# Calorimeter alignmnt and calibration in ILD

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1 Calorimeter alignmnt and calibration in ILD Executive summary We summarize here the answers of ILD to the questions raised by IDAG regarding the calorimeter alignment and calibration. We present calibration schemes and procedures to monitor and maintain stability, we discuss the necessary accuracies and give required luminosities for in-situ calibrations where needed. At this stage we cannot yet describe fully the procedures which will be used and their performances, but we show that what we envisage is likely to fulfil the requirements. Since relevant sources of potential instabilities as well as the calibration procedures are rather technology-specific, we summarize them below for the different ILD options separately. More details are given in additional documents. Si W electromagnetic calorimeter The information used for defining the alignment and calibration procedures of the ILD electromagnetic calorimeter comes from two sources: a very detailed simulation of the calorimeter and the results from a prototype exposed to beam for now four years. Alignment: The requirements on alignment come from the precision we can reach in measuring the position of a shower. This is of the order of 1mm/ E. Therefore an alignment precision of 100µm is our goal. The main uncertainty comes from the play of the slabs inside the alveoli. With a survey of the module and a careful positioning we can reach 250µm, we need then an alignment with tracks in situ. A small number of electrons, thousands, should be enough to align the calorimeter with respect to the tracking system at the required precision. Energy calibration: An early study had shown that the energy measurement in our calorimeter is robust against dead channels. Provided they are quite randomly distributed, a fraction up to 5% dead channels does not harm the resolution. The mean response is restored by estimating the dead channels response from their neighbours and the resolution is very marginally touched. The measurement of the channel noise provides the identification of the dead ones. A good energy calibration is the result of a suite of dedicated actions. First the design of the detector is chosen to provide an intrinsic stability with variables like temperature, humidity, radiation, voltages, etc. Second a monitoring of these variables and of the detector response evolution with them is ensured. Third the cells are, at construction time, inter-calibrated at an adequate level of precision. Finally the absolute calibration is

2 determined in test beams for few modules and globally at running time. It is important to notice that the large number of cells is an asset, the number of cells in a shower reduces by its square root the calibration fluctuations. The estimation of energy uses a combination of two estimators, the deposited energy and the counting of cells. The fully depleted silicon diodes offer a very stable behaviour. The tungsten plates can be checked. A complete cosmic ray testing produces the accuracy needed by measuring the minimum ionising particle peak. This has been done in the prototype with success. It is estimated to be a work of 200 days. The electronics is monitored accurately by injecting charges calibrated by a band gap device. It can be noted that the two estimators of energy are sensitive to very different systematic effects providing a powerful global test. After the inter-calibration, the absolute calibration is done by comparison with the tracker or using electrons and photons kinematically constrained like Bhabha's or return to the Z. This does not require any running at the Z peak Scintillator W electromagnetic calorimeter In the case of scintillator ECAL, it consists of 1cm x 4.5 cm strips. The calibration of each strip can be made either using cosmic-ray muons or test beam muons, before installation. In situ calibration: In situ, we would be able to calibrate the ECAL detector channel by channel, using hadronic jet particles passing through a channel. We are able to collect about hundred good tracks, for example at the Z pole with 100pb-1, including the efficiency of selecting tracks. This will give us 5% of accuracy for each strip. Photon sensor calibration and monitoring: The photon sensor MPPC has its calibration capability due to its nature, since single pixel firing will give single and minimum signal. This signal size is a measure of gain of the MPPC, as far as we have the capability of detecting single pixel firing and measuring its size. We are able to monitor the gain of every MPPC. We plan to install a specific gain monitoring system which consists of clear fibres and blue LEDs. One clear fibre will distribute LED light onto many scintillator strips, say 20 with the same timing. Those calibration lights will be used to monitor the gain change during the long time scale.

3 Hadron calorimeter alignment The alignment quality for the HCAL is determined by the mechanical structure. Few millimetres accuracy is expected. Cosmic rays as well as halo beam muons will be used to check the relative alignment of the different parts. Scintillator analogue hadron calorimeter energy calibration The scintillator tile HCAL, segmented in 48 layers and 32 barrel, 32 end-cap modules, has 8 million read out channels. While electromagnetic and hadronic energy scales can be established with sample structures of the HCAL alone or in conjunction with the ECAL exposed to beams of muons, electrons and hadrons, the inter-calibration of the detector cells must be established with muon beams for all active layers of the detector. Based on test beam experience, we estimate that this can be accomplished in about two months. The calibration accuracy is maintained using LED monitoring of the photo-sensor gain, in-situ MIP calibration based on track segments in hadron showers and classical slowcontrol recording of the relevant operation parameters, temperature and bias voltage. These methods have been successfully applied to test beam data. Simulating ILC events and using algorithms bench-marked with test beam data, we have determined the required luminosity for in-situ MIP calibration of individual cells and of average values for sub-sections of the detector, like module layers. A cell-by-cell in-situ calibration is not possible with realistic running times, but it is also not necessary. Average values for individual module layers can be obtained with a comfortable accuracy of 3% from a data set corresponding to 10pb -1 at the Z resonance or 20fb -1 at 500 GeV. For the innermost 20 layers, this accuracy is achieved with 1pb -1 or 2fb -1, respectively. Using detailed simulations of the ILD detector and reconstruction based on the Pandora PFA, we have modelled different scenarios of statistically independent as well as coherent mis-calibration effects, affecting the entire HCAL or parts of it. Purely statistical variations, like those arising from calibration errors or random aging effects, hardly affect the resolution at all. However, they may degrade the in-situ MIP calibration capability. From this, a moderate requirement of the inter-calibration stability of 10% is derived. Coherent effects which could for example arise from uncorrected temperature variation induced changes of the response are potentially more harmful, as they directly show up in the constant term, if they affect the entire detector. However, these are easy to detect, and even a 5% variation only mildly propagates into the jet energy resolution. Systematic effects in sub-sections like layers are unnoticeable unless they exceed about 15%, comfortably in range of the in-situ calibration method accuracies. We convinced ourselves of the validity of these simulation based estimates by treating our test beam experiment like a collider detector, using cell-by-cell inter-calibrations only from data taking at a different site, under different conditions. Applying only in-situ monitoring techniques, we re-established the scale and reproduced the resolution.

4 Imperfections absent in any simulation showed up, but were successfully compensated. All in all, we conclude that the high granularity and channel count is a blessing rather than a curse. On one hand, thanks to the law-of-large-numbers suppression of statistical effects, the requirements on individual cell precision are very relaxed. Coherent effects, on the other hand, can be studied with any desired combination of channels, be it layers, longitudinal sections, electronics units or according to any other supposed hypothesis of systematic effects. This has been proven to work with data taken at CERN and at FNAL. Semi-Digital hadronic calorimeter energy calibration The most important features of the semi-digital HCAL option to determine the calibration strategy are the large number of electronic channels ( 70 millions), their semi-digital readout which means that efficiency is the meaningful quantity rather than energy, and the stable and homogeneous nature of the sensitive medium made of GRPC detector The electronics calibration includes a gain correction procedure, a noise level measurement and a linearity measurement. The gain correction intends to reduce the dispersion of the electronic channels response to a given charge. A dispersion of few percents for the threshold levels of the semi-digital electronics readout is currently obtained. The procedure is performed by injecting charges corresponding to the lowest threshold level with different gains. The procedure is completely automated and will be applied to all the electronics boards before installation. We foresee to apply the same procedure in situ. Based on our experience with a fully equipped 1 m 2 detector (9216 channels) we estimate that 200 minutes are needed to calibrate all the detector channels in parallel. The frequency of the needed calibration is under study. Preliminary results based on procedures applied one year apart on the same electronics board showed small variation (<2%). To perform the detector calibration, a procedure will be used at construction time to qualify every piece, and a global control will be made at running time. The homogeneity of each GRPC detector will be tested by exposing all the HCAL detectors to cosmic rays before installation. To estimate the effort involved we can say that in order to achieve an efficiency measurement resolution better than 1% for each square cm of all the detectors using benches hosting five detectors, 5000 hours will be needed. After installation, thanks to the detectors homogeneity only global efficiency of each detector needs to be controlled. This will be done using: - Cosmic rays: Their number will depend on the detector depth. At sea level and taking into account the ILC duty cycle of 5% only few hours are needed to calibrate horizontal detectors. More time is needed for inclined ones. - Halo beam muons: Even with the best proposed shielding scheme in the case of ILC, 660 of them are expected per second. Only few seconds will be sufficient to calibrate the End-cap detectors.

5 - Tracks produced in hadronic shower. There are few of them in each hadronic shower. - Muons produced from direct decay of Z and those resulting from decays in the tau tau and b bar channels become the essential source in case the GigaZ scenario is approved. With cm -2 s -1 of instantaneous luminosity less than five hours are needed to calibrate all the detectors. In addition different procedures will be used to monitor the behaviour of the calorimeter, like following the leakage current, following the ratio of pads above the different thresholds. If needed, we can even consider injecting radioactive gas to check the response homogeneity.

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