# LOSSELESS STARTING METHOD FOR THE WOUND ROTOR INDUCTION MOTOR

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3 by the thermal stress of the windings and by the current capability of the rotor side converter. Continuing with the advantages of the control technology, it must be mentioned the very important facility to control the reactive power changed by the stator with the grid. The term changed was used because, with a proper control of the rotor side converter, it is possible not only to cancel the reactive power got by the stator from the grid (unity power factor), but even to inject reactive power into the grid. This is a quite important advantage, taking into account the size and number of such drives in the mining industry, for example. For motor operation, several reasons are mentioned in the literature which limits the use of this technology only for speed adjustment, not for starting too: - high rotor to stator winding turn ratio. This generates at low speeds (standstill) very high voltages in the rotor windings, much higher than the rated one; - if the technology is used for starting and speed adjustment in the low speed range, the rated power of the static converter chain must be designed for the rated power of the motor; - high instability of the control in the very low speed domain (around zero). This last aspect is highlighted in the results of the simulation of the 2.2 kw doubly fed induction machine drive. The control was performed by considering stator flux oriented control on the rotor side of the doubly fed induction machine. The two components of the rotor voltage are obtained based on the rotor voltage equation written in the stator-flux-oriented frame: L u R + L p i + p i + ' ( r r ) 2 m rs rs ms Ls 2 Lm + j sl i + L i Ls ' ms r rs, (1) with sl the angular slip frequency. The projections of Equation (1) on the two orthogonal axes are: di u di T + i + T i T T, (2) ( ) ' rx rx ' ' ms r rx sl r ry r r dt Rr dt di u T i T i T T i. (3) ( ) ' ry ry ' ' r + ry sl r rx sl r r ms dt Rr By assuming constant stator flux operation, constant stator magnetizing current respectively and considering the imposed values of the currents, the decoupling components of the rotor voltage result: u L i, (4) ' * drx sl r ry ( ) * u L i L L i. (5) ' * ' dry sl r rx sl r r ms In equations (1)-(5), the term L ' r is the rotor transient inductance. The complete simulation diagram results the one depicted in Fig. 4. For the rotor inverter was not considered any specific model because was assumed that, thanks to the high frequency switching, it can be considered that it acts as an ideal amplifier. Figure 4: Doubly Fed Induction Machine Supplied by Voltage Source Inverter in the Rotor Side The results of the simulation of the drive when the speed decreases to low values are plotted in Fig. 5. The plot begins when the motor comes to be controlled in the rotor circuit, being supplied on the rotor side by a voltage source inverter. Until then the motor has the rotor in short circuit, being supplied in the stator by a constant frequency voltage (the grid) and loaded with a 10 Nm static torque. The stator continues to be connected to the grid after the control on the rotor side begins. The stator flux oriented vector control imposes constant active and reactive rotor currents. The reactive rotor current is greater than the rated one and the stator injects reactive power in the grid (plotted in the last window). The active current is smaller than the one needed for balancing the static torque. Consequently, the speed constantly decreases. It can be seen that around 25 rad/sec the system became instable. For the reasons pointed above, literature signals as starting method for this kind of drives the quite classical method with additional resistors in the rotor circuit. When speed arrives within the operating speed range, the resistors are disconnected and the frequency converter is connected to the rotor. Another possibility is to reverse the operation of the machine: short circuit the stator and supply the rotor by the static converters up to the necessary speed then switching the control types.

4 Active Reactive Time [sec] Figure 5: Behavior of the Doubly Fed Induction Machine in the Low Speed Range In the case of wind generators the technology of rotor control is very well suited, as they are driven by the wind turbine. Consequently, they do not need to be started, because the wind is used to accelerate the machine up to the operating speed range, when the rotor control comes to manage the operation. For this type of application, the vector control is not the single possibility. Literature signals as possible alternative the Direct Torque Control on the rotor side (Gokhale et al. 2002). The experience of the authors (Ivanov 2010) shows that this type of control requires very high performances control hardware due to the fact that the sampling period of the control system is exactly the minimum duration of the pulse width modulation. Consequently, in order to be able to achieve high frequency modulation and low ripple currents, powerful (fast) control systems are necessary. The technique we propose is simply to supply the rotor side of the induction motor by a preset currents inverter. The simulation diagram (Fig. 6) uses the model of a preset currents voltage source inverter (P3Htg) which injects the necessary currents in the rotor windings. The two orthogonal components of the rotor currents result as outputs of two continuous PI controllers: the direct component is the output of the reactive power controller and the quadrature component is the output of the speed controller.

5 Figure 6: Doubly Fed Induction Machine Supplied by Preset Currents Voltage Source Inverter Some results of the simulation of the system are plotted in Fig. 7. The torque applied to the motor shaft is proportional to the mechanical speed. It attains the rated value at the rated speed. The start process is imposed to begin at 1 second after the beginning of the simulation. The preset speed of 150 rad/sec is achieved in about 1.2 seconds, the currents controllers being tuned to limit the maximum torque to double of the rated one. No hesitation is present at the very beginning of the starting phase. At 3 seconds from the beginning of the simulation, a negative 1000 VAR reactive power is imposed i.e. the motor would act as a reactive power generator (traced in the last plot). Active Reactive Time [sec] Figure 7: Behavior of the Doubly Fed Induction Machine Supplied by Preset Currents Voltage Source Inverter

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