# KEYWORDS: Direct torque control (DTC), Induction motor (IM), Inverter.

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2 .. Principle of DTC VSI-fed Induction Motor : DTC induction motor drive, fed from a VSI, it is possible to control both the stator flux linkages and electromagnetic torque directly, by selecting an optimum inverter switching modes. The selection limits the flux and torque errors to be within the respective hysteresis bands, so that fast torque response, low switching frequency and low harmonic losses are attained. The electromagnetic torque developed in an induction motor is given by equation () Where is the stator flux, is the stator current and is the no. of poles of an induction motor. The equations for stator and rotor fluxes are given by equations () and (). () () () Substituting equation () in equation () () DTC is based on the space vector approach. In a symmetrical -phase induction machine, the instantaneous electromagnetic torque is proportional to the cross product of the stator flux linkage space vector, and rotor flux linkage space vector,, and so given by (). is the angle between the stator flux linkage space vector and rotor flux linkage space vector, as shown in fig. and is the leakage coefficient given by (). Where () () Movement with active forward vector q-axis Stops with zero vectors λs λr Movement with active backward vector γ Rotates continuously d-axis Fig. Movement of relative to under the influence of voltage vectors The expression given in () is applicable for both the steady state and transient state conditions. In steady state both the stator flux and rotor flux moves with the same angular velocity. The rotor flux lags the stator flux by torque angle. But during transients these two vectors do not the same velocity. From (), it is clear that the motor torque can be varied by varying the rotor or stator flux linkage vectors as shown in fig.. The magnitude of the stator flux is normally kept constant... Conventional Direct Torque Controlled Induction Motor Drive :The block diagram of CDTC motor drive as shown in fig. employing a VSI inverter. DTC involves the separate control of the stator flux and torque through the selection of optimum inverter switching modes. International Conference on Innovations in Electrical & Electronics Engineering (ICIEEE-) Page

3 - Φ AC supply Rectifier circuit DC link Vdc Inverter Ia Induction motor Ib λ * s + - λs dλs Optimal Switching Vector Selection Sa S Te * + - Te dt e λs θe b Sc λds λqs TORQUE & FLUX ESTIMATO R VOLTAGE & CURRENT VECTOR SYNTHESIZER Fig. Block diagram of CDTC of induction motor drive The stator flux-linkage components can be obtained by integrating appropriate monitored terminal voltages reduced by the ohmic losses, as shown in (9), (), () and (). The sector number can be estimated using (): (9) () The electromagnetic torque of the induction motor in stator reference frame is given by The electromagnetic dynamic equation describing the mechanical model of the induction motor is, () () () () ().. Optimum Switching Vector selection :Based on the theoretical analysis done in section, optimum switching vector selection is tabulated which is shown in the table. Table Optimum voltage switching vector look-up table I II I - - This gives the optimum selection of the switching vectors for all the possible stator flux linkage space vector positions (six positions corresponding to six vectors).in CDTC, the stator flux linkage and torque errors are restricted within their respective hysteresis bands, which are and wide respectively. If a stator flux increase is required then if a stator flux decrease is required then The notation corresponds to the fact that the digital output signals of a two-level flux hysteresis comparator is, where International Conference on Innovations in Electrical & Electronics Engineering (ICIEEE-) 8 Page

4 If a torque increase is required then dt e =, if a torque decrease is required then dt e =-, and if no longer change in torque is required then dt e =. The notation corresponds to the fact that the digital output signal of the three-level hysteresis comparator is dt e. For anticlockwise rotation or forward rotation, And for clockwise rotation or backward rotation The selection of the width of the hysteresis bands has important effects; a too small value may have the effect of losing the control. III. SIMULATION RESULTS.. I-quadrant operation under no-load _Iqs_Ids (a) es_q_d (c) Generated Torque Speed (d) Speed (e) International Conference on Innovations in Electrical & Electronics Engineering (ICIEEE-) 9 Page

5 (f) Fig. starting transients during no load operation of induction motor drive The simulation parameters and specifications of induction motor used in this paper are given in Appendix. For the simulation, the reference flux is taken as wb and starting torque is limited to % of the rated torque, N-m... I-quadrant operation under at load _Iqs_Ids (a) es_q_d (c) Generated Torque (d) Speed (e) International Conference on Innovations in Electrical & Electronics Engineering (ICIEEE-) Page

6 (f) Fig. Transients during step change in load N-m is applied at.sec Up to. sec the drive is operating under no load condition, at. sec an external load of N-m is applied. Due to this step change in load, the drive generates torque very quickly to trace the load torque N-m. Speed of the motor is decreased due to the applied load on the motor and rotates constant speed under constant stator flux linkage... II-quadrant operation under at load. _Iqs_Ids (a) es_q_d (c) Ref.Torque & Gen.Torque (d) Gen. speed (e) Speed International Conference on Innovations in Electrical & Electronics Engineering (ICIEEE-) Page

7 (f) (g) Fig. Transients during torque reversal with load N-m at.sec, Ref.Torque is changed from N-m to - N-m at.sec The drive tries to stop motor in forward direction and rotating in reverse direction without changing any two stator terminals. The generated torque is positive and opposite of the rotor rotation. Speed is negative means rotor rotated in reverse direction, the speed of the motor is increased... III-Quadrant operation under at load. _Iqs_Ids (a) es_q_d (c) Ref.Torque & Gen.Torque (d) Gen. International Conference on Innovations in Electrical & Electronics Engineering (ICIEEE-) Page

8 speed (e) Speed (f) (g) Fig. Transients during torque reversal with load - N-m at.sec. Ref.Torque is changed from N-m to - N-m at.sec The generated torque is same direction of the rotor rotation at negative load torque is applied. The generated torque and speed of the motor are opposite to the forward motoring operation. When the load is applied in this operation the speed of the motor is decreased... IV-Quadrant operation under at load. _Iqs_Ids (a) es_q_d (c) Torque International Conference on Innovations in Electrical & Electronics Engineering (ICIEEE-) Page

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