THE EFFECT OF INSIDE OUTSIDE CIRCLE ON STUDENTS UNDERSTANDING ON SIMPLE PAST TENSE. By: Sri Rizkiyana 1, Mursidah Rahmah 2, Yayu Heryatun 3 ABSTRACT

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1 1 THE EFFECT OF INSIDE OUTSIDE CIRCLE ON STUDENTS UNDERSTANDING ON SIMPLE PAST TENSE By: Sri Rizkiyana 1, Mursidah Rahmah, Yayu Heryatun 3 ABSTRACT Grammar is one of language components that support students language skills. It is very important to learn including tenses. There are many kinds of tenses that must be understood, one of the tenses is Simple Past Tense. It is a part of tense that should be taught to the students, but there are many problems that are faced by students when they learn simple past tense. One of the problems is to make the sentence using simple past tense correctly, especially in using verb and to be. The teacher can use some techniques to teach simple past tense that can help the students to solve their problems. Therefore, the writer conducted the research about The Effect of Inside Outside Circle on Students Understanding on Simple past Tense. The purpose of the research is to investigate the effect of inside outside circle technique on students understanding on simple past tense. The population of the research is 8 th grade students of SMP Bina Utama Rarahan, Kab. Cianjur. There are five classes and the total number of the students is 190. The writer takes two classes as the samples, she uses quasy experimental method and pretest posttest control group design. The result of this research shows that t-test value is.16 with df 74 and the result of t table in the level of significant t 0.05 is it can be shown that.16 >1.67. it means that t calculate is higher than t table, so the alternative hypothesis (Ha) is accepted and null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected. Therefore, the writer concludes that Inside Outside Circle is effective on students understanding on simple past tense. Key words : Grammar, Simple Past Tense, Inside Outside Circle 1 Student Of English Educational Study Program FKIP Pakuan Teacher Trainer Staff Of English Educational Study Program FKIP Pakuan 3 Teacher Trainer Staff Of English Educational Study Program FKIP Pakuan

2 ABSTRAK Grammar merupakan salah satu komponen bahasa yang mendukung kemampuan bahasa siswa. Hal ini sangat penting untuk dipelajari termasuk tenses. Terdapat banyak jenis tenses yang harus dipahami, salah satu tenses adalah Simple Past Tense. Simple past tense adalah bagian dari tenses yang harus diajarkan kepada siswa, tetapi terdapat banyak masalah yang dihadapi oleh siswa ketika mereka belajar mengenai simple past tense. Salah satu masalah adalah membuat kalimat menggunakan simple past tense dengan benar, terutama dalam menggunakan kata kerja dan to be. Guru dapat menggunakan beberapa teknik untuk mengajar simple past tense yang dapat membantu siswa memecahkan masalah yang mereka hadapi. Oleh karena itu, penulis melakukan penelitian mengenai pengaruh Inside Outside Circle terhadap pemahaman siswa pada Simple Past Tense. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk meneliti pengaruh teknik Inside Outside Circle terhadap pemahaman siswa pada simple past tense. Populasi yang diambil untuk penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas 8 SMP Bina Utama Rarahan, Kab. Cianjur. Terdapat lima kelas dan jumlah siswa adalah 190 siswa. Penulis mengambil dua kelas sebagai sampel dan menggunakan metode quasy experimen pretest posttest control group. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa nilai t test.16 dengan derajat kebebasan 74 dan hasil dari t tabel pada taraf signifikansi t dapat ditunjukkan bahwa.16> Hal ini menunjukan bahwa t calculate lebih tinggi daripada t tabel, sehingga hipotesis alternatif (Ha) diterima dan hipotesis nul (Ho) ditolak. Oleh karena itu, penulis menyimpulkan bahwa Inside Outside Circle berpengaruh terhadap pemahaman siswa pada simple past tense. Kata Kunci : Grammar, Simple Past Tense, Inside Outside Circle INTRODUCTION English is one of subjects that must be learnt by students at school, started from elementary school to senior high school. There are four language skills in English, such as listening, speaking, reading and writing. In addition, learning English is not only lerning language skills but also language components, they are spelling, vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar. Is is very important to learn, including the tenses. There are many kinds of tenses that must be understood, one of the tenses is Simple Past Tense. It is a part of tense that should be taught to the students. There are many problems that are experienced by students when they learn simple past tense. One of the problems is to make the sentence using simple past tense correctly, especially in using verb and to be. The problem happens because the students are still confused to use past tense on correct sentence. Most of the students construct simple past with infinitive, because in Bahasa Indonesia they use the same verb in every tenses. In addition they also cannot differ between regular and irregular verbs. To solve this problem, the teachers have to be creative and innovative. They should find and apply an appropriate technique in teaching grammar, especially teaching simple past tense. One of the appropriate techniques is Inside-Outside Circle technique. Based on the statements above, the writer chooses The Effect of Insidre Outside Circle on Students Understanding on Simple Past Tense because she found that the Junior High School students have difficulties to make sentences using simple past tense. Thus, the teacher needs to find a good strategy to make them understand about Simple Past tense. Through this research the writer intends to know whether Inside Outside Circle is effective to teach simple past tense or not. There is one statement of the problem in this study, is there an effect of Inside Outside Circle on Students Understanding on Simple Past Tense?

3 3 Tense is a part of structure that is very important and it has main role in transfering the messages. The verb shows the time of the action in present, past or future. Jacobs (1995:187) says, tense is the grammatical marking on verbs that usually indicates time reference relative to either the time of speaking or the time at which some other situation was in force. Simple past tense is used to describe action that happens in the past. According to Azar (1989:4), the simple past tense indicates that an activity or situation began and ended at a particular time in the past. In addition, Allsop (1990:156) states The tense can describe something which happened a long time ago, or which happened a moment ago. Action and statement are described by the simple past tense usually occurred in the past. Thomson and Martinet (1986:16) claim, The simple past tense is used for actions completed in the past at a definite time. There are some time words and phrases that are used in simple past tense they are yesterday, last night, an hour ago, at 10.30, in October, three days ago, etc. Based on those definitions, it can be conclude that simple past tense explains an activity or situation that happened in the past. There are three forms of simple past: affirmative, negative and interrogative. Negative and interrogative use auxiliary verb (did) for all subjects and the verb is changed to the base form. There are two types of verb used in simple past tense; they are regular and irregular verb. DeCapua (008:174) says, As you know, there is only one past inflection for all regular past tense verb, the ed added to the verb. There are many irregular past tense form including some of the most common verbs used in English. It means that regular verbs are form that can be predicted by rules, i.e. ed or d added to the end of the base form. Irregular verbs are verbs of past tense and past participle form which are not predictable by rules. The uses of the simple past verb form are; to describe the actions that happened at a definite time in the past, to describe the actions that happened over the period of time in the past, to describe habits and routines in the past. In teaching and learning strategies there are models that can be applied by the teacher. These models can be used by the teacher primarily to help the students acquire new information, to learn important skill, and to think about and process information. These models are combined into one effective model that called cooperative learning. Cooperative model refers to the situation where the students can achieve their goal only when each student can work together through interaction with teammates. Olsen and Kagan in Richards and Rodgers (001:19) say, Cooperative learning is group learning activity organized so that learning is dependent on the socially structured exchange of information between learners in groups and in which each learner is held accountable for his or her own learning and is motivated to increase the learning of others. Cooperative learning is the teaching model which is not having students side by side at the same table to talk with each other as they do their individual but cooperative learning is the model refers to the situation where the students can obtain their goal only when each student can work together through interaction and interdependence with teammates. Beside that cooperative models create the social climate among students in reaching new information between them. This social interaction emphasizes students to comprehend the information. Furthermore Kessler (199:1) cooperative learning is carefully structuredorganized so that each learner interacts with others and all learners are motivated to increase each other s learning. Based on the explanation above, it can be concluded that cooperative learning is a teaching strategy in which small teams, each students of different levels of ability, use variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. Students work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it. Cooperative learning also gives

4 4 benefits for the students interaction and classroom management. To teach students how to be cooperative, teachers can use cooperative learning which involve strategies. In this case, the cooperative learning would be used to implement the new learning or application of the lesson. One of the techniques in cooperative learning is Inside-Outside Circle. According to Tedick (00:89) Inside-Outside Circle cooperative learning may be used to practice a particular grammatical structure (for example, the past tense is used). Prior to the activity, the teacher may want to introduce or review a grammatical structure that students will need to engage in the interaction. Futhermore, Kagan (1994), The Inside-Outside Circle is a technique in which students move around and interact with each other. It means that Inside Outside Circle can be a useful way to change things up and get the students moving during the class. Inside-Outside Circle is a kinesthetic activity that involves all students in the class and that facilitates short exchanges between students. Anita (004) states, inside-outside circle cooperative learning is to give an opportunity to students to share information at the same time. They will have more opportunities to share information and find the solution of the problem when they work in group. Inside-Outside Circle technique is applied to make the students cooperate and they are able to share information at the same time. In applying Inside Outside Circle, the class is divided in half. Half the class becomes the inside circle, and the other half the outside circle for two large concentric circles. The Inside-Outside Circle technique, forms two concentric circles containing the same number of the students; every student should have their own partner. They prepare a question to be shared. They hold a note for recording information or answer shared by students. Then students in the inside circle face a partner standing in the outside circle, pose a question and partner A shares his/her answer with partner B. Then partner B shares his/her answer with partner A, and then each student write their partner s answer on their note. The teacher then instructs the students in the inside circle to rotate and the students turn to face their new partner, repeat step (b,c,d). Teaching simple past tense through Inside-Outside Circle technique is expected to make students enjoy the learning process. The students will be interested in learning the material. So, they will get and understand the material easily. RESEARCH METHOD The aim of the research is to know the effect of Inside Outside Circle on students Understanding on Simple Past Tense. The research has been planned in four meetings. SMP Bina Utama Rarahan Cianjur is choosen as a place to conduct the research. The students will get pre-test and post-test. Therefore, at the end of the treatments the students will get post test. The population of the research is the second grade students of SMPN Bina Utama Rarahan. It consists of five classes. The total number of the population is 190 students. The wtiter chooses class 8D and 8E as the samples. Quasy experimental method and pretest posttest control group design are used in this research. GI T1 X T G1 G X T1 T G T1 T : Experimental Group : Control Group : Treatment (Reading through DRTA technique) : Pretest : Posttest

5 5 RESEARCH FINDINGS The data are analyzed by using T-test formula. It is intended to find out whether the hypothesis is accepted or not. The hypothesis is alternative hypothesis H a that there is an effect of Inside Outside Circle on students understanding on simple past tense. The result of the experimental and control group pre-test and post-test scores are: Table 1 Pre-test and Post-test Scores of Experimental and Control Group Respondents N Pre-test Post test Experimental Group Control Group Experimental Group Control Group Before calculating the t-test, the deviation table of experimental and control groups are made. The table of deviation of experimental and control group are shown in table and 3: Table Deviation of Experimental Group Respondents Pre-Test (X 1 ) Post-Test (X ) Deviation X

6 Total X X 4 D x 61.9 D x In this group, Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) strategy is used as the treatment. Table 3 Deviation of Control Group Respondents Pre-Test (Y 1 ) Post-Test (Y ) Deviation Y

7 Total Y Y 3.6 D y 46. D y In this group, Presentation Practice Production (PPP) technique is used as the treatment. After calculating the deviation of experimental and control group, the writer counts the mean of each group from the deviation. M x X N M y Y N Then, she calculated X and Y : X X 3.90 ( X ) N ( 61.9) Y Y ( Y ) 5.79 N ( 46.) After that, all the result of the calculation are put in the t-test formula: T X Mx My + Y Nx + Ny 1 + Nx 1 Ny

8 ( 0.79)( 0.05) Finally, the writer finds the value of degree of freedom as follows: df Nx+Ny DISCUSSION After calculating the scores, the writer finds that the t-test value is.16. to find out whether the t-test value is significant or not, the writer uses t-table. After checking the value in the t-table, it is found that the value of t 0.05 in the t-table with d.f 74 is it shows that t calculated is higher than t table (.16 > 1.67). It means that there is an effect of using inside outside circle technique on students understanding on simple past tense. From the calculation, it is known that in experimental group, the students understanding on simple past tense has increased after they was given the treatment that is inside outside circle technique. It is based on the different score of pre-test and post-test between experimental and control groups on their understanding on simple past tense. In experimental group, the average pretest score is 4.75 and post-test score is 6.36 while in the control group the average pretest is 4.67 and post-test average score is So, the writer concludes that teaching simple past tense through inside outside circle technique can be used as one of the alternative ways in teaching grammar. CONCLUSION In teaching and learning process, there are several ways that can be used by the teacher to help students learn tenses easier. In conducting the research, the writer chooses inside outside circle to teach simple past tense. After doing the research, she found that there is an effect of inside outside circle on students understanding on simple past tense. It is shown by the result of t test score.16 and the t table value of t 0.05 with df 74 is the result of the test can be described as.16 > it means that t test is higher than t table in the level significance of thus, alternative hypothesis is accepted. The result of the research shows that the students who are taught by inside outside circle technique get better scores in understanding simple past tense than who

9 9 are taught by explanation. The writer concludes that teaching by inside outside circle technique is one of the effective ways for students understanding on simple past tense. BIBLIOGRAPHY Allsop, Jake Cassell s Students English Grammar. Jakarta: Binarupa Aksara. Anita, Lie Cooperative Learning:Mempraktikan Cooperative Learning di Ruang- Ruang Kelas. Jakarta: PT. Grasindo Arikunto, Suharsimi Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. Azar, Betty Schampfer Understanding and Using English Grammar: second edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. DeCapua, Andrea Grammar for Teacher. New York: Springer Science+Business Media, LLC Herawati, Atti Research on ELT. Bogor: Universitas Pakuan. Unpublished. Jacobs, Roderick A English Syntax: A Grammar for English Language Professionals. New York: Oxford University Press. Kessler, Carolyn Cooperative Language Learning. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents Englewood Cliffs. Kagan, Spencer Cooperative Learning, Resources for Teachers. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre. Richards, Jack C and Rodgers Approach and Methods in Language Teaching: second edition. Cambridge University: The Press Syndicate of University of Cambridge Tedick, D.J. 00. Proficiency-oriented language instruction and assessment: A curriculum handbook for teachers. CARLA Working Paper Series. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition. Thomson A.J. and Martinet A.V A Practical English Grammar: fourth edition. New York: Oxford University Press. Thornbury, Scott How to Teach Grammar. Essex: Pearson Education Limited BIOGRAPHY Sri Rizkiyana was born on October, 3 rd 1989 in Cianjur, Jawa Barat. She is first daughter of Mulyana and Entin Salamah. She started her study in Elementary School (SDN Trikarya) when she was six years old. She was graduated in 001 and she continued her study in SMPN Pacet, Cipanas, Cianjur. In 004 she continued her study in SMAN 1 Sukaresmi, Cipanas, Cianjur. She finished her study in 007 and she continued again for his first degree (S1) in Pakuan University, Bogor in 008. She took English Education Study Program, Faculty of Teachers Training and Educational Sciences, Pakuan University. She was graduated on May 013.

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