Behaviour Support for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

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1 Behaviour Support for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Parent Training Welcome

2 Social Interaction Anxiety/emotional outbursts due to unpredictable nature of social interaction. Can lead to low self worth and self confidence. Inappropriate interactions e.g. smelling, face rubbing, over affection.

3 Communication Extreme frustration from not being able to have needs met. Extreme frustration from not being able to express feelings and other abstract issues. Difficulty establishing meaningful relationships with others. Some practitioners have proposed that ALL challenging behaviour is a form of communication.

4 Need for Sameness A relatively slight change to routine can result in massive outbursts. High need for preparation before anything unfamiliar. Can result in seemingly irrational fears stemming from unpredictability. Many behavioural outbursts in adolescence (a time of many changes) result from this need for sameness.

5 Sensory Processing Can be very difficult to separate sensory and behavioural issues. Be aware that certain sensory stimuli (e.g. certain noises, textures etc.) can be experienced as physical pain. Certain sensory seeking activities can also result in challenging behaviours e.g. proprioceptive seeking behaviour may result in physical aggression.

6 Executive Function The Director-in-Chief of you. Difficulties in executive function can result in problems with memory, planning behaviour (esp. when faced with new situations) and completing a series of instructions. Compounds difficulties with abstract thought. Limits the ability to control impulses.

7 Theory of Mind Having a Theory of Mind means you understand that other people have thoughts and feelings that are different to your own. Theory of Mind plays a huge role in initiating and maintaining social relationships. Not getting the response you expect and constantly trying to decode other people s behaviour is exhausting and repeated failure can mean children with autism give up.

8 Conditioning Conditioning means to have a significant influence on or determine (the manner or outcome of something). Or to train or accustom (someone or something) to behave in a certain way or to accept certain circumstances. Simply: learning This explains how behaviours are learned

9 Conditioning Classical conditioning Operant Conditioning

10 Classical Conditioning Also known as Pavlovian conditioning and explains reflexive (involuntary behaviours) which are elicited by antecedents. For example, some coffee drinkers report that just the smell of coffee can make them feel more alert. This is particularly relevant when trying to explain phobic reactions to seemingly neutral stimuli. Classical conditioning has three main therapeutic applications: flooding, systematic desensitisation and aversion therapy.

11 Operant Conditioning Refers to the modification of voluntary behaviour. Behaviours are conditioned by consequences. This is the theory which applied behaviour analysis is based on. The three core tools of operant conditioning are 1. Reinforcement 2. Punishment 3. Extinction

12 Punishment An aversive consequence that causes a behaviour to occur with less frequency. However, with punishment there are ethical concerns, limited opportunities for learning and personal development and the risk of behavioural contrast.

13 Extinction Extinction means the withholding of a previously available consequence for a response, which results in a decrease or weakening of response rate, duration or intensity. Such as intentional ignoring where an individual has been engaging in a particular behaviour in order to gain attention. Extinction should not be implemented in isolation. Risk of extinction burst.

14 Reinforcement A consequence that causes a behaviour to occur with greater frequency. The consequence involves something that is either gained by the individual or removed from them.

15

16 Why Do People Engage In Behaviour? Broadly speaking, there are three aims for all behaviour: 1. Obtain 2. Avoid 3. Sensory/biological

17 Behaviours Motivated by Obtaining The technical term for this is positive reinforcement. Increases the likelihood of behaviour occurring in the future. Usually the individual finds the reinforcement enjoyable.

18 Behaviours Motivated by Avoiding The technical term for this is negative reinforcement (not the same as punishment). Also means that behaviour is more likely to take place in the future. Behaviour is increased by stopping something that s unpleasant.

19 Internally Motivated Behaviours Reinforcement that takes place in the absence of all social interaction i.e. sensory and biological reinforcement often strengthens stereotypic behaviours.

20 Functional Assessment

21 Functional Assessment Helps answer the question, Why does my child do this? Aims to identify which circumstances a behaviour is likely to occur in and what an individual achieves by engaging in a particular behaviour. Consists of three key components: Interviews Observations Evaluation

22 Functional Assessment 1. List different challenging behaviours. 2. Prioritise them. 3. Define the target behaviour.

23 Defining the Behaviour Definition Food Refusal Description David cries, protests, pushes the spoon away, spits food out or vomits.

24 Functional Assessment Select a replacement behaviour that should: Be stated in terms of what you want your child to do. Be something that your child can do or can learn to do. Be feasible

25 Defining the Behaviour Correct Definition Food Acceptance Description David opens his mouth to accept a food item delivered by his parent and then swallowing that food item. OR David picks up the food item or spoon, places the food item in his mouth and swallows the food.

26 1. Interview/Survey A functional assessment interview consists of an in depth series of questions regarding every aspect of the target behaviour. The aim is to obtain a complete picture of the circumstances surrounding your child when the behaviour occurs.

27 2. Observation: A-B-C Model Antecedent: Conditions under which the behaviour occurs Behaviour Consequence: Events that affect future occurrence

28 2. Observation: A-B-C Model Child s Name Date Target Behaviour Antecedent Behaviour Consequence

29

30 Evaluation Obtaining Avoiding Internal Factors

31 Strategies for Behaviours Motivated by Obtaining Extinction Encourage incompatible behaviour Simple instructions with extra processing time First-then boards Communication training: object exchange and PECS Visual schedule Reward system

32 Strategies for Behaviours Motivated by Avoiding Simple instructions with added processing time Communication training: object exchange, PECS, Makaton Redirection Scheduled breaks Visual schedule Task analysis with forward/backward chaining High probability request sequence/behavioural momentum Self management

33 Self Management Worry dolls Contingency charts 5 point scale Progressive muscle relaxation Exercise

34 Progressive Muscle Relaxation Needs to be practised regularly. Introduce when your child is already calm. Do the activities with your child.

35 Strategies for Internally Motivated Behaviours Medical assistance: Rule out illness, allergy or pain. May involve some type of dietary intervention or medication. Sensory interventions: Sensory seeking Sensory avoiding Over responding Depends on thresholds of response

36 Group Work 1. Pick a behaviour (please do not feel pressured to talk about your child if you don t want, it could be a hypothetical behaviour). 2. Why do you think the individual displays this behaviour? 3. What makes you think this? 4. Possible strategies.

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