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3 1804 Advance Electronic Load Controller for Micro Hydro Power Plant Fig. 2 Basic circuit of proposed scheme. phases are sensed. Fig. 3 shows the logic behind the firing angle generation for the ballast of each phase. The frequency of the generated voltage is compared with the reference frequency, i.e., 50 Hz. The error obtained is fed to the PI-controller [8]. The PI-controller generates firing angle to balance the frequency of the generated voltage. Moreover, the load current of each phase is fed to the microcontroller. Inside the microcontroller, each phase load current is compared with the rated phase current of generator, i.e., 1.73 A for 1.2 KVA generator with terminal voltage of 230 V. This error current of each phase should flow through the ballast of respective phase to balance the generator terminal currents. In order to flow this desired current through the ballast, the firing angle is calculated inside the microcontroller using Eq. (3). Eqs. (1) and (2) give the output voltage and current of the chopped waveform for different values of firing angle for the resistive ballast load as reported in Ref. [9]. Using data of output chopped current and firing angle obtained from Eq. (2), Eq. (3) has been derived using regression method. Eq. (3) gives the value offiring angle for a particular value of current. In this way, the microcontroller generates the firing angle for the ballast of each phase using Eq. (3) which balances Fig. 3 Logic for firing angle generation. the phase current of the generator. Finally, the firing angle generated by microcontroller for each phase is added with the firing angle generated by the PI-controller. The firing angle that obtained for each phase fires the ballast of respective phase. In this way, both the generator terminal currents and frequency are balanced without causing overload to the generator even in unbalanced load condition. I o = 1 V = 1 (1) (2) p1 ib p2 ib p3 ib p4 ib p5 (3) where, V o = output rms voltage of the chopped waveform;

6 Advance Electronic Load Controller for Micro Hydro Power Plant 1807 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Fig. 6 (a): Speed response of generator; (b): Average active power generated by generator; (c): Active power consumed by consumer load; (d): Average active power consumed by ballast load; (e): Response of generator terminal currents; (f): Zoomed views of generator terminal currents; (g): Response of ballast load current; and (h): Zoomed views of ballast load current.

9 1810 Advance Electronic Load Controller for Micro Hydro Power Plant References [1] Tamrakar, I., Shilpakar, L. B., Fernandes, B. G., and Nilsen, R Voltage and Frequency Control of Parallel Operated Synchronous Generator and Induction Generator with STATCOM in Micro Hydro Scheme. IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution 1 (5): [2] Harvey, A., and Brown, A Priyantha Hettiarachi and Allen Inversion Micro Hydro Design Manual. London: Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd.. [3] Tamrakar, I Development Stages of ELC for Micro-hydro Power Plant. E-Novation 2: 1-4. [4] Singh, B., Murthy, S. S., and Gupta, S Analysis and Design of ELC for Self-Excited Induction Generator. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 21 (1): [5] Kasal, G. K., and Singh, B Decoupled Voltage and Frequency Controller for Isolated Asynchronous Generators Feeding Three-Phase Four-Wire Loads. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 23 (2): [6] Singh, B., Murthy, S. S., and Gupta, S An Improved Electronic Load Controller for Self-excited Induction Generator in Micro-hydel Applications. In Proceedings of 2003 the 29th Annual Conference of the Industrial Electronics Society, [7] Ong, C. M Dynamic simulation of Electric Machinery: Using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall. [8] Ogata, K Modern Control Engineering. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall. [9] Rashid, M. H Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices, and Applications. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall. Appendix Ratings and parameters of synchronous generator used in the simulation are as follows: 1.2 KVA, 400 V, 50 Hz, 1,500 rpm X d = p.u., X d = p.u., X d = p.u. X q = 0.861p.u., X q = p.u. T d = s, T d = s, T q = s R s = 0.02 p.u., H = 1 s The specification of the DC shunt motor are: Output power: 2 KW Speed: 1,500 RPM Armature voltage: 220 V Armature Current: 12 A Field voltage: 220 V Field Current: 0.8 A The specification of the generator are: Output power: 1.2 KVA Speed: 1,500 RPM Star connection: 220 V / 3.5 A Delta connection: 127 V / 6.1 A Field voltage: 220 V Field current: 1.4 A Power factor: 0.8

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