Open country planning: are the Netherlands 10 years ahead? Plantekongres Herning 12 januari 2012 J. Kruijshoop

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1 Open country planning: are the Netherlands 10 years ahead? Plantekongres Herning 12 januari 2012 J. Kruijshoop

2 Content presentation First part The Nederlands in a nutshell NL- DK History of spacial planning in the Nederlands Wo does what? How does it work? Questions? Second part Concrete examples: A15 EHS N2000 en PAS 2

3 The Netherlands, in a nutshell more over 16,5 miljoen inhabitants, 50% in Western part of the Nederlands km2, 400 residents / km2 BNP/res.: Euro 60% rural area agricultural farms (2011) 3,5 M cows, 12 M pigs, 93 M chickens 3 rd export producer worldwide of agr. Product 25% of exported vegetables in the EU 3

4 the Nederlands, some pictures 4

5 Nederland - Denemarken 16,5 milion residents, 50% in W-NL 5,7 milion, ca. 20% in Copenhagen km2 400 residents/km km2 130 residents / km2 BNP/inwoner: (2010) (2010) 60% rural area 70% (or higher?) agr. farms (2011) (in 2014?) 5

6 Request from the organisation Are the Netherlands 10 years ahead? difficult for me to answer this First: I give an overview of the history and current situation it s up to you to compare And second: how important is it, to know the answer? to my opion it s is better to: be in close contact and built up networks learn about does and don t s exchange best practices and continue networking That s the reason for me to attand to this meeting! 6

7 Spatial planning history

8

9 Spacial planning long time history with active apporoach in the landuse and planning: Dikes, struggle againts the sea New land, polders After WW2: economic development special law - players: Rijk = Den Haag, central governement Provincies (12) Municipalities (418) Judges in case of objections / Cof State Anno 2011: rijk concentrates on main issues (13 thema s SVIR) + international affairs + legislation provincies are in charge of planning en development and realisation of plans in spatial-physical domain municilapilties are in charge of detailed planning en realisation & legal commitments max. 2 governements involved 9

10

11 11

12 Rijk: example of urban networks 12

13 Provincie: detailed plan in streekplan Veluwe 13

14 Municipality of Apeldoorn: detailed level (at m2 level) 14

15 End of my introduction Question on the first part? Introduction second part: three examples: EHS N2000 en PAS A15 15

16 Nature in the Netherlands A variety of many different ecosystems, to be proud of and to take care for Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and 16 Food Quality 16

17 1. Context of Dutch Nature policy X 1000 ha The Netherlands: many people 16,700,000 little space 4,150,000 ha (incl. inland waters) (400 persons/km2). Area of nature halved: ,000 ha 450,000 ha (275 m2 p.p.) Other problems: Fragmentation of nature area s Deterioration of landscape; Insufficient environmental quality: Degradated hydrological systems: groundwater depletion, nutriënts. Because of al this: losing biodiversity Projected nature area by 2020: circa 17,5% The answer: an offensive strategy: enlarge, connect and strengthen nature area s in the National Ecological Structure (EHS) Turning the tide: EHS in 2018: 730,000 ha Nationale Landscapes Conservation areas for geese and meadow birds Restoration of environmental and hydrological conditions 17

18 Nature management in the Netherlands: who is involved AUTHORITIES NATIONAL (lnv, vrom, v&w) REGIONAL LOCAL COMMUNITIES PUBLIC NATURE MANAGEMENT ORGANISATIONS STAATSBOSBEHEER (STATE FOREST SERVICE) 215,000 HA NATUURMONUMENTEN 90,000 HA + ALMOST 900,000 MEMBERS 12 PROVINCIAL ORGANISATIONS ( LANDSCHAPPEN ) 90,000 HA PRIVATE OWNERS FARMERS ESTATE OWNERS OTHERS OTHER ORGANISATIONS LOCAL COMMUNITIES WATER BOARDS FRESHWATER SUPPLIERS MANAGERS OF ROADS AND RAILWAYS ETC. NGO S AND MANY OTHER INTEREST GROUPS.and many other participants 18

19 2. Key-elements of Dutch Nature Policy 1. Development of a coherent spatial structure - National Ecological Network (EHS) - including Robust Ecological Corridors (RV) 2. Protection of nature areas and nature values by legislation (including the EU Bird-directive and Habitat-Directive areas; together about 50 % of the EHS) 3. Targets for amount and quality of nature areas and ecosystems 4. Improving environmental quality (less eutrofication, acid deposition, groundwater depletion) 5. Additional policy on specific items: - ecological pearls in the crown: National Parks - preservation of endangered species - landscape: preserve National Landscapes 6. Strengthen coöperation between authorities on different levels, (transferring responsibilities to regional and local authorities) 7. Strengthen public awareness and private responsibilities 8. Improve knowledge: monitoring, research and education 19

20 3. National Ecological Network (EHS): the principle (1) A Network of Protected Areas a coherent system of nature reserves consists of: protected existing areas ecological development areas ecological connections buffer zones 20

21 National Ecological Network (EHS): the principle (2) A Network of Protected Areas a coherent system of nature reserves consists of: protected existing areas ecological development areas ecological connections buffer zones 21

22 National Ecological Network (EHS): the principle (3) A Network of Protected Areas A coherent system of nature reserves consists of: protected existing areas ecological development areas ecological connections buffer zones 22

23 Dutch National Ecological Network on the map 2006 National Ecological Network (terrestrial) National Ecological Network (big waters)) Robust Ecological Corridors and gates (delineated) Robust Ecological Corridors, yet to be decided Verry few buffer areas Map 5: National Spatial Plan, 2006 Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and 23 Food Quality 23

24 The Oostvaarderswold Nature for nature & nature for people! a new corridor! A new nature area, N2000, caused by an accident 24

25 Example: From Oostvaardersplassen From: wet, low nutrient rich to Veluwe To: dry, high, nutrient poor (An artists impression) Dimensioned for red deer 25

26 Defragmentation example of an ecoduct 26 26

27 Defragmentation (1) Original area Situation now Situation in the future 27

28 fragmentation (4) Program on Defragmantation tackling 208 bariers between EHS en national infrastructure (roads, waterways, railroads). Total budget: 410 mln. State of the art 1 januari 2010: - 45% problems solved & partly solved < % problems to be solved between

29 5. Protection of the EHS*) by legislation Spatial Planning Act Nature Protection Act 1998 National Spatial Plan Designation of Natura 2000 Areas Provincial Spatial Plan Local Spatial Plan Management plan Licenses Influences civilians, companies and authorities *): other laws concerning nature in a broader sense: Flora and fauna Act, Environmental 29 laws. Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and 29 Food Quality

30 Level of protection nature areas Level of protection Natura 2000: Nature Law 30

31 Costs. Ø Governmental spendings: 500,000,000 = 30 per inhabitant per year Ø Total nature management spendings: about 1,000,000,000 per year = 60 per inhabitant 0,17 per day < half a stamp! 31

32 .. and Benefits Draft report for LNV defines the following benefits: Recreation and tourism Quality of our surroundings Environmetal quality Raw materials Imponderable values Total benefits: 4,000 per ha per year over 750,000 ha Total: 3,000,000,000 per year 1,5 stamp per day 32

33 8. State of the art 2011 National Ecological Network (EHS) Concept of the Ecological Network (EHS) is consolidated EHS is translated in National Environmental Plan and the National Spatial Strategy Plan, adopted by Parliament 2006 Responsibilities for precise allocation and realisation transferred from national to regional authorities (2007). About 45% of the EHS will be determined and fixed in legal N2000 plans more strict protection 2010: new governmant stated Lets finish whats in process; don t invest in new projects and all nature tasks will be decentralized Remaining problem: environmental stress (H2O and Nox) and fragmentation. Solving these problems completely will cost much more (>> 2 MMEuro s) Time-table set on 2021, environmental conditions on New issue: effects of climate change, Deltacommission, economic crisis new input for next generation of spacial plans 33

34 34

35 N2000 in the Netherlands: a difficult, highly political process 162 area s at land 6 area s at sea started in 2007 finish: ? 35

36 Europa: N2000 overview 36

37 Why Natura 2000? 37

38 N2000 in the Nederlands 38

39 N2000 plannen 166 gebieden Designation of each site: goals and borders of the site Managementplans Start 2007 eind 2010? 2012? Two different processes: designation and managementplans; each proces contains a public hearing & opportunity for objections and appeals Resistance: restrictions on economic developments hydrology and ammonia economic crisis cuts politically very difficult administrative process 39

40 Management plan In addition to the designation; new proces Stakeholdersproces Specification objectives Measures Within 3 years after designation Valid for a 6-years period 40

41 Points of concern Short term Nitrogen aspect special approach PAS Strict interpretation of the precautionary principle Proces (short term) Commotion and uncertainty (no established practise). Larger term Is Natura 2000 flexible and solid enough to absorb the effects of climate change. 41

42 N2000 and NOx-problem Plains, cars, industry and agriculture produce all kinds of Nitrogin in to high levels Pollution: to much acid in our environment, our forest- and nature area s Last decennia a lot of efforts and legal solution were rejected by the council of state; impasse! deadlock, no development possible Now it looks that over the back of N2000 our NOx problem must be solved; because if there will not be reached a solution, economic developments is blocked by environmental and nature laws; N2000 = a handicap What s the challenge: Create space for industrial and agricultural development the Programmatic Approach Stikstof 42

43 43

44 PAS -> Realise Natura > Enable economical development Legal status in Nature Conservations Act N from agriculture, traffic, industry, import Maesures on national, provincial (and local) level Relation with hydrology, management, restauration measurements Agreements on financing, monitoring and securing Co-operation national and provincial authorities Consultation of NGO s 44

45 Goals PAS Decrease of deposition N on N2000 Measurements for ecological restauration N2000-habitats Prevent deterioration Create possibilities economical development For all N2000-sites Basis for managementplans Basis for permissions Basis for spacial planning 45

46 46

47 Example 3: Betuwelijn and A15 Main transport way by train between Rotterdam and Germany 47

48 Overview of alternatives : A15 bridge or tunnel? 48

49 Trein via tunnel Betuwelijn integration has led to construction of a tunnel under the Channel Pannerdens all environmental compensation funds of 120 km railway line at one point used in the tunnel In 2010 initiatives to highway A15 along the line by pulling with a green bridge.. 49

50 Permits Conservation Act: balancing pros and cons Bridge does not significantly negatively Consequences for N2000 can be mitigated conservation Act permit is issued, possibly with conditions million cheaper than tunnel Bridge is significantly negative Consequences for N2000 can not be mitigated ADC key: Conservation Act permit if: A: There are no alternatives and D: there is an overriding reason of public interest and C: implications for natural precompensated as an alternative tunnel without significant negative effect => no license Conservation Act for bridge Additional costs tunnel Conservation Act irrelevant 50

51 What about 200 million environmental compensation? Not bring in the proces Insertion no legal necessity we take the loss makes negotiations more complicated Discision in 2012; bridge seems to be ahead.. divestment Ministry of nature and money makes realistic cost assessment bridge-tunnel can be used as change goodwill provides citizens, neighboring communities and nature and environmental organizations 51

52 Conclusions Even in a densily populated country it is possible to protect and develop high-quality nature and landscape and combine it with economical activities But it takes: - creativity and long term visions - political guts - strong planning - good coöperation - patience and endurance - public support & understanding - flexibility Even then: the results will often be different than planned, but also often surprising 52

53 Dank voor uw aandacht! 53

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