The importance of Ecology for shaping Intraspecific Biodiversity. Introducing Hólar University College

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1 The importance of Ecology for shaping Intraspecific Biodiversity Introducing Hólar University College

2 Key players At Hólar Dr. Skúli Skúlason, professor Dr. Bjarni K. Kristjánsson, professor Dr. Camille Leblanc, Post-doc Collaborators Dr. Sigurður S. Snorrason, University of Iceland Dr. Zophonias O. Jónsson, University of Iceland Dr. Arnar Pálsson, University of Iceland Dr. Valerie H. Maier, University of Iceland Dr. Katja Räsänen, EAWAG, Switzerland Dr. Ian A. Johnston, St. Andrews, Scotland Dr. Daniel Macqueen, Aberdeen, Scotland Dr. Kevin Parsons, Glasgow, Scotland Dr. Moira M. Ferguson, UofGuelph, Canada Dr. Ansi Karvonen, Jyväskylä, Finnland

3 Objective Understand factors that shape intraspecific biodiversity Internal factors Maternal effects Plasticity Functional genomics Identification of key genetic mechanisms Developmental genetics External factors Ecology Habitat structure Population genetics Allopatric divergence Sympatric divergence

4 How short time does it take? Invading population What happens here? Plasticity? Parental effects Which ecological and biological characters are important? Resource A Morph A Disruptive selection Morph B Resource B Do they lose plasticity With increased specialization? No gene flow Species A Species B Smith and Skúlason 1996

5 Landnámsstofn Landnámsstofn Resource A Morph A Disruptive selection Morph B Resource B Resource A Morph A Disruptive selection Morph B Resource B No gene flow Species A Species B No gene flow Landnámsstofn Species A Species B Repeated evolution of morphs Resource A Morph A Disruptive selection Morph B Resource B No gene flow Species A Species B

6 0.1 benthivorous piscivorous Galtaból 1 91 Svínavatn 2 benthivorous piscivorous planktivorous Hólmavatn limnetic brown 100 benthic 2 Stóra Viðarvatn Vatnshlíðarvatn 3 silver (Gíslason et al. 1999) Based on Nei s D A, framed numbers denote the number of private alleles shared by all morphs within a lake.

7 Omy301UoG

8 Landnámsstofn Landnámsstofn Landnámsstofn Resource A Landnámsstofn Morph B Resource B Resource A Morph A Resource B Morph A Morph B Species B Species A Landnámsstofn Landnámsstofn Species A Species B Resource A Resource B Morph A Repeated evolution between Allopatric population Morph B Species A Species B

9 Miðhúsaskógur - pond Þingvallavatn - lake 9 cm 8 cm 9 cm Keldur - stream

10 PR TR HI Repeted local evolution of Icelandic dwarf charr Genetic diversity based on 9 microsatellites HII HK HO HIII HV HRA SI MK SA HRI KL LN ST TH a Dwarf charr TH b HA MY HE EL SU GRA Control populations BI MI 1 AL GR Kapralova 2008, Kapralova et al. 2011

11 DFA habitat types 2.5 Pond habitat Stream habitat % correctly classified 3x magnification

12 Generation X Split caused by variation and plasticity Split reinforced by Maternal effects. Plastic effects affect mate selection Generation X +1 Increased population density Pop 2 Generation X +K Pop 1

13 Projects Ongoing The importance of ecology, phenotype and genetic structure for biological diversity in Icelandic cave charr Which envionmental variables shape biological diversity of Icelandic freshwater fish The importance of ecological factors for the evolution of biological diversity: Insights from temporal and spatial variation in selection on threespine stickleback in Mývatn Genetic and developmental mechanisms underlying the rapid and repeated evolution of diverse cranial morphologies in Arctic charr SSS project leader Recently finished Ecological diversity in the polymorphic fish Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Woods PhD Evolutionary Significance of Genomic and Morphological Variation in Icelandic Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Küttner PhD The importance of egg size for the diversity of salmonids Leblanc PhD Body size evolution and temperature adaptation in postglacial populations of Arctic charr: genomic and physiological studies of muscle fibre recruitment IAJ project leader Fine scale phenotypic diversity of Arctic charr in relation to Ecological characters BKK PhD Phenotypic plasticity and the genetic basis of adaptive divergence in Icelandic Arctic charr. Parsons PhD

14 Future development Interdisciplinary approaches Evolution Ecology interaction Developmental biology Genomics Population genetics Lab based studies Controlled environment Behaviour Development Plasticity Maternal effects Across generation comparisons Controlled setup for F1 and F2 comparisons Continuing of survey work Mývatn system Other systems? Theoretical framework Pattern vs process

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