THE EFFECT OF USING FRAYER MODEL ON STUDENTS VOCABULARY MASTERY. * Ellis EkawatiNahampun. ** Berlin Sibarani. Abstract

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1 THE EFFECT OF USING FRAYER MODEL ON STUDENTS VOCABULARY MASTERY * Ellis EkawatiNahampun ** Berlin Sibarani Abstract This study was conducted as an attempt to find out the effect of using Frayer Model on Students Vocabulary Mastery. This study used the experimental design. The population of this study was the students of SMA Parulian 1 Medan. There were sixty students of first grade senior high school as the sample of the research. This study was conducted with two randomized groups namely experimental group and control group. The control group was taught by conventional method while experimental group was taught by using Frayer Model. The instrument of collecting data was objective multiple choice test which consisted of 40 items. To obtain the reliability of the test, the researcher used Kuder-Richardson (KR-20) formula. The calculation shows that the reliability was 0.73 (high). The data were analyzed by using t-test. The calculation shows that t- observed (5.41) is higher than t-table (2.00) at the level of significance (α) 0.05 with the degree of freedom (df) 58. Therefore, null hypothesis (H o ) is rejected and alternative hypothesis (H a ) is accepted. It means that teaching vocabulary by using Frayer Model has more significant effect than teaching vocabulary by using conventional method. Keywords: Vocabulary, Students Vocabulary Mastery, Frayer Model, Experimental Research * Graduate Status ** Lecture 1

2 Introduction Background of Study Vocabulary is very essential for success in comprehending the language well, speaking better, and composing a good writing. Vocabulary plays an important role in teaching and learning English as a foreign language. Vocabulary is the basic element of four skills, listening, speaking, reading and writing.students who are rich in vocabulary will be better in listening, speaking, reading and writing a foreign language. Therefore, vocabulary affects the student s ability in learning foreign language. According to Marzano (2004), vocabulary knowledge impacts reading and academic success, and it is significant in our daily life and can have practical as well as social and emotional consequences. However, it is not easy to learn vocabulary and it is one of the major difficulties often faced by the Indonesian students in learning English. In line with the writer s experience in Teaching Experience Practice (PPL) 2012 in SMK NEGERI 1 LubukPakam, the students cannot comprehend a text and do the exercises from the textbook because their vocabulary is still low. Nation (1990) states that there are two reasons why the learners are not able to say what they want to say. First, they do not know enough vocabulary and second, they are unable to put this vocabulary to productive use. From that fact, as a teacher, we must have perspective insight for the student s need and we must make our student rich of words in English because vocabulary is one of the important aspects in language mastery. Therefore, to encourage participation of 2

3 student in the classroom in order to increase student s vocabulary, a teacher needs to improve student s activities. Thus, to solve those problems, the teacher can use several methods. The aim of using a variety of methods is to make the particular lesson easy and to motivate students to learn and to understand. One of techniques is by usingfrayer Model. This method promotes critical thinking and helps students to identify and understand unfamiliar vocabulary. The Frayer Model can be used with the entire class, small groups, or for individual work. The Frayer Model draws on a student's prior knowledge to build connections among new concepts and creates a visual reference by which students learn to compare attributes and examples. Research Question Based on the background of the study, the problem of the study is formulated in form of a question as follows: Is there any significant effect of using Frayer Model on Students Vocabulary Mastery? Review of Literature Theoretical Framework Thornbury (2002), defines Vocabulary as a collection of items, Takac (2008) defines vocabulary as a dictionary or a set of words, while Kamil (2005) defines Vocabulary as the knowledge of meanings of words. The knowledge of the meaning of a word is not only knowing its dictionary meaning (or meanings), it also means knowing the words commonly associated with it (collocations) as well as its connotations, including register and its cultural accretions. 3

4 Based on those definitions, it is concluded that vocabulary is the words or set of words that is understood so that human can use it in daily life. Frayer model is a method that is employed to teach vocabulary which essentially a type of graphic organizer that allowed the students to separate the various aspect of a word or concept. Graphic organizer is one of tool to employ in teaching vocabulary. Frayer Model is used to identify and define unfamiliar concepts and vocabulary. For every word, the Frayer model asks students to write down a definition and lists of characteristics, examples, and non examples. (Tankersley.2005). Frayer Model prompts students to understand words within the larger context of a reading selection, as it asks students to analyze the concept/word (definition and characteristics) and then synthesize or apply this information by thinking of examples and non examples. Students are also required to activate prior knowledge to complete the chart that activates their prior knowledge of a topic and builds connections. The activation of prior knowledge allows new knowledge to be built upon existing schema. This model work well in learning new concept and ideas particularly because it is a type of graphic organizer which allowed the multiple pieces of information about a concept or word to be viewed in one glance. Through the employment of the Frayer Model, students learn new concept or vocabulary that give them way to greater academic achievement. 4

5 Conceptual Framework Vocabulary is an important part of the English teaching process. It is supposed to be a very effective communicative device as it carries the highest level of importance within peoples verbal interaction. The overall goal of comprehensive vocabulary strategy is to expand both receptive and expressive vocabularies, and continually move words from the receptive level to expressive level. An additional goal is to provide many opportunities for children to acquire deep knowledge of words, the ability to understand and use words flexibility and appropriately in many different context. Frayer model is used to categorized students understanding of a vocabulary word or concept they are studying. Students list the definitions, characteristics, examples, and non-examples on a chart with four quadrants. Using this model helps students develop a conceptual understanding of new vocabulary or concept. Using this particular graphic organizer helps students to think about this term in a variety of ways. It allows them to visually demonstrate what they understand and to categorize their new knowledge. This can also serve as a great tool for review or as a study aid. By using Frayer model in learning vocabulary continuously, student s memorization of word will be affected become long term memory. With the long term memory of words, student s vocabulary achievement will be increased. Therefore, it can be assumed that using Frayer Model method will improve students mastery in vocabulary. 5

6 Research Methodology Research Design The type of the research in this study was experimental research, which was conducted with two randomized groups, pre-test and post-test design. The design was applied in order to investigate the effect of using Frayer Model. Clearly, the research design can be figured as following: Table of Experimental Research Design Randomly assigned Pre test Treatment Post test Control Group R (without using Frayer Model) Experimental Group Q (using Frayer Model) The population of this research was the tenth graders of SMA PARULIAN 1 MEDAN. There were three parallel classes of the first year and there are 900 students. Due to large number of students and for the efficiency of research, only a part of the student was chosen randomly as representation of the whole population. The researcher took 60students as samples randomly, 30 students for each group-control and experimental group. Technique of Analyzing the Data To find out the effect of using Frayer Model in students vocabulary mastery, mean of the control group and experimental group was compared by using t test, as follows: t = ( )( ) 6

7 M x : Mean of control group M y: Mean of experimental group X 2 : The standard deviation of control group Y 2 : The standard deviation of experimental group N x : The total sample of control group N y : The total sample of experimental group Conclusion And Suggestions Conclusion Based on the research findings, the researcher concludes that there is a significant effect of using Frayer Model on Students Vocabulary Mastery since the students mastery in vocabulary by using Frayer Model is higher than taught without using Frayer Model (by conventional Method). It was proven statistically with t- observed > t-table(5.41 > 2.00; df = 58, α = 0.05). Therefore, alternative hypothesis is accepted and null hypothesis is rejected. Suggestions It is important that the method in teaching and learning process should be enjoyable so the students will be encourage in learning. 1. The English teachers should try to apply teaching vocabulary by using Frayer Model. By using Frayer Model in teaching vocabulary, the teacher can facilitate the student to learn independently. 2. The students should apply learning vocabulary by using Frayer Model in a group or individually to make them have deeper understanding of a word. 3. Other researchers should try to apply teaching vocabulary by using Frayer model on different level of learners through different topics to prove the effectiveness of Frayer model on students vocabulary mastery. 7

8 References Kamil, M.L., and Hiebert, E.H Teaching and Learning Vocabulary: Bringing Scientific Research to Practice. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Marzano, R. J Building background knowledge for academicachievement: Research on what works in schools. Alexandria, VA:Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Nation, I. S. P Teaching and Learning Vocabulary.New York: Newbury House/Harper-Collins PavicicTakac, Visnja Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Foreign Language Acqusition.Clevedon: Cromwell Tankersley, Karen Literacy Strategies for grades 4-12: Reinforcing the threads of reading. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Thornbury, Scott How to Teach Vocabulary. England: Bluestone Press. 8

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