Embedded Systems 1. Introduction

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1 Embedded Systems 1. Introduction Lothar Thiele 1-1

2 Organization WWW: Lecture: Lothar Thiele, Coordination: Olga Saukh, References: P. Marwedel: Embedded System Design (paperback), Springer Verlag, December 2011, ISBN: G.C. Buttazzo: Hard Real-Time Computing Systems. Springer Verlag, W. Wolf: Computers as Components Principles of Embedded System Design. Morgan Kaufman Publishers, J. Teich: Digitale Hardware/Software Systeme, Springer Verlag, The slides contain material of J. Rabaey, K. Keuzer, Wayne Wolf, Peter Marwedel, Philip Koopman and from the above books of J. Teich, G.C. Buttazzo, W. Wolf and P. Marwedel. 1-2

3 Communicating Embedded Systems Example: BTnodes complete platform including OS especially suited for pervasive computing applications Sensor Actuator 1-3

4 BTnode Platform Data Interfaces Communication via Bluetooth Transceiver generic platform for wireless distributed embedded computing complete platform including OS Microprocessor and Memory Batteries 2 nd Radio especially suited for pervasive computing applications (IoT) 1-4

5 Where are sensor nodes used? Logistics Maintenance Factory Automation Low resolution Sensor, Test4, Increasing frequency Acceleration (g) Time (sec) Natural Hazards Building Automation Health Care 1-5

6 PermaSense Project Jan Beutel ETH Zurich 1-6

7 1-7

8 Development in ES Exercise Linux GNU GCC AVR libc Eclipse BTNut OS 1-8

9 Contents of Course 1. Embedded Systems Introduction 2. Software Introduction 7. System Components 10. Models 3. Real-Time Models 4. Periodic/Aperiodic Tasks 5. Resource Sharing 8. Communication 9. Low Power Design 11. Architecture Synthesis 6. Real-Time OS Software and Programming 12. Model Based Design Processing and Communication Hardware 1-9

10 Contents of Course 1. Embedded Systems Introduction 2. Software Introduction 7. System Components 10. Models 3. Real-Time Models 4. Periodic/Aperiodic Tasks 5. Resource Sharing 8. Communication 9. Low Power Design 11. Architecture Synthesis 6. Real-Time OS Software and Programming 12. Model Based Design Processing and Communication Hardware 1-10

11 Embedded Systems 1 Embedded systems (ES) = information processing systems embedded into a larger product Examples: Main reason for buying often is not information processing 1-11

12 Embedded Systems external process human interface embedded system sensors, actuators 1-12

13 Examples of Embedded Systems Car as an integrated control-, communication and information system. ABS gear box information motor control climate control 1-13

14 Examples of Embedded Systems Consumer electronics, for example MP3 Audio, digital camera, home electronics,. user interface processor sensors actuators 1-14

15 Examples of Embedded Systems Production systems 1-15

16 Smart World Computation reasoning deciding Sometimes denoted as: cyber-physical system (CPS) CYBER WORLD PHYSICAL WORLD Hardware & Software Nature observing Communication influencing physical/biological/social processes Use feedback to influence the dynamics of the physical world by taking smart decisions in the cyber world 1-16

17 Internet of Things (I0T) infrastructure will be omnipresent. 1-17

18 Predictability & Dependability CPS = cyber-physical system It is essential to predict how a CPS is going to behave under any circumstances [ ] before it is deployed. Maj14 CPS must operate dependably, safely, securely, efficiently and in real-time. Raj10 Maj14 R. Majumdar & B. Brandenburg (2014). Foundations of Cyber Physical Systems. Raj10 R. Rajkumar et al. (2010). Cyber Physical Systems: The Next Computing Revolution. 1-18

19 Characteristics of Embedded Systems (1) Must be dependable: Reliability: R(t) = probability of system working correctly provided that it was working at t=0 Maintainability: M(d) = probability of system working correctly d time units after error occurred. Availability: probability of system working at time t Safety: no harm to be caused Security: confidential and authentic communication Making the system dependable must not be an after-thought, it must be considered from the very beginning. 1-19

20 Characteristics of Embedded Systems (2) Must be efficient: Energy efficient Code-size and data memory efficient Run-time efficient Weight efficient Cost efficient Dedicated towards a certain application: Knowledge about behavior at design time can be used to minimize resources and to maximize robustness. 1-20

21 Characteristics of Embedded Systems (3) Many ES must meet real-time constraints: A real-time system must react to stimuli from the controlled object (or the operator) within the time interval dictated by the environment. For real-time systems, right answers arriving too late are wrong. A real-time constraint is called hard, if not meeting that constraint could result in a catastrophe [Kopetz, 1997]. All other time-constraints are called soft. A guaranteed system response has to be explained without statistical arguments. 1-21

22 Characteristics of Embedded Systems (4) Typically, ES are reactive systems: A reactive system is one which is in continual interaction with is environment and executes at a pace determined by that environment [Bergé, 1995] Frequently connected to physical environment through sensors and actuators (CPS). In these cases, the analog and digital system aspects need to be considered: hybrid systems. 1-22

23 Comparison Embedded Systems Few applications that are known at design-time. Not programmable by end user. Fixed run-time requirements (additional computing power not useful). Criteria: cost power consumption predictability General Purpose Computing Broad class of applications. Programmable by end user. Faster is better. Criteria: cost power consumption average speed 1-23

24 Trends Since long time, embedded systems overtook the market of PCs and Laptops. Ubiquitous and pervasive computing, Internet of Things: Information anytime, anywhere; building ambient intelligence into our environment; internet of things: Wearable computers Smart Labels on consumer products Intelligent buildings Environmental Monitoring Traffic control and communicating automobiles Embedded systems provide the basic technology. 1-24

25 Trends Embedded systems are communicating, very often wireless. Higher degree of integration on a single chip: Memory + processor + I/O-units + (wireless) communication. Network on chip for communication between units. Multiprocessor Systems on a Chip (MPSoC). Microsystems that contain energy harvesting, energy storage, sensing, processing and communication ( zero power systems ). Software increasing (amount and complexity). Low power and energy constraints (portable or unattended devices) are increasingly important, as well as temperature constraints (overheating). Increased interest in energy harvesting to achieve long term autonomous operation. 1-25

26 Multiprocessor systems-on-a-chip (MPSoCs) Samsung Galaxy Note II Eynos 4412 System on a Chip (SoC) ARM Cortex-A9 processing core 32 nanometer: transistor gate width Four processing cores 1-26

27 Example ST2012/STHORM 1-27

28 Zero Power Systems and Sensors 1-28

29 Zero Power Systems and Sensors IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 48, NO. 1, JANUARY

30 Zero Power Systems and Sensors Z-Sys and Guardian Angel Research Proposals

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