6. Typical discrete input and output devices 6.1 Discrete input devices

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "6. Typical discrete input and output devices 6.1 Discrete input devices"

Transcription

1 6. Typical discrete input and output devices 6.1 Discrete input devices Manual switches and push buttons. They are used to initiate or select process operations or input values by the system operator. They can have single or multiple contacts. The contacts in multiple contact switches (eg. thumbwheels) or multiple contact push buttons (eg. keyboards) operate simultaneously. If connected to a PLC, each contact occupies one PLC input! A push button with one metal contact. A keypad with conductive rubber contacts: each pushbutton, when depressed, produces the signal state 1 in the two output lines representing its row and column in the matrix. EEET2204 Industrial Automation by Dr Peter Graszkiewicz 1 Limit switches lever pushed down by contact with a moving object to close the switch PLC input Proximity switches A metallic object placed close to an inductive proximity switch changes the inductance of the device sensing coil. An object, which can be nonconductive, placed close to a capacitive proximity switch changes the capacitance of the device sensor. The change is detected by the electronic circuit of the device and results in the operation of the electronic switch EEET2204 Industrial Automation by Dr Peter Graszkiewicz 2 1

2 Two-wire proximity switches are available, where the device internal circuit is supplied through the switched circuit. Proximity switch PLC DC supply source Equivalent cct. Photoelectric switches Light beam (photoelectric barrier) The PLC input current of a few ma is sufficient to supply power to the proximity switch. (LED) Photodetector PLC input PLC input Object Object EEET2204 Industrial Automation by Dr Peter Graszkiewicz 3 Encoders EEET2204 Industrial Automation by Dr Peter Graszkiewicz 4 2

3 Incremental encoders LED Photodetector to PLC input (standard or special) The number of the photodetector pulses (eg. counted by a PLC) is a measure of the angle through which the disc has rotated. This type of encoder is used for speed and distance measurement. Encoder output waveforms Incremental encoders often supply a second signal (B) that is offset by ¼ of a cycle from signal A. It is used to determine the direction of rotation and also increase the resolution. Signal Z is a once-per-revolution index (zeromark) pulse. EEET2204 Industrial Automation by Dr Peter Graszkiewicz 5 Absolute encoders Photodetectors To PLC inputs (standard or special) This type of encoder is used for position measurement. The number of tracks in the binary code pattern on the disc determines the angular resolution. In the example shown: 3 tracks 3 bits 2 3 =8 discrete positions angular resolution= 360 o /8 = 45 o Binary code The actual disc of an 8-bit absolute encoder (Grey code) Output waveforms from a 6-bit absolute encoder (Binary code) EEET2204 Industrial Automation by Dr Peter Graszkiewicz 6 3

4 Applications of encoders The encoder determines the position of a work table through a ball screw The encoder determines the relative position, direction and speed of travel in a bi-directional conveyor belt The encoder measures the distance travelled for a cut-to-length operation The encoder measures the position and velocity of the rack and pinion. EEET2204 Industrial Automation by Dr Peter Graszkiewicz 7 Application of encoders - Design example An encoder is to be selected for the cut-to-length system shown in the previous slide. The material travels at a speed of 12 m/min. The circumference of the friction wheel is 0.25 m. The measurement of the distance travelled by the material requires a resolution of 0.1 mm. The encoder is to be connected to a PLC. The maximum frequency of the input signal acceptable by the PLC is 10 khz. 1. Determine the type of the encoder and the signals needed for the measurement? 2. Find the number of pulses per turn the encoder is required to provide. 3. Check, if the PLC is suitable for processing the encoder signals. Answer: 1. Only signal A from an incremental encoder is needed. 2. Number of pulses per turn: N = 0.25/(0.1 x 10-3 ) = 2500 pulse/turn 3. Signal A frequency: f = (12 x 2500)/(0.25 x 60) = 2000 Hz < 10 khz EEET2204 Industrial Automation by Dr Peter Graszkiewicz 8 4

5 Other switches In this category, there are mechanical and electronic switches that close/open in response to changes in such process variables as temperature, pressure,flow rate, liquid level, etc. Many of these switches can be of a simple mechanical design (eg. bimetallic temperature switches, liquid level switches with a float, flow switches, etc.) PLC PLC vane PLC float PLC t o p Flow switch Fluid level switch Temperature switch Pressure switch EEET2204 Industrial Automation by Dr Peter Graszkiewicz Discrete output devices Contactors to PLC output to power supply terminals (eg. 3 - phase) Solenoid valves piston in cylinder to load terminals (eg. motor, inverter, resistor) spool NO current A B A B I Spring pulls back to the left Fluid out (no pressure) Fluid in (pressure) magnetic core solenoid coil Fluid in (pressure) solenoid energised EEET2204 Industrial Automation by Dr Peter Graszkiewicz 10 5

6 Solenoid valves are used to control the flow direction of pressurised air or oil in order to control the operation of a mechanical device, such as a piston moving in a cylinder. The movement of the piston can be utilised rise/lower parts of a machine, clamp objects, push items off a conveyor belt, etc. Example A B A B A B Pressure port P T P T Graphical symbol of the hydraulic solenoid valve shown on the previous slide. The connections are always shown for the state when the solenoid is not energised (normal state). If this type of cylinder is used, only one s. valve is required P P P P vent Pneumatic valves When no solenoid is energised, the barrier stays in the acquired position. EEET2204 Industrial Automation by Dr Peter Graszkiewicz Digital input and output modules 7.1 Input modules The digital (discrete) input signals of a PLC can come from various field devices containing mechanical or electronic switches (see Section 3). These signals can be either DC or AC and have nominal values ranging from 5V to 240 V. In general, they have to be properly interfaced with the CPU, as it operates at a low DC voltage level and is sensitive to interference. A typical PLC input module: provides electric (galvanic) isolation between the field input circuits and the CPU; converts the voltage level of the input field device signal to the level at which the CPU operates; protects the CPU from abnormally high voltages in the input circuit due to switching transients (voltage spikes) or faulty conditions; limits the interference that may affect the input signal (ground loops broken by the isolation barrier, filters). EEET2204 Industrial Automation by Dr Peter Graszkiewicz 12 6

7 Field Input Device +V cc + Input cct DC power supply LED Signal Indicator R 1 R2 Buffer To CPU Galvanic isolation between circuits Optocoupler PLC DC input circuit PLC Input Module (DC) 1. If the contact of the field input device is closed (SS=1), the indicator LED and the LED of the optocoupler (optoisolator) are lit. 2. As a result, the phototransistor of the optocupler is saturated (in ON state) and its collector voltage is low (SS=0). 3. The signal from the optocupler is inverted in the buffer so that the CPU receives the same signal state as the input of the module. EEET2204 Industrial Automation by Dr Peter Graszkiewicz 13 Field Input Device +V cc R 3 R 1 R 2 Buffer To CPU Input cct AC power supply Neon lamp signal indicator V 1 Optocoupler PLC AC input circuit C PLC Input Module (AC) 1. If the contact of the field input device is closed (SS=1), the indicator neon lamp is lit. The optocoupler LED is lit by a rectified sinusoidal current from the diode bridge. 2. Consequently, the optocoupler phototransistor remains in saturation most of the time. Its collector voltage stays low continuously, due to the filter formed by R 2 and C. 3. The signal from the optocupler is inverted in the buffer, so that the CPU receives the same signal state as the input of the module. EEET2204 Industrial Automation by Dr Peter Graszkiewicz 14 7

8 7.2 Output modules The output field devices connected to a PLC operate at different voltage levels, usually higher then that of the CPU. The output connections from the PLC can carry inference back to the CPU. For these reasons, a typical PLC output module: provides electric (galvanic) isolation between the field output circuit and the CPU; converts the voltage level required by the output field device to the level of the CPU output sinal; protects the CPU from abnormally high voltages across its output terminals due to switching transients (voltage spikes) or faulty conditions in the output circuit ; limits the interference that may affect the CPU. EEET2204 Industrial Automation by Dr Peter Graszkiewicz 15 +V cc R 2 V 2 Output cct DC power supply + From CPU R 1 V 4 V 1 V 3 PLC Output Module (DC) Output Indicator R 3 Field Output Device PLC DC output circuit 1. If the CPU output signal state is 1, transistor V 1 and the phototransistor of optocoupler V 2 are on. Transistor V 3 is also on, as the emitter current of the phototransistor drives the base of transistor V 3. It now acts as a closed switch in the output load circuit. 2. Zener diode V 4 acts as a free-wheeling diode, if the field output device is inductive. It also protects transistor V 3 from inverse polarity or excessive value of the voltage across the output terminals. EEET2204 Industrial Automation by Dr Peter Graszkiewicz 16 8

9 +V cc R 2 R 3 Output cct AC power supply From CPU R 1 V 2 V 3 V 1 PLC Output Module (AC) Output Indicator PLC AC output circuit Field Output Device 1. If the CPU output signal state is 1, transistor V 1 and the phototransistor of optocoupler V 2 are on. The phototransistor conducts a dc current rectified by the diode bridge and limited by resistor R The current on the AC side of the diode bridge flows through the gate of TRIAC V 3. This current triggers the TRIAC every half period of the voltage in the load circuit. V 3 acts now as a closed switch. EEET2204 Industrial Automation by Dr Peter Graszkiewicz 17 +V cc From CPU V 2 R 1 Output cct power supply (DC or AC) V 1 PLC Output Module Field Output Device PLC AC output circuit with relay switching 1. If the CPU output signal state is 1, transistor V 1 conducts the current that energises the coil of the miniature electromechanical relay. The state of the N/O contact of the relay is the same as the SS of the CPU signal. 2. The field power supply in the output circuit can be DC or AC. The frequency of the output switching is low. EEET2204 Industrial Automation by Dr Peter Graszkiewicz 18 9

10 8. Analog signals in PLC systems 8.1 Types of analog signals An electric analog signal is either voltage or current that varies within a predetermined (nominal) range of values. Typical nominal ranges are: 0 10 V 4 20 ma a voltage signal v(t) = 0 5V a current signal i(t) = -10 V V 0 20 ma Using current to transmit analog signals has the following advantages: Current signals are more immune to interference than voltage signals, since its value is unaffected by voltage drops in the conductors, stray thermocouples, contact resistance, and noise voltage due to capacitive and inductive coupling. The offset of 4 ma (in the case of 4 20 ma signal) provides a distinction between zero signal represented by 4 ma and no information due to an open circuit. EEET2204 Industrial Automation by Dr Peter Graszkiewicz 19 The source of the signal (an electronic system) can receive power supply via the 4 ma component that is not needed for information transfer. Current-to-voltage conversion can be done simply by passing the current signal through a resistor and utilising the voltage drop across the resistor as the converted voltage signal. Reversed conversion requires a voltage-to-current converter. v interference = v cap. coupl + v ind. coupl. + v contacts + i R line + Z line i s R 1 R n Voltage signal source + V s - i + V in - Current s. source + - V cs Several loads can be connected in series V s V in Isolated V/I converter V cs = i s (R R n) < V csmax Analog signal transmission circuit with voltage-to-current conversion EEET2204 Industrial Automation by Dr Peter Graszkiewicz 20 10

11 8.2 Interference considerations V n C cn i n Interference source V s Signal source R Signal load (equivalent cct.) Capacitive coupling between two circuits C cn is the equivalent coupling capacitance between the signal circuit and the circuit which is the source of interference. R is the input resistance of the system receiving the signal. The interference voltage (electrostatic pickup, capacitively coupled noise), which is added to the signal voltage, is, therefore, R i n. The electrostatic pickup can be reduced by proper orientation and separation of the coupled conductors (it decreases the value of C cn and, subsequently, i n ) or by shielding. The shield is placed around the signal conductors and must be connected to ground. If a shield is employed, current i n flows into the shield, instead of the signal conductor, and is drained to the ground without affecting the signal circuit. EEET2204 Industrial Automation by Dr Peter Graszkiewicz 21 V n = dφ cn /dt Signal source V s Φ cn V s i n Interference source circuit The current in the interference source circuit i n generates a magnetic flux. A part of that flux, Φ cn, is linked with the signal circuit and induces in it an interference voltage (inductive pickup, inductively coupled noise), the value of which is dφ cn /dt. Separating the coupled circuits and minimising their loop areas reduces the inductive pickup (Φ cn ). Shielding against inductive pickup is ineffective, as magnetic fields penetrate deep into metals at low frequencies. A twisted pair of conductors is widely used for signal wiring to reduce inductive pickup. It minimises the loop area in the signal circuit and provides a cancelling effect of voltages induced along the circuit. EEET2204 Industrial Automation by Dr Peter Graszkiewicz 22 11

Sensors Collecting Manufacturing Process Data

Sensors Collecting Manufacturing Process Data Sensors & Actuators Sensors Collecting Manufacturing Process Data Data must be collected from the manufacturing process Data (commands and instructions) must be communicated to the process Data are of

More information

Input and Output Devices

Input and Output Devices Input and Output Devices Brief overview of typical input and output devices used with PLC s. INPUT DEVICES: Sensors which give digital/discrete, i.e. on/off signal to the input ports of the PLC. Mechanical

More information

CHAPTER 8 OBJECT REGISTERING SENSORS

CHAPTER 8 OBJECT REGISTERING SENSORS CHAPTER 8 OBJECT REGISTERING SENSORS 8.1. Contact sensors for object registering Mechanical switches can be used as contact sensors for object registering. They generate signals of the on/off type as a

More information

Design and Applications of HCPL-3020 and HCPL-0302 Gate Drive Optocouplers

Design and Applications of HCPL-3020 and HCPL-0302 Gate Drive Optocouplers Design and Applications of HCPL-00 and HCPL-00 Gate Drive Optocouplers Application Note 00 Introduction The HCPL-00 (DIP-) and HCPL-00 (SO-) consist of GaAsP LED optically coupled to an integrated circuit

More information

3. PLC HARDWARE 3.1 INTRODUCTION

3. PLC HARDWARE 3.1 INTRODUCTION plc wiring - 3.1 Topics: PLC hardware configurations Input and outputs types Electrical wiring for inputs and outputs Relays Electrical Ladder Diagrams and JIC wiring symbols Objectives: Be able to understand

More information

Proximity and Limit Switches

Proximity and Limit Switches Proximity and Limit Switches A variety of sensors are available that give ON/OFF (or yes/no) binary outputs Mechanical limit switches often called microswitches activation causes electrical contacts to

More information

Actuation systems. Control code Command Signal. Microprocessor or Microcontroller PLANT

Actuation systems. Control code Command Signal. Microprocessor or Microcontroller PLANT Actuation systems Actuation systems are the elements of control systems which are responsible for transforming the output of a microcontrollers or microprocessor or control system into a controlling action

More information

Diode Applications. by Kenneth A. Kuhn Sept. 1, 2008. This note illustrates some common applications of diodes.

Diode Applications. by Kenneth A. Kuhn Sept. 1, 2008. This note illustrates some common applications of diodes. by Kenneth A. Kuhn Sept. 1, 2008 This note illustrates some common applications of diodes. Power supply applications A common application for diodes is converting AC to DC. Although half-wave rectification

More information

GenTech Practice Questions

GenTech Practice Questions GenTech Practice Questions Basic Electronics Test: This test will assess your knowledge of and ability to apply the principles of Basic Electronics. This test is comprised of 90 questions in the following

More information

Chapter 4: Input/Output Modules and. Computer Aided Manufacturing TECH 4/

Chapter 4: Input/Output Modules and. Computer Aided Manufacturing TECH 4/ Chapter 4: Input/Output Modules and Installation Computer Aided Manufacturing TECH 4/53350 1 Learning objectives Understand Wiring of typical sensors and actuators to PLC I/O modules Surge protection for

More information

CIS009-2, Mechatronics Sensors & Signal Conditioning

CIS009-2, Mechatronics Sensors & Signal Conditioning CIS009-2, & Signal Conditioning Bedfordshire 29 th November 2012 Outline Bedfordshire 31 1 Linear variable differential transformer Temperature Resistance Temperature Detector 3 4 ˆ are Input devices which

More information

Process modules Digital input PMI for 24 V DC inputs for 120 V AC inputs

Process modules Digital input PMI for 24 V DC inputs for 120 V AC inputs E031026 000823 Process modules Digital input PMI for inputs for 120 V AC inputs PMI Input E4, E5, GND L- PMI 120 V AC Input E4, E5, Common C E6, E7, GND L- E6, E7, Common C LEDs for the inputs operation

More information

Design fundamentals of implementing an isolated half-bridge gate driver

Design fundamentals of implementing an isolated half-bridge gate driver Design fundamentals of implementing an isolated half-bridge gate driver Isolated half-bridge gate drivers are used in many applications that range from isolated dc-to-dc power supply modules where high

More information

TOYOTA ELECTRONIC CONTROL TRANSMISSION

TOYOTA ELECTRONIC CONTROL TRANSMISSION Electronic Control Transmission (ECT) The Electronic Control Transmission is an automatic transmission which uses modern electronic control technologies to control the transmission. The transmission itself,

More information

Electronics - Physics 2010/11. Transducers

Electronics - Physics 2010/11. Transducers Transducers Transducers Sensors Performance Type: Temperature, Light, Force, Motion, Displacement, Sound Interfacing Actuators Type: Heat, Light, Force, Displacement, Motion, Sound Interfacing Introduction

More information

Principles of Adjustable Frequency Drives

Principles of Adjustable Frequency Drives What is an Adjustable Frequency Drive? An adjustable frequency drive is a system for controlling the speed of an AC motor by controlling the frequency of the power supplied to the motor. A basic adjustable

More information

Michelin North America

Michelin North America www.centecinc.com SC Telephone: 864.527.7750 Outside SC: 800.227.0855 Michelin North America Industrial Maintenance Technical Interview Outline Industrial Maintenance Technical Interview Outline The Technical

More information

Programming Logic controllers

Programming Logic controllers Programming Logic controllers Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is a microprocessor based system that uses programmable memory to store instructions and implement functions such as logic, sequencing,

More information

Safety Barriers Series 9001, 9002 Standard Applications

Safety Barriers Series 9001, 9002 Standard Applications Standard s Analog input with transmitter Smart Field circuit grounded 9001/51-80-091-141 09949E0 Load of transmitter U N = + 0 V... 35 V I N = 3.6 ma... ma R L ( 350 O U min (I N= 0 ma) U N - 9.5 V 14

More information

VFD 101 Lesson 3. Parts of a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD)

VFD 101 Lesson 3. Parts of a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) VFD 101 Lesson 3 Parts of a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) This lesson covers the parts that make up the Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) and describes the basic operation of each part. Here is the basics

More information

Michelin North America, Inc. Industrial Maintenance Interview Outline

Michelin North America, Inc. Industrial Maintenance Interview Outline Michelin North America, Inc. Industrial Maintenance Interview Outline Copyright 2012 Michelin North America, Inc. All rights reserved. The Michelin Man is a registered trademark of Michelin North America,

More information

LABORATORY EXPERIMENT. Infrared Transmitter/Receiver

LABORATORY EXPERIMENT. Infrared Transmitter/Receiver LABORATORY EXPERIMENT Infrared Transmitter/Receiver (Note to Teaching Assistant: The week before this experiment is performed, place students into groups of two and assign each group a specific frequency

More information

TECHNICAL DATASHEET #TD1404AX PWM CONTROLLED SOLENOID DRIVER

TECHNICAL DATASHEET #TD1404AX PWM CONTROLLED SOLENOID DRIVER TECHNICAL DATASHEET #TD1404AX PWM CONTROLLED SOLENOID DRIVER (PWM Input, 1.2A or 2A Output, Metal Box or PCB) PCB Board - P/N: PWMC-PCB-2A, PWMC-PCB-1.2A Packaged Driver (metal box with 1.5 m (5 ft.) cable)

More information

Lesson 5. Sensors and Programmable Controls

Lesson 5. Sensors and Programmable Controls Sensors and Programmable Controls Assignment 15 should be considered unrelated to assignments 16, 17, and 18, since its primary focus is on detection sensors while the other three assignments address topics

More information

PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Unit code: A/601/1625 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 1

PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Unit code: A/601/1625 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 1 UNIT 22: PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Unit code: A/601/1625 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 1 This tutorial covers all of outcome 1. The material is quite suitable for anyone wishing to study this

More information

Data Sheet SIMATIC S7-200 CPU 226 DC/DC/DC and CPU 226 AC/DC/Relay

Data Sheet SIMATIC S7-200 CPU 226 DC/DC/DC and CPU 226 AC/DC/Relay SIMATIC S7-200 and Table 1 Specifications for and Physical Size Dimensions (W x H x D) Weight Power loss (dissipation) CPU Features On-board digital inputs On-board digital outputs High speed counters

More information

APPLICATION NOTE - 017

APPLICATION NOTE - 017 APPLICATION NOTE - 017 PWM Motor Drives Theory and Measurement Considerations Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) power electronic techniques represent a large and increasing proportion of modern power electronics.

More information

E&I MAINTENANCE ENTRY TEST ENABLING OBJECTIVES. DESCRIBE hazards and precautions taken to avoid injury in the workplace.

E&I MAINTENANCE ENTRY TEST ENABLING OBJECTIVES. DESCRIBE hazards and precautions taken to avoid injury in the workplace. SAFETY Industrial DESCRIBE hazards and precautions taken to avoid injury in the workplace. Example #1: All of the following are common PPE used to perform maintenance activities EXCEPT: a. Safety Glasses

More information

Fig 3. PLC Relay Output

Fig 3. PLC Relay Output 1. Function of a PLC PLC Basics A PLC is a microprocessor-based controller with multiple inputs and outputs. It uses a programmable memory to store instructions and carry out functions to control machines

More information

PLC Line. USER S MANUAL Catalog No Rev. E

PLC Line. USER S MANUAL Catalog No Rev. E PLC Line USER S MANUAL Catalog No. 100125 Rev. E May 2015 Copyright 2015 Intelitek Inc. PLC Line User s Manual Catalog No. 100125 Rev. E May 2015 Every effort has been made to make this technical note

More information

Technical Description

Technical Description abcxyz Contents 1. General...1 2. Block Diagram...2 3. First Steps...2 4. Technical Data...3 4.1 AS-Interface...3 4.2 Pin Out...4 4.3 Supply of Periphery...4 4.4 Inputs...5 4.5 Outputs...5 4.6 Mechanical

More information

DRTS 33. The new generation of advanced test equipments for Relays, Energy meters, Transducers and Power quality meters

DRTS 33. The new generation of advanced test equipments for Relays, Energy meters, Transducers and Power quality meters The new generation of advanced test equipments for Relays, Energy meters, Transducers and Power quality meters Testing all relay technologies: electromechanical, solid state, numerical and IEC61850 Manual

More information

Supply circuits Voltage rectifier and regulator circuits

Supply circuits Voltage rectifier and regulator circuits Supply circuits Voltage rectifier and regulator circuits Prepared by: Józef Maciak Agnieszka Zaręba Jakub Walczak I. Design of half wave and full wave rectifiers Due to its I-V characteristic, the simplest

More information

Introduction to Process Control Actuators

Introduction to Process Control Actuators 1 Introduction to Process Control Actuators Actuators are the final elements in a control system. They receive a low power command signal and energy input to amplify the command signal as appropriate to

More information

Wires & Connections Component Circuit Symbol Function of Component. Power Supplies Component Circuit Symbol Function of Component

Wires & Connections Component Circuit Symbol Function of Component. Power Supplies Component Circuit Symbol Function of Component Lista Dei Simboli Dei Circuiti Per i Componenti Elettronici Wires & Connections Wire Wires joined Wires not joined To pass current very easily from one part of a circuit to another. A 'blob' should be

More information

A.4 Specifications for the CPU 224

A.4 Specifications for the CPU 224 A.4 Specifications for the CPU 224 Specifications for and Physical Size Dimensions (W x H x D) Weight Power loss (dissipation) CPU Features On-Board digital inputs On-Board digital outputs High speed counters

More information

NTE2053 Integrated Circuit 8 Bit MPU Compatible A/D Converter

NTE2053 Integrated Circuit 8 Bit MPU Compatible A/D Converter NTE2053 Integrated Circuit 8 Bit MPU Compatible A/D Converter Description: The NTE2053 is a CMOS 8 bit successive approximation Analog to Digital converter in a 20 Lead DIP type package which uses a differential

More information

Line Reactors and AC Drives

Line Reactors and AC Drives Line Reactors and AC Drives Rockwell Automation Mequon Wisconsin Quite often, line and load reactors are installed on AC drives without a solid understanding of why or what the positive and negative consequences

More information

Study Guide for the Electronics Technician Pre-Employment Examination

Study Guide for the Electronics Technician Pre-Employment Examination Bay Area Rapid Transit District Study Guide for the Electronics Technician Pre-Employment Examination INTRODUCTION The Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District makes extensive use of electronics technology

More information

Displacement, position and proximity sensor

Displacement, position and proximity sensor Displacement, position and proximity sensor Displacement sensors are concerned with the measurement of amount by which some object has moved Position sensors are concerned with the determination of the

More information

Adding Heart to Your Technology

Adding Heart to Your Technology RMCM-01 Heart Rate Receiver Component Product code #: 39025074 KEY FEATURES High Filtering Unit Designed to work well on constant noise fields SMD component: To be installed as a standard component to

More information

Application Examples

Application Examples ISHAY SEMICONDUCTORS www.vishay.com Optocouplers and Solid-State Relays Application Note 2 INTRODUCTION Optocouplers are used to isolate signals for protection and safety between a safe and a potentially

More information

AE8-1328 R5 March 2011. Copeland Digital Compressor Controller AE8-1328 R5. Specifications

AE8-1328 R5 March 2011. Copeland Digital Compressor Controller AE8-1328 R5. Specifications AE8-1328 R5 March 2011 Copeland Digital Compressor Controller Introduction The Digital Compressor Controller is the electronics interface between the Copeland Scroll Digital compressor or the Copeland

More information

Common Electrical Symbols

Common Electrical Symbols T: 01246 455565 F: 01246 455244 W: www.reconelectrical.co.uk E: sales@reconelectrical.co.uk Common Electrical Symbols This is not a definitive list of all symbols used in electrical identification, but

More information

Actuators & Sensors. Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu. Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering Izmir Institute of Technology.

Actuators & Sensors. Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu. Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering Izmir Institute of Technology. Actuators & Sensors Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering Izmir Institute of Technology Chapter 2 Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE) EE463 Introduction

More information

High Tech High Top Hat Technicians. Introduction to Encoders. You spin me right 'round, baby, right 'round

High Tech High Top Hat Technicians. Introduction to Encoders. You spin me right 'round, baby, right 'round High Tech High Top Hat Technicians Introduction to Encoders Or You spin me right 'round, baby, right 'round Encoders: Linear versus Rotary Linear encoders measure linear motion A coded linear scale moves

More information

DaqScribe Solutions P.O Box 958 Carson City NV Author: Sam Herceg A basic understanding of grounding and ground loops

DaqScribe Solutions P.O Box 958 Carson City NV Author: Sam Herceg A basic understanding of grounding and ground loops DaqScribe Solutions P.O Box 958 Carson City NV. 89702 Author: Sam Herceg sherceg@pyramid.net A basic understanding of grounding and ground loops In the world of data acquisition if there is one thing which

More information

INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL TUTORIAL 3 SIGNAL PROCESSORS AND RECEIVERS

INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL TUTORIAL 3 SIGNAL PROCESSORS AND RECEIVERS INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL TUTORIAL 3 SIGNAL PROCESSORS AND RECEIVERS This tutorial provides an overview of signal processing and conditioning for use in instrumentation and automatic control systems.

More information

Contactless Encoder RI360P0-QR24M0-INCRX2-H1181

Contactless Encoder RI360P0-QR24M0-INCRX2-H1181 Compact, rugged housing Many mounting possibilities Status displayed via LED Immune to electromagnetic interference 1024 pulses per revolution (default) 360, 512, 1000, 1024, 2048, 2500, 3600, 4096, parametr.

More information

Protecting AC Output SSRs against voltage transient phenomena

Protecting AC Output SSRs against voltage transient phenomena January 2012 Protecting AC Output SSRs against voltage transient phenomena valves, etc.), distribution equipment placed on the electrical supply (micro power cut, etc.). These phenomena exist on all industrial

More information

Troubleshooting accelerometer installations

Troubleshooting accelerometer installations Troubleshooting accelerometer installations Accelerometer based monitoring systems can be tested to verify proper installation and operation. Testing ensures data integrity and can identify most problems.

More information

Technical Memo. Theory Of Operation OVERVIEW ACTUATOR

Technical Memo. Theory Of Operation OVERVIEW ACTUATOR Electraulic Actuators & Drives Theory Of Operation Technical Memo REXA 4 Manley Street W. Bridgewater, MA 02379 Tel: 508.584.1199 Fax: 508.584.2525 OVERVIEW The REXA Xpac is a microprocessor controlled,

More information

Properties of electrical signals

Properties of electrical signals DC Voltage Component (Average voltage) Properties of electrical signals v(t) = V DC + v ac (t) V DC is the voltage value displayed on a DC voltmeter Triangular waveform DC component Half-wave rectifier

More information

Is Electrical Interference Crippling your Control System? Understand it and you can defeat it

Is Electrical Interference Crippling your Control System? Understand it and you can defeat it Is Electrical Interference Crippling your Control System? Understand it and you can defeat it Arthur Holland, Holland Technical Skills When sensor signals are disturbed by an external power source you

More information

Single Channel Loop Detector

Single Channel Loop Detector Single Channel Loop Detector Model - LD100 Series The LD100 is a single channel inductive loop detector designed for parking and access control applications. The detector is connected to an inductive loop

More information

Modelling, Simulation and Performance Analysis of A Variable Frequency Drive in Speed Control Of Induction Motor

Modelling, Simulation and Performance Analysis of A Variable Frequency Drive in Speed Control Of Induction Motor International Journal of Engineering Inventions e-issn: 78-7461, p-issn: 319-6491 Volume 3, Issue 5 (December 013) PP: 36-41 Modelling, Simulation and Performance Analysis of A Variable Frequency Drive

More information

Types of BERO Sensors Sensor Objects Detected Technology

Types of BERO Sensors Sensor Objects Detected Technology BERO Sensors BERO is the trade name used by Siemens to identify its line of no-touch sensors. Siemens BERO sensors operate with no mechanical contact or wear. In the following application, for example,

More information

GLOLAB Universal Telephone Hold

GLOLAB Universal Telephone Hold GLOLAB Universal Telephone Hold 1 UNIVERSAL HOLD CIRCUIT If you have touch tone telephone service, you can now put a call on hold from any phone in the house, even from cordless phones and phones without

More information

EXPERIMENT 2 TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM FOR AN INTERSECTION USING S7-300 PLC

EXPERIMENT 2 TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM FOR AN INTERSECTION USING S7-300 PLC YEDITEPE UNIVERSITY ENGINEERING & ARCHITECTURE FACULTY INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS LABORATORY EE 432 INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS EXPERIMENT 2 TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM FOR AN INTERSECTION USING S7-300 PLC Introduction:

More information

Test Questions for learning objectives. (Select the best answer from the choices given)

Test Questions for learning objectives. (Select the best answer from the choices given) Chapter 1 Test Questions for learning objectives. (Select the best answer from the choices given) 1-1. Write the definition of a PLC 1) PLCs are designed for use in the control of a wide variety of manufacturing

More information

What Is Regeneration?

What Is Regeneration? What Is Regeneration? Braking / Regeneration Manual Regeneration Overview Revision 1.0 When the rotor of an induction motor turns slower than the speed set by the applied frequency, the motor is transforming

More information

MOTIONLESS ELECTRIC GENERATOR DESIGN BASED ON PERMANENT MAGNETS AND MAGNETIC AMPLIFIER

MOTIONLESS ELECTRIC GENERATOR DESIGN BASED ON PERMANENT MAGNETS AND MAGNETIC AMPLIFIER 12/28/2009 MOTIONLESS ELECTRIC GENERATOR DESIGN BASED ON PERMANENT MAGNETS AND MAGNETIC AMPLIFIER FEDERALLY SPONSOR RESEARCH Not Applicable BACKGROUND - Field [0001] This application relates to motionless

More information

Inductive linear position sensor LI500P0-Q25LM0-LIU5X3-H1151

Inductive linear position sensor LI500P0-Q25LM0-LIU5X3-H1151 Rectangular, aluminium / plastic Versatile mounting possibilities LED indicates measuring range Immune to electromagnetic interference Extremely short blind zones Resolution, 12-bit 4-wire, 15 30 VDC Analog

More information

Fundamentals of Power Electronics. Robert W. Erickson University of Colorado, Boulder

Fundamentals of Power Electronics. Robert W. Erickson University of Colorado, Boulder Robert W. Erickson University of Colorado, Boulder 1 1.1. Introduction to power processing 1.2. Some applications of power electronics 1.3. Elements of power electronics Summary of the course 2 1.1 Introduction

More information

GLOLAB Two Wire Stepper Motor Positioner

GLOLAB Two Wire Stepper Motor Positioner Introduction A simple and inexpensive way to remotely rotate a display or object is with a positioner that uses a stepper motor to rotate it. The motor is driven by a circuit mounted near the motor and

More information

UNIVERSITY OF BOLTON. ENGINEERING, SPORTS and SCIENCES BSC (HONS) MECHATRONICS SEMESTER 1 EXAMINATION 2013/2014 ELECTRONICS FOR MECHATRONICS

UNIVERSITY OF BOLTON. ENGINEERING, SPORTS and SCIENCES BSC (HONS) MECHATRONICS SEMESTER 1 EXAMINATION 2013/2014 ELECTRONICS FOR MECHATRONICS [kh24] UNIVERSITY OF BOLTON ENGINEERING, SPORTS and SCIENCES BSC (HONS) MECHATRONICS SEMESTER 1 EXAMINATION 2013/2014 ELECTRONICS FOR MECHATRONICS MODULE NO: MEC6005 Date: 16 December 2013 Time: 10:00

More information

For BSc Computer Science Off Campus Stream

For BSc Computer Science Off Campus Stream CORE I - BASIC ELECTRONICS AND COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS For BSc Computer Science Off Campus Stream 1. The advantage of transistor over vacuum tube is 1. No heat is required 2. Small size and light in weight

More information

Elektor's Arduino 37 in 1 Sensor kit (Part No )

Elektor's Arduino 37 in 1 Sensor kit (Part No ) Elektor's Arduino 37 in 1 Sensor kit (Part No. 150001-91) The Elektor set for the Arduino system consists of 37 individual modules which can be used to carry out many interesting experiments using the

More information

Typical ECM/PCM Inputs

Typical ECM/PCM Inputs Typical ECM/PCM Inputs The computer system components fall into two categories: sensors (inputs) and controlled components (outputs). Each system has sensors. Not every system has all the ones listed,

More information

Barrier Logic Loop Detector

Barrier Logic Loop Detector Barrier Logic Loop Detector Model - BL100B The BL100B combines the features of a loop detector and barrier logic into a single unit. The unit has been developed to control barriers using magnetic motors

More information

The NPN Transistor Bias and Switching

The NPN Transistor Bias and Switching The NPN Transistor Bias and Switching Transistor Linear Amplifier Equipment Oscilloscope Function Generator (FG) Bread board 9V Battery and leads Resistors:, 10 kω, Capacitors: ( 2) NPN Transistor Potentiometer

More information

Three Channel Optical Incremental Encoder Modules Technical Data

Three Channel Optical Incremental Encoder Modules Technical Data Three Channel Optical Incremental Encoder Modules Technical Data HEDS-9040 HEDS-9140 Features Two Channel Quadrature Output with Index Pulse Resolution Up to 2000 CPR Counts Per Revolution Low Cost Easy

More information

Improvements of Reliability of Micro Hydro Power Plants in Sri Lanka

Improvements of Reliability of Micro Hydro Power Plants in Sri Lanka Improvements of Reliability of Micro Hydro Power Plants in Sri Lanka S S B Udugampala, V Vijayarajah, N T L W Vithanawasam, W M S C Weerasinghe, Supervised by: Eng J Karunanayake, Dr. K T M U Hemapala

More information

ABB Drives. User s Manual. Pulse Encoder Interface Module RTAC-01

ABB Drives. User s Manual. Pulse Encoder Interface Module RTAC-01 ABB Drives User s Manual Pulse Encoder Interface Module RTAC-0 Pulse Encoder Interface Module RTAC-0 User s Manual 3AFE 64486853 REV A EN EFFECTIVE:.5.00 00 ABB Oy. All Rights Reserved. Safety instructions

More information

Vibration sensor wiring and cabling

Vibration sensor wiring and cabling Vibration sensor wiring and cabling This technical note describes basic wiring and cabling installation techniques for accelerometers and other vibration sensors. It will allow qualified field technicians

More information

Whale 3. User Manual and Installation Guide. DC Servo drive. Contents. 1. Safety, policy and warranty. 1.1. Safety notes. 1.2. Policy. 1.3. Warranty.

Whale 3. User Manual and Installation Guide. DC Servo drive. Contents. 1. Safety, policy and warranty. 1.1. Safety notes. 1.2. Policy. 1.3. Warranty. Whale 3 DC Servo drive User Manual and Installation Guide Contents 1. Safety, policy and warranty. 1.1. Safety notes. 1.2. Policy. 1.3. Warranty. 2. Electric specifications. 2.1.Operation ranges. 3. Connections

More information

MIDECO v.2 64-outputs MIDI note decoder

MIDECO v.2 64-outputs MIDI note decoder MIDECO v.2 64-outputs MIDI note decoder USER MANUAL Roman Sowa 2013 www.midi-hardware.com 1. Overview Thank you for choosing MIDECO as your new MIDI-to-digital converter. This short manual will guide you

More information

The quadrature signals and the index pulse are accessed through five 0.025 inch square pins located on 0.1 inch centers.

The quadrature signals and the index pulse are accessed through five 0.025 inch square pins located on 0.1 inch centers. Quick Assembly Two and Three Channel Optical Encoders Technical Data HEDM-550x/560x HEDS-550x/554x HEDS-560x/564x Features Two Channel Quadrature Output with Optional Index Pulse Quick and Easy Assembly

More information

ABB Drives. User s Manual HTL Encoder Interface FEN-31

ABB Drives. User s Manual HTL Encoder Interface FEN-31 ABB Drives User s Manual HTL Encoder Interface FEN-31 HTL Encoder Interface FEN-31 User s Manual 3AUA0000031044 Rev B EN EFFECTIVE: 2010-04-06 2010 ABB Oy. All Rights Reserved. 5 Safety instructions

More information

TOPIC 4 ELECTRIC CIRCUITS

TOPIC 4 ELECTRIC CIRCUITS IGCSE Physics 0625 notes Topic 4: Electric Circuits 1 TOPIC 4 ELECTRIC CIRCUITS ELECTRIC CURRENT (I): Current (I) is defined as the rate of flow of electric charge (Q) in an electric conductor. The unit

More information

Recognizing and understanding schematic symbols will enable you to comprehend a circuit s function.

Recognizing and understanding schematic symbols will enable you to comprehend a circuit s function. Schematic symbols are used to identify and graphically depict the function of fluid power components. Recognizing and understanding schematic symbols will enable you to comprehend a circuit s function.

More information

Subminiature Load Cell Model 8417

Subminiature Load Cell Model 8417 w Technical Product Information Subminiature Load Cell 1. Introduction... 2 2. Preparing for use... 2 2.1 Unpacking... 2 2.2 Using the instrument for the first time... 2 2.3 Grounding and potential connection...

More information

Electronics Zener Diodes and Photodiodes

Electronics Zener Diodes and Photodiodes Electronics Zener Diodes and Wilfrid Laurier University November 10, 2016 Electronics Zener Diodes and Basic Diode Operation Application: Clamping Basic Diode Operation forward bias Electronics Zener Diodes

More information

Experiment # (7) FSK Modulator

Experiment # (7) FSK Modulator Islamic University of Gaza Faculty of Engineering Electrical Department Experiment # (7) FSK Modulator Digital Communications Lab. Prepared by: Eng. Mohammed K. Abu Foul Experiment Objectives: 1. To understand

More information

Diodes (non-linear devices)

Diodes (non-linear devices) C H A P T E R 4 Diodes (non-linear devices) Diode structure Ideal Diode Figure 4.2 The two modes of operation of ideal diodes and the use of an external circuit to limit (a) the forward current and (b)

More information

GT Sensors Precision Gear Tooth and Encoder Sensors

GT Sensors Precision Gear Tooth and Encoder Sensors GT Sensors Precision Gear Tooth and Encoder Sensors NVE s GT Sensor products are based on a Low Hysteresis GMR sensor material and are designed for use in industrial speed applications where magnetic detection

More information

AEDA-3300 Series Ultra Miniature, High Resolution Incremental Kit Encoders. Features. Applications

AEDA-3300 Series Ultra Miniature, High Resolution Incremental Kit Encoders. Features. Applications AEDA-3300 Series Ultra Miniature, High Resolution Incremental Kit Encoders Data Sheet Description The AEDA-3300 series are high performance, cost effective, three-channel optical incremental encoder modules

More information

Interpret device and circuit operating from drawings Apply schematic readings in circuit diagnostics

Interpret device and circuit operating from drawings Apply schematic readings in circuit diagnostics Supplemental Read, follow, and understand schematics Electrical Hydraulic Pneumatic Interpret device and circuit operating from drawings Apply schematic readings in circuit diagnostics ECET 257 Consumer

More information

Modular I/O System Analog and Digital Interface Modules

Modular I/O System Analog and Digital Interface Modules OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS Modular I/O System Analog and Digital Interface Modules Installation Operation Maintenance Document Information Document ID Title: Operating Instructions Modular I/O System Part

More information

Reed Switch Signal / Electrical Requirements

Reed Switch Signal / Electrical Requirements Reed Switch Signal / Electrical Requirements Reed Switch Application Notes APPLICATION NOTES: Reed Switch Signal / Electrical Requirements Reed switches, though mechanical in nature, ultimately transfer

More information

MAS.836 HOW TO BIAS AN OP-AMP

MAS.836 HOW TO BIAS AN OP-AMP MAS.836 HOW TO BIAS AN OP-AMP Op-Amp Circuits: Bias, in an electronic circuit, describes the steady state operating characteristics with no signal being applied. In an op-amp circuit, the operating characteristic

More information

1 de 13. Kit de 37 sensores compatibles con Arduino

1 de 13. Kit de 37 sensores compatibles con Arduino 1 de 13 Kit de 37 sensores compatibles con Arduino 2 de 13 Item Picture Description KY001: Temperature This module measures the temperature and reports it through the 1-wire bus digitally to the Arduino.

More information

Optical Encoders. K. Craig 1. Actuators & Sensors in Mechatronics. Optical Encoders

Optical Encoders. K. Craig 1. Actuators & Sensors in Mechatronics. Optical Encoders Any transducer that generates a coded reading of a measurement can be termed an encoder. Shaft Encoders are digital transducers that are used for measuring angular displacements and velocities. Relative

More information

Operating Manual Ver.1.1

Operating Manual Ver.1.1 Rectifier Circuit Operating Manual Ver.1.1 An ISO 9001 : 2000 company 94-101, Electronic Complex Pardesipura, Indore- 452010, India Tel : 91-731- 2570301/02, 4211100 Fax: 91-731- 2555643 e mail : info@scientech.bz

More information

JUMPFLEX 857 Series. 0...20 ma 2...10 V. 4...20 ma. Transducers / Relay and Optocoupler Modules

JUMPFLEX 857 Series. 0...20 ma 2...10 V. 4...20 ma. Transducers / Relay and Optocoupler Modules 0888-0172/0002-3601 JUMPFLEX 857 Series 2.0 E 12/08 Printed in Germany Subject to design changes 2...10 V 0...20 ma 4...20 ma WAGO Kontakttechnik GmbH & Co. KG Postfach 2880 32385 Minden Hansastraße 27

More information

Programmable Logic Controller

Programmable Logic Controller Programmable Logic Controller By Dr. Mohammad Salah Mechatronics Engineering Department Hashemite University Outlines Introduction What can a PLC do? Structure and Hardware Programming the PLC PLC Operation

More information

1. E&M induction requires change, of the intensity of a magnetic field or of motion in a magnetic field.

1. E&M induction requires change, of the intensity of a magnetic field or of motion in a magnetic field. Chapter 25 EXERCISE key 1. E&M induction requires change, of the intensity of a magnetic field or of motion in a magnetic field. 2. Magnetic induction will not occur in nylon, since it has no magnetic

More information

AN460 Using the P82B96 for bus interface

AN460 Using the P82B96 for bus interface INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 2001 Feb 14 IC12a and IC28 Data Handbook The P82B96 offers many different ways in which it can be used as a bus interface. In its simplest application it can be used as an interface

More information

Answers Electrical Motor Controls Chapter 11 and 16

Answers Electrical Motor Controls Chapter 11 and 16 Answers Electrical Motor Controls Chapter 11 and 16 1. What are the three parts of an industrial pushbutton? Legend plate, operator, and contact block(s) 2. What color legend plate is typically used for

More information

Inductive and Magnetic Sensors

Inductive and Magnetic Sensors Chapter 12 Inductive and Magnetic Sensors 12.1 Inductive Sensors A number of the actuators developed in previous chapters depend on the variation of reluctance with changes in angle or displacement. Since

More information