and he Balance Shee

25 Balance Shee FixAss Inv FA Asses FixAss Inv FA N i1 Inv FA FixAss i,p * WPI WPI p - ( - p 1) * D i, Eq Deb InflRes Eq Deb Eq -1 NP Deb

26 Balance Shee Inflaion Reserves FA Inv FixAss Asses Deb Eq InflRes IflRes InvRes FixAssRes InvRes InvRes -1 FixAssRes (VC - VC ) (Dj -D j) (FixAss -FixAss ) j1

27 A Numerical Example Correcing he annual repors for a company over years using he mehod. A period of high inflaion rae. The Finnish Wholesale Price Index

28 The Finnish Wholesale Price Index and is Relaive Change

29 References Yriysukimusneuvoelukuna: Inflaaion huomioon oaminen yriysukimuksessa Oy Gaudeamus Ab, Helsinki IAS 29 amended for Annual Improvemens o he IFRS sandards 2007

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