# Mechanical Analysis Belt and chain drives

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1 Mechanical Analysis and Design ME 2104 Lecture 3 Mechanical Analysis Belt and chain drives Prof Ahmed Kovacevic School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences Room CG25, Phone: 8780, 1

2 Objective: Plan for the analysis of mechanical elements Procedures for design and selection of mechanical elements Week 1 Shafts and keyways Week 2 Bearings and screws Week 3 Belt and chain drives Week 4 Gears and gear trains Week 5 Design Project Review 2

3 Plan for this week Flexible mechanical elements - introduction Flat and round belts (with examples) V belts (with examples) Chains (with examples) 3

4 Overview why use? 1. Transfer power (torque) from one location to another. From driver: motor, peddles, engine, windmill, turbine To driven: conveyor belt, back wheels/ bike, generator rock crusher, dryer. 2. Used to span large distances or need flexible x-mission elements. Gear drives have a higher torque capability but are not this flexible or cheap. 3. Often used as torque increaser (speed reducer), max speed ratio:3.5:1. Gear drives?? Virtually unlimited! Applications? 4

5 Use for Belt drives Chain drives Gear drives High speed Low torque Low speed High torque High speed High torque Speed m/s Up to 10 m/s Depending on the type of gear Disadvantage Standard lengths Wear, creep, slip, temperature, may require idler Must be lubricated, wear, noise, vibrations Expensive, Not flexible, Needs lubrication and cooling Advantage Quiet, flexible, cheap, can be used to dump vibrations Strength, length, flexibility High speed, strength, durability 5

6 Types of Belts: V-belt most common for machine design, several types (a & b) Timing belt (c & d) have mating pulleys to minimize slippage. Pos retention due to mating pulleys (c) Pos retention due to increased contact area (d & e) Flat belt - rubber/leather (not shown) run on tapered pulleys 6

7 Types of V-Belts 7

8 Belt drive configurations 8

9 V-belt Drive Design Process 9 1. Rated power of the driving motor/prime mover. 2. Service factor based on type of driver and driven load. 3. Center distance (adjustment for center distance must be provided or use idler pulley) 4. Power rating for one belt as a function of size and speed of the smaller pulley 5. Belt length (then choose standard size) 6. Sizing of sheaves/pulleys (use standard size). Most commercially available sheaves should be limited to 35 m/s belt speed. 7. Belt length correction factor 8. Angle of wrap correction factor. Angle of wrap on smaller sheave should be greater than 120 deg. 9. Number of belts 10. Initial tension in belts

10 Key Equations Recommended: D < C < 3(D+d) Use standard lengths 10 Belt speed (no slip) [m/s] Speed ratio Belt length [m] Centre distance [m] D D dd b RDD Rdd 2 2 D D b DnD d ( D d) L 2 C ( D d) 2 4C B B 32( D d) C 16 B 4L 2 ( D d) 2sin 1 2 d 2sin D d 2C D d 2C 2

11 Forces Transmitted power [W] Torque [Nm] Centrifugal force [N] Mass per unit length Initial belt tension [N] P ( F F ) ow 1 2 c i ' 1 2 T F F F F F m F ( 1 2) 2 F F c c w g F ' ' m 2 b e ( bt) g F f d F c b 11

12 Example 7 V Belt Design A four cylinder Diesel engine 80hp, 1800 rpm to drive a water pump (1200 rpm) for less than 6 hours/day Design a V-belt drive 12

13 V-Belt Design Example 4 cylinder Diesel engine 80hp, 1800 rpm to drive a water pump (1200 rpm) for less than 6 hours/day Design V-belt drive D=315mm; d=212 mm; C=1.0975m; L=2.338 m; 4 belts 13

14 V-belt Design Example Narrow V belts Industrial Heavy duty belts 14

15 Belt Designation 15

16 Service factors 16

17 Power rating for SPB V-belts 17

18 Additional speed power ratio 18

19 Correction factors C C L 19

20 Coursework Example 8 Flat Belt Design A flat belt is mm wide and 8.5 mm thick and transmits 15 hp. The centre distance is m. The driving pulley is mm in diameter and rotates at 2000 rpm such that the loose side of the belt is on top. The driven pulley is mm in diameter. The belt material specific density is kg/m 3 Determine: a) If friction coef. is f=0.3 find F 1 and F 2. b) If f is reduced to 0.2 due to oil spill, what are F 1 and F 2? Would the belt slip? c) What is the belt length? a) F 1 =1500 N ; F 2 = 800 N ; F i =1150N b) The belt will slip c) L= m 20

21 Chain Drives 21

22 Chain Drives Types of Chains Main dimensions 22

23 23 L chain length v chain speed N number of teeth in the sprocket n [rpm] D v P pitch pitch angle /2 angle of articulation D pitch diameter e cordial rise (factor for smoothness) p sin 2 sin Npn / 60 N N N 2 L C N1 N p p 2 2 C 4 p C p p

24 Chain Design Process 1. # of sprocket teeth, N1 (smaller sprocket) > 17 (unless low speed < 100 rpm.) 2. Speed ratio = n1/n2 <= x Pitch Length < Center Distance < 50 x Pitch Length 4. Angle of contact of chain on smaller sprocket > # sprocket teeth, N2 (larger sprocket) <

25 Standard size and strength of rolling chain 25

26 Transmitted power of a single strand no 25 chain Type I Manual lubrication; Type II Drip lubrication; Type III = Oil bath lubrication; Type IV Oil stream lubrication 26

27 27

28 Example 9 Chain selection A four strand no 25 rolling chain transmits power from a 21 tooth driving sprocket that rotates at 1200 rpm. The speed ratio is 4:1 Determine: a) Rated power of this drive b) Tension in the chain c) Safety factor of the chain based on the minimum tensile strength d) Chain length if the center distance is 254 mm a) Pow=2.845kW b) F= N c) fs=11.17 d) L/pt=135 L= mm 28

29 Coursework Example 10 Belt exercise A pump is driven by an electric motor through a open type flat belt drive. Motor pulley diameter(d S ) = 300 mm, Pump pulley diameter(d L ) = 600 mm Coefficient of friction (μ S ) for motor pulley = 0.25 Coefficient of friction (μ L ) for pump pulley = 0.20 Center distance between the pulleys=1000 mm; Rotational speed of the motor=1440 rpm; Power transmission = 20kW; density of belt material (ρ)= 1000 kg/m 3 ; allowable stress for the belt material (σ) = 2 MPa; thickness of the belt = 5mm. Determine the belt specifications. Length L=3436mm; breadth b=240mm and thickness t=5mm 29

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