# STARTING SYSTEM OPERATION IN THE STARTER-GENERATOR

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 International Journal on Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering (IJTPE) Published by International Organization on TPE (IOTPE) ISSN IJTPE Journal March 00 Issue Volume Number Pages STARTING SYSTEM OPERATION IN THE STARTER-GENERATOR Z.N. Musayev S.A. Khanakhmedova Department of Electric Equipment and Automation of Productions, Azerbaijan State Oil Academy aku, Azerbaijan Abstract- In this paper the research of process of start-up and system start-up as «the starter, generator, a cranked shaft» is considered mathematically and physically. The basic mathematical parities of the static moments, efforts and inertia are analyzed. Keywords: Starter, Generator, Excitation Winding, Cranked Shaft, Starting Switch, Reducer, Power lock, Internal Combustion Engine. I. INTRODUCTION At development of the world industry the requirement increases by the means, applied to simplification of work, moving, transportation of cargoes etc. The internal combustion engines are started by the starters eating from the unique power supply, the storage battery. Considering that this starter-engine has rather small capacity and for the purpose of fast dispersal, the starting mode is carried out without restrictive resistance in a chain of a current of an anchor. The starter mode basically has transitive character of a current of process and consequently its research is important for an estimation of electromagnetic. The mechanical action of the starter-generator; in aggregate electromechanical transient is exposed to research basically. The starter-generator, also as start at modern starters, carry out the start of an internal combustion engine in a straight line as it has advantage of the greatest simplicity of starting equipment and starting operation. During too time low involved voltage gives the chance to realization of direct start-up. The developed design of the starter-generator [, ], carrying out both starter function, and the generator which simultaneously favorable in the ecological relation, is constructed on the basis of the car of a direct current of small capacity, and despite some change in electric connections and two regime works. We will quite apply a mode of direct start-up and start an internal combustion engine. Switching of electric chains is carried out consistently taking into account two modes, starter and generating, and these modes should be carried out without complications, as concerning electric communications, and mechanical overloads. In transformation of storage electric energy in further mechanical systems in electrical equipment, three windings participate of anchor and two windings of excitation exist. The basic winding of excitation creates the required magnetic stream and supplies from the storage battery. Inclusion and creation of a magnetic stream occur as at an independent winding of excitation as the magnetic stream joins earlier than the anchor winding joins. In the electric schemes the consecutive winding of excitation with several coils which is projected and pays off on a current of anchor windings are shown. The anchor winding entering into a design consists of two identical parts, each of which pays off and projected on half of capacity of start-up. II. MATHEMATICAL RESEARCH OF PROCESS OF START-UP Generally, based on the generalized theory of electric cars and according to an action principle it is known that one axis cars with the motionless switching brushes located on a cross-section axis, and the winding of excitation focuses on a longitudinal axis without a gear structure of an anchor which it is possible to write down the equations of the excitation circuit as the following: diв U аb = Rвiв + Lв () U аb is voltage of the storage battery. The equation of voltage of the circuit of a winding of an anchor: di y U = CEФn + R yi y + Ly () di y U = C Ф + R i + L E n y y y PN C E = - factor of electrical driving flux; a Р - number of pairs poles; N - number of conductors of a winding of an anchor; a - number of parallel circuits; n - the frequency of rotation expressed in turns in second. 79

2 International Journal on Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering (IJTPE), Iss., Vol., No., Mar. 00 The equation of movement of an anchor: dn СМ Ф i y + М = π J (3) dn С Ф i + М = J М y π C E C M = - moment factor; π R в, R y, R y resistances; L в, L y - inductances М and М - the moments on a shaft from currents i y, i y; J - the moment of inertia of the rotating weights, the led axes of an anchor. The starter mode basically has transitive character of a current of process and consequently the research is important for an estimation of electromagnetic and mechanical action of the starter-generator which in aggregate the electromechanical transient is basically exposed to that. Start of an internal combustion engine by the startergenerator, also as at modern starters, carries out the start in a straight line as it has advantage of the greatest simplicity of starting equipment and starting operation. It is reasonable that during too time low involved voltage gives the chance to realization of direct start-up. To solve the equations of the balanced voltage of circuits of excitation and anchor, the equations of the moments, it is required to define a current and frequency of rotation of an anchor and starter-generator which transfer in a generating mode after start an internal combustion engine which are main points of research taking into account physical analyses. Inclusion process of the shunt excitation windings on voltage U в =U аb occurs in an idling mode, i.e. at i y =0; by influence of vertical currents in massive parts of the car. The saturation magnetic wires is neglected, as time between inclusion of contacts and rather more than constant time of system of excitation. The action of personnel starting of the internal combustion engine is considered for connecting with its reaction to the restoration voltage of involved network. At normal passage of process of the command on switch inclusion is also given. Constant time of system of excitation is defined on to the following equation: T = L / R Designating i * = i / i 0 ( i 0 is the restored value of a current of excitation at idling) and having divided the equation () on U = R 0i 0, we will present it in the dimensionless form of: di* i * + T = () With accepting the entry condition of i * (0) = 0, the equation () will look likes: t T i * = e (5) at t (3 ) the currents values are i * 0 and i * i 0. As shows in the equation (5), taking into account of time parameters, before giving of voltage of the storage battery on an anchor winding occurs much more time, than t. As it is specified above, usually after voltage giving on an involved network (simultaneously on a winding of excitation of the starter-generator) the signal on start-up after a while (it is more than time t) is given in two processes of full excitation of the car and the start-up beginning as well as occur freely, i.e. in time pieces independent from each other. Let's consider the condition of magnetic system before the modes of starting, during starting and generating of starter-generator. Ф U bс U аb U о Ф Ф Ф 0 о а F 0 F F + F p0 b U U Figure. A magnetization curve in the starter-generator At contact inclusion on an involved network, the voltage of storage battery U ab moves and in an excitation winding a transient and a current is quickly restored. Thus I = I 0 which is created by a current of excitation I в0 magnetic driving force creates magnetic stream Φ. It corresponds to a non saturated condition of magnetic system (point a on Figure ) in car working point value of a generating mode which the magnetic stream increases as well as I increase. The involved voltage U bс in generating mode corresponds to the flux Φ in magnetic system. Voltage U bс also should correspond to non strongly stated area of magnetic system of the car (point b on Figure ) because that the voltage regulator normally functioned. Suppose that an internal combustion engine is startedup by the starter-generator without a consecutive winding of excitation. It would be carried out unreliably and unstably for the reasons of non saturation status of the magnetic system and strongly influenced by a starting current of an anchor based on the size of voltage of the involved network voltage U bс =U аb. The voltage would be exposed to fall in limits ΔU (U bс will be equal to U 0 ) and it would lead to reduction of a current of excitation I of the starter-generator, and it is in turn connected with reduction of magnetic driving forces (from F to F 0 ), leading to fall of a magnetic flux Φ 0. This process as a whole, is influencing a starting current of an anchor, would promote sharp fall of the moment on a shaft and, finally, it causes stop of start in an internal combustion engine. On the other hand, it F 80

3 International Journal on Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering (IJTPE), Iss., Vol., No., Mar. 00 would affect on work of various devices, gauges and other kinds of electric equipment of involved system. For this important reason the influence of start-up on a power failure is necessary for considering introduction in excitation system of the consecutive winding and winding of the anchor flowing round by a current. Except in power failure indemnification ΔU, the consecutive winding should lift the value of voltage to the value U bс and therefore, normalize the starting process of internal combustion engine by the starter-generator. It is supported by a generating mode in generating mode U bс with the exact control of a regulator of voltage. The starter-generator will work with the raised moment on a shaft with a consecutive winding which the number of coils should be picked up from the point of view of indemnification ΔU, i.e. ΔU = ΔU + ΔU As the point "a" (Figure ) is in a rectilinear site, the excitation current decreases proportionally to a power failure ΔU, i.e. i ΔU. At a choice of number of coils in a consecutive winding of excitation, it is necessary to consider that insignificant excess of magnetic driving force, corresponding to a point «b», will not affect negatively in starting process. Therefore, the voltage regulator will join and influences a current of excitation of the starter-generator. III. PHYSICAL RESEARCHES START-UP Process of start-up of starter in the generator taking into account the above stated analytical researches can be analyzed by the following analytical explanations. Considering that capacity of the starter-generator for voltage of an involved network which is not small at mode of estimation and it is necessary to consider both electromagnetic and electromechanical current of the processes. When time of course of electromagnetic processes in the starter-generator are commensurable in due courses of electromechanical processes, it is necessary to consider influence of electromagnetic inertia of the circuit of the anchor. As it is specified above, the electromagnetic constant of time is defined by inductance of the anchor and resistance of the circuit of the anchor. Process of changing the current of anchor is not so instant, because of its increasing depends on the speed of course of electromagnetic process. Time which the anchor current reaches to the necessary value for creation of the moment will be considerable small in comparison with usual engines which consume from a powerful source. The starter-generator supplies the involved electric network which the unique source is the storage battery with the big internal resistance. The starter of the generator will influence a starting current of the anchor and the given resistance at start-up of the internal combustion engine. Then, it is physically impossible to equate a starting current at t=0 as a current of short circuit (Figure ). After time reaches to t t the anchor begins to rotate. It is connected with numerous processes of the electromechanical and electromagnetic phenomena, and one of them strongly can be swinging cranked shaft of internal combustion engine. I yp Ω су I y t t b бу Ω су I y Figure. Current changes (i y ) and frequencies of rotation (Ω C ) depending on start-up time Ω cу frequency of rotation with the account influences swinging Ω bу too, without taking into account The ignition moments can be actable in the cylinders at small frequency of rotation in a cranked shaft and rather than the time in wide interval frequency of rotation; despite presence on a shaft of a flywheel and belt drive application between flywheel and startergenerator shaft. This instability does not influence almost a current of an anchor because of few amplitudes swinging and its fast repayment in a start of motion sometimes occurs imperceptible swinging frequencies of rotation of an anchor in narrow limits. On the other hand, the great influence does not render an assumption at transitive electromechanical processes in limits (5 0)% on the calculations and physical analyses, if the processes are defined in time near of seconds. Transfer a starter of the generator in a generator mode is special operation and should be considered separately as two freely operating electromotive forces (generating and storage) in the system such as an electric network or an involved electrical supply. IV. THE EQUATION OF MOVEMENT OF THE ELECTRIC DRIVE AND «THE STARTER, GENERATOR, THE CRANKED SHAFT» The operating modes of the starter-generator include internal combustion engine start, transition in a generator mode and sharp change of frequency of rotation of cranked shaft in an internal combustion engine. These modes lead to occurrence of dynamic processes in the complex owing to elastic deformation of transfer links for the car direct current in the starter-generator; the starting switch and belt drive [3]. It is known that in any elastic mechanical system with one or several degrees of freedom in unsteady processes, the free and compelled fluctuations take place. The t 8

4 International Journal on Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering (IJTPE), Iss., Vol., No., Mar. 00 fluctuation in a starter-generator can arises at change of the moment in impellent starter a mode. Without dynamic oscillatory processes in mechanical system of the starter-generator, it is impossible to design it correctly. This problem still becomes complicated vibration of design as independent objects and can create the resonant phenomena pose threat of integrity of elements and knots. The given complex concerns mechanisms with consecutive connection of the elastic links working in the conditions of free movement of all elements. Movement of these elements is described by difficult system of the differential equations which decision is inconvenient even by means of mathematical cars. Let's consider the basic mathematical parities used in calculations of reduction of the static moments and the moments of inertia. For drawing up the settlement scheme of the mechanism in «the starter, the generator, the cranked shaft» with elastic mechanical communications, the rigidity of links is led to a shaft of the engine of direct current. The kinematics scheme of the mechanism is made on the basis of the connected elastic elements including the engine shaft, the starting switch, the belt drive and cranked shaft of internal combustion engine []. The equation of movement rotating system can be described in the generalized angular co-ordinates. In the theory of fluctuations it is accepted to mark moving systems on number of degrees of freedom. So, the settlement system «the starter, generator, cranked shaft» is defined in four generalized co-ordinates (α, α, α 3, α ) and therefore, it has four degrees of freedom. The conclusion of the equation of movement is carried out using a principle of Dalamber. Generally, the movement equation in settlement system of the electric drive taking considering the elastic mechanical communications is written as the following: n n i ( Ai P α ) + α = ( i M i ) i= ( M M ) i= + f i,..., n n - number of degrees of freedom; P - a symbol of differentiation which is defined under the formula: d P = Left part of the equation is the sum of even derivatives of required co-ordinate with factor А i, depending on the moments of inertia and rigidity of elastic links and co-ordinate α. The right part consists of two parts: the first is the sum of all moments operating in system with the factors which also depending on the moments of inertia and rigidity. The second part is function of the sum of even derivative of the operating moments with factors. Taking into account the generalized equation (6) for system «the starter, generator, the cranked shaft» can be written down as the equation of the following: + (6) A p α + A p α + A p α + A p α = = 3 p M + p M + p M + (7) C p M + C p M + Dp M M + M + M 3 + M A,, C and D can be defined on the differential equations, written down for similar systems. The system of «the starter, generator, the cranked shaft» is the object having design of belt drive between shaft of the starting switch devices and cranked shaft. Processes occurring in a cranked shaft almost are not translated on a shaft of a reducer except the moment of resistance because of the raised elasticity of the belt. These processes connected with compression of cylinders mix of internal combustion engine by burning, are not constant on frequency of occurrence in system «the cranked shaft, the belt drive». All these highfrequency forces are accounting in mathematical system of the research including varying on amplitude, time, frequency and also short-term work of the startergenerator. The account of these phenomena will not bring the big benefit in any approach of a positive exit. esides, all high-frequency of operating moments on the cranked shaft are extinguished by a flywheel rigidly connected with cranked shaft and elasticity of the belt drive. Considering this circumstance, it is possible to come to conclusion about system transfer in two mass. The operating mode of the starter-generator has shortterm frequent character [5]. Actually, it is transitive and varies depending on numerous factors:. Pressure fluctuations;. Temperatures of windings (the anchor winding and excitation winding in short-term mode); 3. Time of the included condition. All these modes are investigated by means of receiving above equations as it was already marked, by means of mathematical cars which represent a great difficulty. Therefore, transition from four mass to two mass the input of the additional factors should justify itself considering strengthening of reliability. Then given transient of start-up can not correspond to the second. Taking into account all these circumstances, it is possible to conduct researches on dynamics of start-up of system «the starter, generator, a cranked shaft». V. CONCLUSIONS Traditional involved networks connected the an electric equipments have usually independent objects of the starter-generator which is carrying out such functions as start of the internal combustion engine which yields maintenance of the involved network with the electric power. It is simple and gives the chance to save great volume of expensive materials in comparison with the existing. In this paper the mathematical and physical analysis result that all questions are considered taking into account time and dynamics estimation. It is considered in the object of mathematical research for drawing up of the equation of movement in given electric drive «the starter, generator, the cranked shaft». 8

5 International Journal on Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering (IJTPE), Iss., Vol., No., Mar. 00 REFERENCES [] Z.N. Musaev, Patent of the Republic of Azerbaijan, i990, Kl. F0, No. /0, [] Z.N. Musaev, Patent of the Republic of Azerbaijan, i007 06, Kl. F0, No. /0, [3] Z.N. Musaev, T.K. Kasumova and Sh.A. Kuliev, Patent of the Republic of Azerbaijan, i000007, Kl. F0, No. /0, [] A.N. Golubnetsev, Dynamics of Transients in Cars with Many Weights, Mashgiz, pp. 350, 988. [5] A.A. Sirotin, Automatic Electric Drives, М: Energy, 560, 969. IOGRAPHIES Zabulla Nureddin Musaev was born in Azerbaijan, 939. He has ended the Power Faculty, Azerbaijan Institute of Oil and Chemistry (nowadays Azerbaijan State Oil Academy) in 96. He received the M.Sc. degree in 969. Now, he works as the senior lecturer of chair of "Electric the Equipment and Automation of Plants" in Power Faculty of Azerbaijan State Oil Academy, aku, Azerbaijan. Samira Alkhadi Khanakhmedova is the post-graduate student of chair of "Electric the Equipment and Automation of Plants" in Power Faculty of Azerbaijan State Oil Academy, aku, Azerbaijan. 83

### Chapter 4: DC Generators. 9/8/2003 Electromechanical Dynamics 1

Chapter 4: DC Generators 9/8/2003 Electromechanical Dynamics 1 Armature Reaction Current flowing in the armature coils creates a powerful magnetomotive force that distorts and weakens the flux coming from

### Lab 8: DC generators: shunt, series, and compounded.

Lab 8: DC generators: shunt, series, and compounded. Objective: to study the properties of DC generators under no-load and full-load conditions; to learn how to connect these generators; to obtain their

### AC generator theory. Resources and methods for learning about these subjects (list a few here, in preparation for your research):

AC generator theory This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/,

### Coupling Factor Calculation of Low Frequency RFID Systems by the Mutual Inductance Effective Permeability Method

Coupling Factor Calculation of Low Frequency RFID Systems by the Mutual Inductance Effective Permeability Method P. Csurgai, M. Kuczmann Szécheny István University, Lab. Of Electromagentic Fields, Dept.

### Mathematical Modeling and Dynamic Simulation of a Class of Drive Systems with Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

Applied and Computational Mechanics 3 (2009) 331 338 Mathematical Modeling and Dynamic Simulation of a Class of Drive Systems with Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors M. Mikhov a, a Faculty of Automatics,

### Dynamic states of three-phase induction motors. Selected problems

Computer Applications in Electrical Engineering Dynamic states of three-phase induction motors. Selected problems Ryszard Nawrowski, Zbigniew Stein, aria Zielińska Poznań University of Technology 61-965

### KINETIC ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEM BY MEANS OF FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE

ADVANCED ENGINEERING 3(2009)1, ISSN 1846-5900 KINETIC ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEM BY MEANS OF FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE Cibulka, J. Abstract: This paper deals with the design of Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems

### Adequate Theory of Oscillator: A Prelude to Verification of Classical Mechanics Part 2

International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy Online: 213-9-19 ISSN: 2299-3843, Vol. 3, pp 1-1 doi:1.1852/www.scipress.com/ilcpa.3.1 212 SciPress Ltd., Switzerland Adequate Theory of Oscillator:

### Experiment 1 The DC Machine

Experiment 1 The DC Machine ECEN 4517 R. W. Erickson and D. Maksimovic The purpose of this experiment is to become familiar with operating principles, equivalent circuit models, and basic characteristics

### 1. The diagram below represents magnetic lines of force within a region of space.

1. The diagram below represents magnetic lines of force within a region of space. 4. In which diagram below is the magnetic flux density at point P greatest? (1) (3) (2) (4) The magnetic field is strongest

### Lesson 3 DIRECT AND ALTERNATING CURRENTS. Task. The skills and knowledge taught in this lesson are common to all missile repairer tasks.

Lesson 3 DIRECT AND ALTERNATING CURRENTS Task. The skills and knowledge taught in this lesson are common to all missile repairer tasks. Objectives. When you have completed this lesson, you should be able

### Eðlisfræði 2, vor 2007

[ Assignment View ] [ Print ] Eðlisfræði 2, vor 2007 30. Inductance Assignment is due at 2:00am on Wednesday, March 14, 2007 Credit for problems submitted late will decrease to 0% after the deadline has

### ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEMS AND THEIR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEMS AND THEIR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS Many mechanical energy systems are devoted to transfer of energy between two points: the source or prime mover (input) and the load (output). For chemical

### AP Physics C Chapter 23 Notes Yockers Faraday s Law, Inductance, and Maxwell s Equations

AP Physics C Chapter 3 Notes Yockers Faraday s aw, Inductance, and Maxwell s Equations Faraday s aw of Induction - induced current a metal wire moved in a uniform magnetic field - the charges (electrons)

### DC generator theory. Resources and methods for learning about these subjects (list a few here, in preparation for your research):

DC generator theory This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/,

### DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS

DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS Revision 12:50 14 Nov 05 INTRODUCTION A generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by using the principle of magnetic induction. This principle

### Equivalent Spring Stiffness

Module 7 : Free Undamped Vibration of Single Degree of Freedom Systems; Determination of Natural Frequency ; Equivalent Inertia and Stiffness; Energy Method; Phase Plane Representation. Lecture 13 : Equivalent

### PS-6.2 Explain the factors that determine potential and kinetic energy and the transformation of one to the other.

PS-6.1 Explain how the law of conservation of energy applies to the transformation of various forms of energy (including mechanical energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, light energy, sound energy,

### Level 2 Physics: Demonstrate understanding of electricity and electromagnetism

Level 2 Physics: Demonstrate understanding of electricity and electromagnetism Static Electricity: Uniform electric field, electric field strength, force on a charge in an electric field, electric potential

### 3.6 Solving Problems Involving Projectile Motion

INTRODUCTION 1-2 Physics and its relation to other fields introduction of physics, its importance and scope 1-5 Units, standards, and the SI System description of the SI System description of base and

### Physics 1214 Chapter 21: Electromagnetic Induction 02/15

Physics 1214 Chapter 21: Electromagnetic Induction 02/15 1 Induction Experiments emf or electromotive force: (from Chapter 19) the influence that moves charge from lower to higher potential. induced current:

### Motors and Generators

Motors and Generators Electro-mechanical devices: convert electrical energy to mechanical motion/work and vice versa Operate on the coupling between currentcarrying conductors and magnetic fields Governed

### THE LUCAS C40 DYNAMO & ITS ARMATURE.

THE LUCAS C40 DYNAMO & ITS ARMATURE. H. Holden, March 2011. The Dynamo as a DC generating machine was used extensively in the pre- Alternator era, from the early 1900 s up to the late 1960 s and early

### DC motors: dynamic model and control techniques

DC motors: dynamic model and control techniques Luca Zaccarian Contents 1 Magnetic considerations on rotating coils 1 1.1 Magnetic field and conductors.......................... 1 1.2 The magneto-motive

### DC GENERATOR THEORY. LIST the three conditions necessary to induce a voltage into a conductor.

DC Generators DC generators are widely used to produce a DC voltage. The amount of voltage produced depends on a variety of factors. EO 1.5 LIST the three conditions necessary to induce a voltage into

### 5. Measurement of a magnetic field

H 5. Measurement of a magnetic field 5.1 Introduction Magnetic fields play an important role in physics and engineering. In this experiment, three different methods are examined for the measurement of

### Fall 12 PHY 122 Homework Solutions #10

Fall 12 PHY 122 Homework Solutions #10 HW10: Ch.30 Q5, 8, 15,17, 19 P 1, 3, 9, 18, 34, 36, 42, 51, 66 Chapter 30 Question 5 If you are given a fixed length of wire, how would you shape it to obtain the

### Chen. Vibration Motor. Application note

Vibration Motor Application note Yangyi Chen April 4 th, 2013 1 Table of Contents Pages Executive Summary ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 1. Table

### DC generator theory. Resources and methods for learning about these subjects (list a few here, in preparation for your research):

DC generator theory This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/,

### Magnetic electro-mechanical machines

Magnetic electro-mechanical machines Lorentz Force A magnetic field exerts force on a moving charge. The Lorentz equation: f = q(e + v B) f: force exerted on charge q E: electric field strength v: velocity

### Copper and Electricity: Generation

PHYSICS Copper and Electricity: Generation (Electromagnetic Induction) 16-18 YEARS Below are different sections of this e-source, for quick navigation. Electricity from Movement What is Induction? Flux

### Magnetic Field of a Circular Coil Lab 12

HB 11-26-07 Magnetic Field of a Circular Coil Lab 12 1 Magnetic Field of a Circular Coil Lab 12 Equipment- coil apparatus, BK Precision 2120B oscilloscope, Fluke multimeter, Wavetek FG3C function generator,

### A toy model for teaching the concept of EMF, terminal voltage and internal resistance

A toy model for teaching the concept of EMF, terminal voltage and internal resistance S. K. Foong Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University,

### Introduction to Electricity & Magnetism. Dr Lisa Jardine-Wright Cavendish Laboratory

Introduction to Electricity & Magnetism Dr Lisa Jardine-Wright Cavendish Laboratory Examples of uses of electricity Christmas lights Cars Electronic devices Human body Electricity? Electricity is the presence

### Force on Moving Charges in a Magnetic Field

[ Assignment View ] [ Eðlisfræði 2, vor 2007 27. Magnetic Field and Magnetic Forces Assignment is due at 2:00am on Wednesday, February 28, 2007 Credit for problems submitted late will decrease to 0% after

### MOTIONLESS ELECTRIC GENERATOR DESIGN BASED ON PERMANENT MAGNETS AND MAGNETIC AMPLIFIER

12/28/2009 MOTIONLESS ELECTRIC GENERATOR DESIGN BASED ON PERMANENT MAGNETS AND MAGNETIC AMPLIFIER FEDERALLY SPONSOR RESEARCH Not Applicable BACKGROUND - Field [0001] This application relates to motionless

### SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES The geometry of a synchronous machine is quite similar to that of the induction machine. The stator core and windings of a three-phase synchronous machine are practically identical

### Simple Harmonic Motion

Simple Harmonic Motion 1 Object To determine the period of motion of objects that are executing simple harmonic motion and to check the theoretical prediction of such periods. 2 Apparatus Assorted weights

### Power Electronics. Prof. K. Gopakumar. Centre for Electronics Design and Technology. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.

Power Electronics Prof. K. Gopakumar Centre for Electronics Design and Technology Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Lecture - 1 Electric Drive Today, we will start with the topic on industrial drive

### Inductance. Motors. Generators

Inductance Motors Generators Self-inductance Self-inductance occurs when the changing flux through a circuit arises from the circuit itself. As the current increases, the magnetic flux through a loop due

### Objectives. Capacitors 262 CHAPTER 5 ENERGY

Objectives Describe a capacitor. Explain how a capacitor stores energy. Define capacitance. Calculate the electrical energy stored in a capacitor. Describe an inductor. Explain how an inductor stores energy.

### The Synchronous Machine

Experiment No. 5 The Synchronous Machine Synchronous ac machines find application as motors in constant speed applications and, when interfaced to the power source with a variable-frequency converter system,

### Motor Fundamentals. DC Motor

Motor Fundamentals Before we can examine the function of a drive, we must understand the basic operation of the motor. It is used to convert the electrical energy, supplied by the controller, to mechanical

### Sample Questions for the AP Physics 1 Exam

Sample Questions for the AP Physics 1 Exam Sample Questions for the AP Physics 1 Exam Multiple-choice Questions Note: To simplify calculations, you may use g 5 10 m/s 2 in all problems. Directions: Each

### Flow Sensors. - mass flow rate - volume flow rate - velocity. - stream line parabolic velocity profile - turbulent vortices. Methods of measurement

Flow Sensors Flow - mass flow rate - volume flow rate - velocity Types of flow - stream line parabolic velocity profile - turbulent vortices Methods of measurement - direct: positive displacement (batch

### Solution Derivations for Capa #11

Solution Derivations for Capa #11 Caution: The symbol E is used interchangeably for energy and EMF. 1) DATA: V b = 5.0 V, = 155 Ω, L = 8.400 10 2 H. In the diagram above, what is the voltage across the

### Supplementary Notes on Transformers

Supplementary Notes on Transformers A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors the transformer's coils. Figure 1 illustrates

### Chapter 4. Magnetic Materials and Circuits

Chapter 4 Magnetic Materials and Circuits Objectives List six characteristics of magnetic field. Understand the right-hand rule for current and magnetic fluxes. Define magnetic flux, flux density, magnetomotive

### A Resonant Circuit. I. Equipment

Physics 14 ab Manual A Resonant Circuit Page 1 A Resonant Circuit I. Equipment Oscilloscope Capacitor substitution box Resistor substitution box Inductor Signal generator Wires and alligator clips II.

### Speed Control Methods of Various Types of Speed Control Motors. Kazuya SHIRAHATA

Speed Control Methods of Various Types of Speed Control Motors Kazuya SHIRAHATA Oriental Motor Co., Ltd. offers a wide variety of speed control motors. Our speed control motor packages include the motor,

### Physics 9e/Cutnell. correlated to the. College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives

Physics 9e/Cutnell correlated to the College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives Big Idea 1: Objects and systems have properties such as mass and charge. Systems may have internal structure. Enduring

### Practice Exam Three Solutions

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Physics Physics 8.01T Fall Term 2004 Practice Exam Three Solutions Problem 1a) (5 points) Collisions and Center of Mass Reference Frame In the lab frame,

### MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY

WEEK 19 MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY ELECTRIC CIRCUITS. 1 Resistance: After this lesson, you should be able to do the following: Know how to define resistance. Know what resistance is. Know the unit for resistance.

### Electrical Machines - I Prof. D. Kastha Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Electrical Machines - I Prof. D. Kastha Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 9 Harmonics and Switching Transients in Single Phase Transformers So far

### Eðlisfræði 2, vor 2007

[ Assignment View ] [ Pri Eðlisfræði 2, vor 2007 29a. Electromagnetic Induction Assignment is due at 2:00am on Wednesday, March 7, 2007 Credit for problems submitted late will decrease to 0% after the

### Chapter 11. Inductors. Objectives

Chapter 11 Inductors Objectives Describe the basic structure and characteristics of an inductor Discuss various types of inductors Analyze series inductors Analyze parallel inductors Analyze inductive

### Contemporary Approach to Determination of Magnetic Induction in Wind Generator Air Gap

Contemporary Approach to Determination of Magnetic Induction in Wind Generator Air Gap A. Elez 1, B. Tomii 2 and B. Taka 1 1 Konar-Institut za elektrotehniku d.d. Fallerovo šetalište 22, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

### 45. The peak value of an alternating current in a 1500-W device is 5.4 A. What is the rms voltage across?

PHYS Practice Problems hapters 8- hapter 8. 45. The peak value of an alternating current in a 5-W device is 5.4 A. What is the rms voltage across? The power and current can be used to find the peak voltage,

### Applications of Second-Order Differential Equations

Applications of Second-Order Differential Equations Second-order linear differential equations have a variety of applications in science and engineering. In this section we explore two of them: the vibration

### UNIT 3 AUTOMOBILE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS

UNIT 3 AUTOMOBILE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS Automobile Electrical Structure 3.1 Introduction Objectives 3.2 Ignition System 3.3 Requirement of an Ignition System 3.4 Types of Ignition 3.4.1 Battery or Coil Ignition

### What is Field Oriented Control and what good is it?

What is Field Oriented Control and what good is it? Using brushless servo motors and drives in your next new product? You have probably seen the buzzwords: 'Trapezoidal', 'Sinusoidal', and 'Field Oriented

### AC : PERMANENT MAGNET LINEAR ALTERNATOR MAG- NETIC FIELD ANALYSIS

AC 2011-1731: PERMANENT MAGNET LINEAR ALTERNATOR MAG- NETIC FIELD ANALYSIS Chong Chen, Middle Tennessee State University Dr. Chong Chen is a professor in the Department of Engineering Technology at Middle

### AUTODESK SIMULATION MULTIPHYSICS 2013

AUTODESK SIMULATION MULTIPHYSICS 2013 Which Analysis to Use? FANKOM MÜHENDİSLİK 2/4/2013 AUTODESK SIMULATION MULTIPHYSICS Which Analysis to Use? Use the following guidelines to help choose the correct

### Electromagnetic Induction - A

Electromagnetic Induction - A APPARATUS 1. Two 225-turn coils 2. Table Galvanometer 3. Rheostat 4. Iron and aluminum rods 5. Large circular loop mounted on board 6. AC ammeter 7. Variac 8. Search coil

### Homework #11 203-1-1721 Physics 2 for Students of Mechanical Engineering

Homework #11 203-1-1721 Physics 2 for Students of Mechanical Engineering 2. A circular coil has a 10.3 cm radius and consists of 34 closely wound turns of wire. An externally produced magnetic field of

### BASIC ELECTRONICS PROF. T.S. NATARAJAN DEPT OF PHYSICS IIT MADRAS LECTURE-4 SOME USEFUL LAWS IN BASIC ELECTRONICS

BASIC ELECTRONICS PROF. T.S. NATARAJAN DEPT OF PHYSICS IIT MADRAS LECTURE-4 SOME USEFUL LAWS IN BASIC ELECTRONICS Hello everybody! In a series of lecture on basic electronics, learning by doing, we now

### OVERCURRENT & EARTH FAULT RELAYS. To study the protection of equipment and system by relays in conjunction with switchgear.

OVERCURRENT & EARTH FAULT RELAYS Objective: To study the protection of equipment and system by relays in conjunction with switchgear. Theory: The function of a relay is to detect abnormal conditions in

### Response to Harmonic Excitation Part 2: Damped Systems

Response to Harmonic Excitation Part 2: Damped Systems Part 1 covered the response of a single degree of freedom system to harmonic excitation without considering the effects of damping. However, almost

### Stepper motor I/O. Application Note DK9222-0410-0014 Motion Control. A General information on stepper motors

Stepper motor Keywords Stepper motor Fieldbus Microstepping Encoder Phase current Travel distance control Speed interface KL2531 KL2541 Part A of this Application Example provides general information on

### Models for DC Motors

Models for DC Motors Raul Rojas Free University of Berlin Institute of Computer Science Takustr. 9, 14195 Berlin, Germany http://www.fu-fighters.de Abstract. This document describes how to model a DC motor,

### ElectroMagnetic Induction. AP Physics B

ElectroMagnetic Induction AP Physics B What is E/M Induction? Electromagnetic Induction is the process of using magnetic fields to produce voltage, and in a complete circuit, a current. Michael Faraday

### Response to Harmonic Excitation

Response to Harmonic Excitation Part 1 : Undamped Systems Harmonic excitation refers to a sinusoidal external force of a certain frequency applied to a system. The response of a system to harmonic excitation

### Objectives for the standardized exam

III. ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM A. Electrostatics 1. Charge and Coulomb s Law a) Students should understand the concept of electric charge, so they can: (1) Describe the types of charge and the attraction

### Mutual Inductance and Transformers F3 3. r L = ω o

utual Inductance and Transformers F3 1 utual Inductance & Transformers If a current, i 1, flows in a coil or circuit then it produces a magnetic field. Some of the magnetic flux may link a second coil

### Equipment: Power Supply, DAI, Synchronous motor (8241), Electrodynamometer (8960), Tachometer, Timing belt.

Lab 9: Synchronous motor. Objective: to examine the design of a 3-phase synchronous motor; to learn how to connect it; to obtain its starting characteristic; to determine the full-load characteristic of

### Prelab Exercises: Hooke's Law and the Behavior of Springs

59 Prelab Exercises: Hooke's Law and the Behavior of Springs Study the description of the experiment that follows and answer the following questions.. (3 marks) Explain why a mass suspended vertically

### Simulation Technology to Support the Design of Electric Distribution and Control Devices

Simulation Technology to Support the Design of Electric Distribution and Control Devices SAKATA Masayoshi ABSTRACT Simulation technology for electric distribution and control devices includes structural

### Candidate Number. General Certificate of Education Advanced Level Examination June 2014

entre Number andidate Number Surname Other Names andidate Signature General ertificate of Education dvanced Level Examination June 214 Physics PHY4/1 Unit 4 Fields and Further Mechanics Section Wednesday

### SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION

SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION PURPOSE The purpose of this experiment is to investigate one of the fundamental types of motion that exists in nature - simple harmonic motion. The importance of this kind of motion

### Induced voltages and Inductance Faraday s Law

Induced voltages and Inductance Faraday s Law concept #1, 4, 5, 8, 13 Problem # 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 13, 15, 24, 23, 25, 31, 32a, 34, 37, 41, 43, 51, 61 Last chapter we saw that a current produces a magnetic

### EQUATIONS OF MOTION: ROTATION ABOUT A FIXED AXIS

EQUATIONS OF MOTION: ROTATION ABOUT A FIXED AXIS Today s Objectives: Students will be able to: 1. Analyze the planar kinetics of a rigid body undergoing rotational motion. In-Class Activities: Applications

### d di Flux (B) Current (H)

Comparison of Inductance Calculation Techniques Tony Morcos Magnequench Technology Center Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 1 VCM Baseline: Geometry Axially-magnetized MQ3-F 42 NdFeB disk Br = 131kG

### Ch. 20 Electric Circuits

Ch. 0 Electric Circuits 0. Electromotive Force Every electronic device depends on circuits. Electrical energy is transferred from a power source, such as a battery, to a device, say a light bulb. Conducting

### Physics 9 Fall 2009 Homework 8 - Solutions

1. Chapter 34 - Exercise 9. Physics 9 Fall 2009 Homework 8 - s The current in the solenoid in the figure is increasing. The solenoid is surrounded by a conducting loop. Is there a current in the loop?

### Understanding the Alternator

http://www.autoshop101.com THIS AUTOMOTIVE SERIES ON ALTERNATORS HAS BEEN DEVELOPED BY KEVIN R. SULLIVAN PROFESSOR OF AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY AT SKYLINE COLLEGE SAN BRUNO, CALIFORNIA ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

### University of California, Berkeley Physics H7B Spring 1999 (Strovink) SOLUTION TO PROBLEM SET 10 Solutions by P. Pebler

University of California, Berkeley Physics H7B Spring 1999 (Strovink) SOLUTION TO PROBLEM SET 10 Solutions by P Pebler 1 Purcell 66 A round wire of radius r o carries a current I distributed uniformly

### Design and Analysis of Self-excited Miniature Magnetic Generator

Journal of Mechanics Engineering and Automation 5 (2015) 180-184 doi: 10.17265/2159-5275/2015.03.007 D DAVID PUBLISHING Design and Analysis of Self-excited Miniature Magnetic Generator Wu-Sung Yao and

### DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING EE2302 - ELECTRICAL MACHINES II UNIT-I SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR

1 DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING Constructional details Types of rotors EE2302 - ELECTRICAL MACHINES II UNIT-I SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR PART A 1.

### Application Note, Rev.1.0, September 2008 TLE8366. Application Information. Automotive Power

Application Note, Rev.1.0, September 2008 TLE8366 Automotive Power Table of Contents 1 Abstract...3 2 Introduction...3 3 Dimensioning the Output and Input Filter...4 3.1 Theory...4 3.2 Output Filter Capacitor(s)

### Introduction to Electronic Signals

Introduction to Electronic Signals Oscilloscope An oscilloscope displays voltage changes over time. Use an oscilloscope to view analog and digital signals when required during circuit diagnosis. Fig. 6-01

### The rate of change of velocity with respect to time. The average rate of change of distance/displacement with respect to time.

H2 PHYSICS DEFINITIONS LIST Scalar Vector Term Displacement, s Speed Velocity, v Acceleration, a Average speed/velocity Instantaneous Velocity Newton s First Law Newton s Second Law Newton s Third Law

### TEACHER S CLUB EXAMS GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: PHYSICS Paper 1

TEACHER S CLUB EXAMS GRADE 11 PHYSICAL SCIENCES: PHYSICS Paper 1 MARKS: 150 TIME: 3 hours INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION 1. This question paper consists of 12 pages, two data sheets and a sheet of graph

### Direct Current Motors

Direct Current Motors DC MOTORS The DC machine can operate as a generator and as a motor. Chap 5. Electrical Machines by Wildi, 6 e Lecturer: R. Alba-Flores Alfred State College Spring 2008 When a DC machine

### Lab #4 examines inductors and capacitors and their influence on DC circuits.

Transient DC Circuits 1 Lab #4 examines inductors and capacitors and their influence on DC circuits. As R is the symbol for a resistor, C and L are the symbols for capacitors and inductors. Capacitors

### Chapter 8. Introduction to Alternating Current and Voltage. Objectives

Chapter 8 Introduction to Alternating Current and Voltage Objectives Identify a sinusoidal waveform and measure its characteristics Describe how sine waves are generated Determine the various voltage and

### If there is no fault, then with proper connections account for the CT polarity, we should obtain circulatory current through CT secondary.

Module 10 : Differential Protection of Bus, Transformer and Generator Lecture 39 : Transformer Protection Introduction Differential protection of transformer was introduced in lecture 2. Traditionally,

### Smart Starting of Induction Motor by Changing Core Magnetic Flux Value

165 pp.165:171 Smart Starting of Induction Motor by Changing Core Magnetic Flux Value Ebrahim Kazemzadeh 1, Mojtaba Zare Banadkooki 2 1,2 Department of Electrical Engineering,Faculty of Engineering, University

### Prerequisites: Successful completion of Earth Science, Living Environment, & Chemistry.

Physics Honors Course Honors Physics Overview of Course Physics H 4410 Full Year 1 credit Grades 11, 12 Prerequisites: Successful completion of Earth Science, Living Environment, & Chemistry. Honors policy