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1 Chapter 10 Link-State Routing Protocols CCNA2-1 Chapter 10 Note for Instructors These presentations are the result of a collaboration among the instructors at St. Clair College in Windsor, Ontario. Thanks must go out to Rick Graziani of Cabrillo College. His material and additional information was used as a reference in their creation. If anyone finds any errors or omissions, please let me know at: CCNA2-2 Chapter 10

2 EIGRP Link-State Routing CCNA2-3 Chapter 10 Link-State Routing Protocols Link-state routing protocols are also known as shortest path first protocols and are built around Edsger Dijkstra s s shortest path first (SPF) algorithm. While they have the reputation of being much more complex than distance vector, the basic functionality and configuration of link state routing protocols are not complex. CCNA2-4 Chapter 10

3 Link-State Routing Protocols Distance Vector routing protocols are like road signs. Routers must make preferred path decisions based on a distance or metric to a network. Link-State routing protocols are more like a road map. They create a topological map of the network and each router uses this map to determine the shortest path to each network. CCNA2-5 Chapter 10 Introduction to the SPF Algorithm Dijkstra s s algorithm is commonly referred to as the Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm. This algorithm accumulates costs along each path, from source to destination. CCNA2-6 Chapter 10

4 Introduction to the SPF Algorithm We will see that Cisco's implementation of OSPF specifies the cost of the link (the OSPF routing metric) as the bandwidth of the outgoing interface. CCNA2-7 Chapter 10 Introduction to the SPF Algorithm To illustrate how SPF operates, each path in the figure is labeled with an arbitrary value for cost. Each router calculates the SPF algorithm and determines the cost of a link from its own perspective. CCNA2-8 Chapter 10

5 Introduction to the SPF Algorithm For example: The cost of the shortest path for R2 to send packets to the LAN attached to R3 is 27 ( = 27). CCNA2-9 Chapter 10 Introduction to the SPF Algorithm R1 uses 3 hops but faster links R1 has data to send to the network on R5. You might think that R1 would send directly to R4 (2 hops) instead of to R3 (3 hops). CCNA2-10 Chapter 10

6 Link-State Routing Process How does a link-state routing protocol work? 5 Step Process: 1. Each router learns about its own directly connected networks. 2. Each router is responsible for contacting its neighbors on directly connected networks. 3. Each router builds a link-state packet (LSP) containing the state of each directly connected link. 4. Each router floods the LSP to all neighbors, who then store all LSPs received in a database. 5. Each router uses the LSPs to construct a database that is a complete map of the topology and computes the best path to each destination network. CCNA2-11 Chapter 10 Step 1: Directly Connected Networks We will focus on the Link-State routing process from the perspective of R1. Step 1: Each router learns about its own directly connected networks. When a router interface is configured with an IP address and subnet mask and activated, the interface becomes part of that network. Regardless of the routing protocols used,, these directly connected networks are now part of the routing table. CCNA2-12 Chapter 10

7 Step 1: Directly Connected Networks Information about the state of a router s s links is known as link states. CCNA2-13 Chapter 10 Step 2: Hello Packets Step 2: Each router is responsible for contacting its neighbors on directly connected networks. The router will not be aware of any neighbor routers on the link until it receives a Hello packet from that neighbor. At that time, it establishes an adjacency with the neighboring router. CCNA2-14 Chapter 10

8 Step 2: Hello Packets CCNA2-15 Chapter 10 Step 2: Hello Packets A neighbor is any other router that is enabled with the same link-state routing protocol. These small Hello packets continue to be exchanged between two adjacent neighbors. These packets serve as a keepalive function to monitor the state of the neighbor. CCNA2-16 Chapter 10

10 Step 4: Flooding Link-State Packets Link-state routing protocols calculate the SPF algorithm after the flooding is complete. As a result, link-state routing protocols reach convergence much faster than distance vector routing protocols. CCNA2-19 Chapter 10 Step 4: Flooding Link-State Packets An LSP needs to be sent only: During initial startup of the router or routing protocol. Whenever there is a change in the topology (link going down or coming up) or a neighbor adjacency being established or broken. CCNA2-20 Chapter 10

11 Step 5: Constructing a Link-State Database Step 5: Each router uses the LSPs to construct a database that is a complete map of the topology and computes the best path to each destination network. CCNA2-21 Chapter 10 Step 5: Constructing a Link-State Database As a result of the flooding process, router R1 has learned the link-state information for each router in its routing area. CCNA2-22 Chapter 10

12 Step 5: Constructing a Link-State Database Each router in the topology determines the shortest path from its own perspective. With a complete link-state database, R1 can now use the database and the shortest path first (SPF) algorithm to calculate the preferred path or shortest path to each network. CCNA2-23 Chapter 10 R1: Building the SPF Tree CCNA2-24 Chapter 10

13 R1: Building the SPF Tree Root All LSPs have been processed using the SPF algorithm and R1 has now constructed the complete SPF tree. CCNA2-25 Chapter 10 R1: Determining the Shortest Path Root Using this tree, the SPF algorithm results indicate the shortest path to each network. CCNA2-26 Chapter 10

14 R1: Determining the Shortest Path Root Network /16 via R2 Serial 0/0/0 at a cost of 22 CCNA2-27 Chapter 10 R1: Determining the Shortest Path Root Network /16 via R3 Serial 0/0/1 at a cost of 7 CCNA2-28 Chapter 10

15 R1: Determining the Shortest Path Root Network /16 via R3 Serial 0/0/1 at a cost of 15 CCNA2-29 Chapter 10 R1: Determining the Shortest Path Root Network /16 via R3 Serial 0/0/1 at a cost of 17 CCNA2-30 Chapter 10

16 R1: Determining the Shortest Path Root Network /16 via R2 Serial 0/0/0 at a cost of 30 CCNA2-31 Chapter 10 R1: Determining the Shortest Path Root Network /16 via R3 Serial 0/0/1 at a cost of 25 CCNA2-32 Chapter 10

17 R1: Determining the Shortest Path Root Network /16 via R3 Serial 0/0/1 at a cost of 27 CCNA2-33 Chapter 10 Generating a Routing Table CCNA2-34 Chapter 10

19 Hierarchical Design Link-state routing protocols such as OSPF and IS-IS use the concept of areas. Multiple areas create a hierarchical design to networks, allowing better route aggregation (summarization) and the isolation of routing issues within an area. CCNA2-37 Chapter 10 Requirements: Link-State Memory Requirements: Link-state routing protocols typically require more memory, more CPU processing and, at times, more bandwidth than distance vector routing protocols. The memory requirements are because of the use of: Link-state databases. Creation of the SPF tree. CCNA2-38 Chapter 10

20 Requirements: Link-State Processing Requirements: Link-state protocols can also require more CPU processing than distance vector routing protocols. The SPF algorithm requires more CPU time than distance vector algorithms because link-state protocols build a complete map of the topology. CCNA2-39 Chapter 10 Requirements: Link-State Bandwidth Requirements: The flooding of link-state packets can adversely affect the available bandwidth on a network. This should only occur during initial startup of routers, but it can also be an issue on unstable networks. CCNA2-40 Chapter 10

21 Comparison: Link-State There are two link-state routing protocols used for routing IP today: Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) IS) CCNA2-41 Chapter 10 Comparison: Link-State OSPF was designed by the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) OSPF Working Group. It which still exists today. The development of OSPF began in 1987 and there are two current versions in use: OSPFv2: OSPF for IPv4 networks OSPFv3: OSPF for IPv6 networks CCNA2-42 Chapter 10

22 Comparison: Link-State IS-IS was designed by the ISO (International Organization for Standardization). IS-IS was originally designed for the OSI protocol suite. Later, Integrated IS-IS, IS, or Dual IS-IS, IS, included support for IP networks. Although IS-IS has been known as the routing protocol used mainly by ISPs and carriers,, more enterprise networks are beginning to use IS-IS. IS. CCNA2-43 Chapter 10

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