Blower door Test procedures. Preliminary comparison between EN 13829:2002 and ASTM

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1 Blower door Test procedures Preliminary comparison between EN 13829:2002 and ASTM

2 1 July 2014 Guglielmino RTE-003-B 26 May 2014 Guglielmino RTE-003-A Issued on By Version 1 P a g.

3 Index 1. Preface Acceptable Test Conditions Apparatus Test Methodology Reporting Final proposal P a g.

4 1. Preface This document aims to compare the contents of EN 13789:2002 Thermal Performance of buildings Determination of air permeability of buildings Fan pressurization method and E ASTM Standard Testing Method for determining Air Leakage Rate by Fan Pressurization. The E ASTM is recognized by LEED BD+C 2009 to demonstrate compliance with IEQ prerequisite 2 Environmental Tobacco Smoke. The comparison intends to show how EN13829 may be used as a base to implement a dedicated Alternative Compliance Path for Europe, since this Standard has been implemented by many National Standardization Bodies. The pages that follow contain a list of crucial topics on which the standards comparison is based. 3 P a g.

5 2. Acceptable Test Conditions EN ASTM E According to EN13829, for a blower door test to be acceptable the following specification have to be met: According to E779-03, for a blower door test to be acceptable the following specification have to be met: 1. Outside temperature: n/a 1. Outside temperature: outside temperature 2. Windspeed: must be Beaufort scale 3 or should be from 5 to 35 C (41 to 95 F). less, or, if measured, 6 m/s or less 2. Windspeed: Low-wind pressure conditions: 3. Product Temperature-Height The product the wind speed is to be part of the of the absolute value of the indoor/outdoor measurement record, use a windmeasuring air temperature difference multiplied by the building height, must be lower than 500 m K (226,85 m C) device or obtain readings from a nearby weather bureau. Preferred test conditions are wind speed of 0 to 2 m/s and 4. Static pressure (Zero Flow) difference: the an outside temperature from 5 to 35 C (41 static pressure (Zero Flow) difference to 95 F). between the inside and outside of the building with the envelope closed up, but with no test equipment running, must be less than 5 Pascal (Pa) over a 30 second average. 3. Product Temperature-Heigh: The product of the absolute value of the indoor/outdoor air temperature difference multiplied by the building height, must be lower than 200 m C. 4. Static pressure (Zero Flow) difference: To create a single zone for this test procedure, all interconnecting doors, except for closets, which should be closed, in the conditioned space should be opened such that a uniform pressure will be maintained within the conditioned space to within ±10 % of the measured inside/outside pressure difference. 4 P a g.

6 3. Apparatus EN ASTM E The following is a general description of the required apparatus: The following is a general description of the required apparatus: 1. Air-Moving Equipment: A fan, blower, or blower door assembly that is capable of moving air into and out of the conditioned space at required flow rates under a range of test pressure differences 1. Air-Moving Equipment: A fan, blower, or blower door assembly that is capable of moving air into and out of the conditioned space at required flow rates under a range of test pressure differences. 2. Pressure-Measuring Device: A manometer or pressure indicator to measure pressure difference with an accuracy of ±2Pa of measured pressure in the field of 0 and Pressure-Measuring Device: A manometer or pressure indicator to measure pressure difference with an accuracy of 65% of measured pressure. Pa 3. Airflow Measuring System: A device to 3. Airflow Measuring System:A device to measure airflow with an accuracy of 65 % measure airflow with an accuracy of ±7% of the measured flow. The airflow 4. Temperature-Measuring Device: An measuring system shall be calibrated in instrument to measure temperature with an accordance with Test Method E 1258 accuracy of ±1 C (2 F). 4. Temperature-Measuring Device: An instrument to measure temperature with an accuracy of ±1 C (2 F). 5. Wind Speed-Measuring Device (Optional): A device to give an accuracy within ±0.25 m/s (0.56 mph) at 2.5 m/s (5.6 mph). Perform wind speed measurements at a distance three to five building heights away from the buildings, where practical. List the height above ground at which wind speed is measured. 5 P a g.

7 4. Test Methodology EN ASTM E The EN13829 standard lists two principal test preparation methods, which are given as Method A and Method B. They are given as follows (EN13829:2002, pg 7): This test is a multi point test (It is good practice to use more than one location across the building envelope for pressure measurement, for example, one across each façade). Method A (test of a building in use): Verify this condition by differential pressure The condition of the building envelope should represent its condition during the season in which heating or cooling systems are used. Method B (test of the building envelope): Any intentional opening in the building envelope shall be closed or sealed as specified in and In summary, Method B allows more items to be sealed up or closed over during a test than Method A does. This test is a multi point test. The test does not consist of a single reading at 50Pa. To perform the test according to the EN13829 standard, at least 5 readings must be taken at different pressure points of no more than 10 Pa differences, e.g. 60Pa, 50Pa, 40Pa, 30Pa, 20Pa. To satisfy the EN13829 standard, the readings can be taken only for pressurization or depressurization, or both (with the result being the average between the two). The lowest pressure point allowed is 10Pa, or at least 5 times the static pressure reading. The highest pressure reached is up to the discretion of the tester given the site conditions, for any nondwelling measurements at the highest pressure used in the test. Make these measurements at the highest and lowest level of the building and on the windward and leeward sides. To perform the test according to ASTM E the range of induced pressure difference shall be from 10Pa to 60Pa. A good location avoids exterior corners and complex architectural features and should be close to the middle of the exterior wall. In addition, buildings more than three stories, or 7.5 m (25.5 ft), high shall have exterior pressures measured at more than one height on the exterior walls. The pressures from each location should be averaged, typically using a manifold. Average the pressures over at least a 10-s time period. HVAC balancing dampers and registers should not be adjusted. Fireplace and other operable dampers should be closed unless they are used to pass air to pressurize or de-pressurize the building. Make general observations of the condition of the building. Take notes on the windows, doors, opaque walls, roof, and floor. small building it should be at least 50Pa. Measure and record the indoor and outdoor When testing larger buildings of greater than 4000m 3, the lowest maximum pressure allowed is 25Pa. The result at 50Pa is extrapolated from this result. As noted above, the EN standard allows for either a pressurization or depressurization test alone to be temperatures at the beginning and the end of the test so that their average values can be estimated. Connect the air duct or blower door assembly to the building envelope, using a window, door, or vent opening. Seal or tape openings to avoid leakage at 6 P a g.

8 valid. these points. 7 P a g.

9 5. Reporting EN ASTM E The report shall contain at least the following The report shall contain at least the following information: information: 1. Details necessary to identify the object tested: purpose of test (method A or B); post address and estimated date of construction of the building; 2. Reference to this standard and any deviation from it; 3. Test object shall include: a. Description of which parts of the building were subject to the test; apartment number; b. Net floor area and internal volume of space subject to the test and other required dimensions of the building; c. Documentation of calculations so that the stated results can be verified; d. The status of all openings on the building envelope, latched, sealed, open, etc.; e. Detailed description of temporarily sealed openings, if any; f. The type of heating, ventilating and air conditioning system; 4. Apparatus and procedure: a. Equipment and technique employed; 5. Test data: a. Zero-flow pressure differences Δp0,1+, Δp0,1-, Δp0,2+, Δp0,2-, Δp0,1 and Δp0,2 for 1. Building description, including, location, address (street, city, state, or province, zip or postal code, country, and elevation [above mean sea level in m (ft)]. 2. Construction, including date built (estimate if unknown), floor areas for conditioned space, attic, basement, and crawl space, and volumes (optional) for conditioned spaces attic, basement, and crawl space: a. Condition of openings in building envelope including: b. Doors, closed, locked or unlocked; c. Windows, closed, latched or unlatched; d. Ventilation openings, dampers closed or open; e. Chimneys, dampers closed or open, and a f. Statement whether the test zone is interconnected g. with at least door-sized openings. If not, the results of pressure measurements between portions of the zone. h. HVAC system, including the location and sizes of ducts that penetrate the test zone envelope. 3. Procedure, including the test equipment used (manufacturer, model, serial number), and calibration records of all measuring equipment. 8 P a g.

10 pressurization and depressurization test; b. Inside and outside temperatures; c. Wind speed, barometric pressure if it is part of the calculation; d. Table of induced pressure differences and corresponding air flow rates; e. Air leakage graph f. Air flow coefficient, Cenv,A g. Air flow exponent, n, h. Air leakage coefficient, CL i. Pressurization and depressurization tests determined by the method indicated in clauses 4, 5 and 6 along with their confidence limits; j. Air change rate, n50, at 50 Pa, for pressurization and/or depressurization and mean value; k. Derived quantity according to national regulation; l. Date of test. 4. Measurement data, including: a. Fan pressurization measurements (inside-outside zero flow building pressure differences); b. Inside and outside temperature (at start and end of test) and the product of the absolute value of the indoor/outdoor air temperature difference multiplied by the building height; c. Tabular list of all air leakage measurements and calculations: time, building pressure difference, air density, nominal airflow rate, fan airflow rate, and air leakage rate; and, deviations from standard procedure. d. Optional data, including wind speed/direction and whether wind speed is estimated to exceed 0 to 2 m/s (0 to 4 mph). 5. Calculations, including: a. The leakage coefficient and pressure exponent for both pressurization and depressurization; b. The effective leakage area. Also, report if a reference pressure other than 4 Pa is used; and, An estimate of the confidence limits. 9 P a g.

11 6. Final proposal A comparison between EN and ASTM E-779 is presented. Main topics on which the two standards are based are punctually compared, highlighting main elements. The Std. EN has been recognized as equivalent to ASTM E-779 previously, when LEED Italia was created and launched. It is relevant to know that EN is commonly applied in Europe, since that many National Standardization Bodies has introduced and translated for each own Country: samples of these are: UNI (Italy - UNI EN 13829:2002), BSI (UK - BS EN 13829:2001), DIN (Germany - DIN EN 13829:2001). Due to these assumption, the proposal is to introduce EN 13829, eventually declined on local adaptations which do not alter the related substance, as a basis for the creation of an alternative compliance path for the IEQ prerequisite 2 Environmental Tobacco Smoke. 10 P a g.

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