# CSE 461: Distance Vector Routing. Next Topic

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1 S 46: istance Vector Routing Next Topic ocus How do we calculate routes for packets? Routing is a network layer function Routing Algorithms istance Vector routing (RIP) Application Presentation Session Transport Network ata Link Physical

2 IP Addresses and IP atagram orwarding How the source gets the packet to the destination: if source is on same network (LAN) as destination, source sends packet directly to destination host else source sends data to a router on the same network as the source router will forward packet to a router on the next network over and so on until packet arrives at router on same network as destination; then, router sends packet directly to destination host Requirements every host needs to know IP address of the router on its LAN every router needs a routing table to tell it which neighboring network to forward a given packet on orwarding and Routing orwarding is the process that each router goes through for every packet to send it on its way Involves local decisions Routing is the process that all routers go through to calculate the routing tables Involves global decisions

3 What s in a Routing Table? The routing table at A, for example, lists at a minimum the next hops for the different destinations est Next Hop A Kinds of Routing Schemes Many routing schemes have been proposed/explored! istributed or centralized Hop-by-hop or source-based eterministic or stochastic Single or multi-path Static or dynamic route selection Internet is to the left

4 Routing Questions/hallenges How to choose best path? What is best path? How to scale to millions of users? How to adapt to failures or changes? Node and link failures, plus message loss We will use distributed algorithms Some Pitfalls Using global knowledge is challenging Hard to collect an be out-of-date Needs to summarize in a locally-relevant way Inconsistencies in local /global knowledge can cause: Loops (black holes) Oscillations, esp. when adapting to load

5 Network as a raph Routing is essentially a problem in graph theory A X =router =link =cost istance Vector Routing Assume: ach router knows only address/cost of neighbors oal: alculate routing table of next hop information for each destination at each router Idea: Tell neighbors about learned distances to all destinations

6 V Algorithm ach router maintains a vector of costs to all destinations as well as routing table Initialize neighbors with known cost, others with infinity Periodically send copy of distance vector to neighbors On reception of a vector, if neighbors path to a destination plus neighbor cost is better, then switch to better path update cost in vector and next hop in routing table Assuming no changes, will converge to shortest paths ut what happens if there are changes? V xample Initial Table at A est ost Next A - -

7 V xample inal Table at A Reached in a single iteration simple example est ost Next A 2 2 What if there are changes? One scenario: Suppose link between and fails. notices failure, sets its cost to to infinity and tells A 2. A sets its cost to to infinity too, since it learned it from 3. A learns route from with cost 2 and adopts it A est ost Next 2 XXXXX 3

8 ount To Infinity Problem Simple example osts in nodes are to reach Internet A/2 / Internet Now link between and Internet fails ount To Infinity Problem hears of a route to the Internet via A with cost 2 So switches to the better (but wrong!) route A/2 /3 XXX update Internet

9 ount To Infinity Problem A hears from and increases its cost A/4 /3 XXX update Internet ount To Infinity Problem hears from A and (surprise) increases its cost ycle continues and we count to infinity A/4 /5 XXX update Internet Packets caught in the crossfire loop between A and

10 Split Horizon Solves trivial count-to-infinity problem Router never advertises the cost of a destination back to to its next hop that s where it learned it from! Poison reverse: go even further advertise back infinity However, V protocols still subject to the same problem with more complicated topologies Many enhancements suggested Routing Information Protocol (RIP) V protocol with hop count as metric Infinity value is 6 hops; limits network size Includes split horizon with poison reverse Routers send vectors every 30 seconds With triggered updates for link failures Time-out in 80 seconds to detect failures RIPv specified in R058 RIPv2 (adds authentication etc.) in R388

11 RIP is an Interior ateway Protocol Suitable for small- to medium-sized networks such as within a campus, business, or ISP Unsuitable for Internet-scale routing hop count metric poor for heterogeneous links 6-hop limit places max diameter on network Later, we ll talk about xterior ateway Protocols used between organizations to route across Internet Key oncepts Routing is a global process, forwarding is local one The istance Vector algorithm and RIP Simple and distributed exchange of shortest paths. Weak at adapting to changes (loops, count to infinity)

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