Madagascar s exceptional biodiversity. Conservation contracts. International value attached to Madagascar s biodiversity

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1 Conservation Direct incentives to communities for biodiversity conservation in Madagascar Joanna Durbin Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust Madagascar s exceptional biodiversity One of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the world Very high endemicity at higher levels as well as species level 5 endemic families of birds 5 endemic families and approaching 60 taxa of primates (100% endemic) At least 4 endemic families small/mammals and carnivores 10 endemic families of plants, 10-12,000 species 80% endemic Chameleons believed to have originated in Madagascar International value attached to Madagascar s biodiversity 15 year National Environmental Action Plan largely initiated through donor interest in biodiversity ( ) 300 M USD+ in the first ten years and around 100 M USD+ planned for next 5 years 80 % of tourists to Madagascar visit a park or reserve One of CI s biodiversity hotspots Strong biodiversity conservation NGO presence and funding: CI, WWF, DW, TPF, WCS

2 Challenges for biodiversity conservation High and increasing rates of habitat loss, mostly through slash-and-burn agriculture, an assured source of food and revenue in a climatically and politically variable context Initially a conventional focus on protected areas and provision of alternatives to unsustainable resource use Protected areas work well but at a relatively small scale and are expensive The linkage between development investment and conservation was obscure Limited resources (human, financial, material) for enforcement of laws on deforestation and logging Slash and burn Community conserved areas Latterly a greater emphasis (with enabling legislation) to community forest management at a landscape scale Communities can enter into a contract with the State (Water and Forests Service) to manage a forest area for a period of 3 years, renewable for 10 years, according to a mutually defined management plan and respecting deforestation and logging laws Community associations charge for wood permits and can exclude others But - community forest management is rarely adequate to ensure biodiversity conservation on its own; hunting and small-scale forest use continue to erode biodiversity Conservation Conservation are offered to communities to create strict conservation areas at sites which are strategically important for biodiversity Strict conservation areas must be within their management contract zone and are established within the existing management transfer legislation (3 years with option to increase to 10 years) Contracts are made between village associations and a regional biodiversity commission, which in turn receives funding from another partner Conservation provide an alternative to a logging concession or to wood cutting permits

3 Appropriate sites for conservation The regional biodiversity commission defines with donors the sites appropriate for conservation Areas containing endangered species, adjacent to protected areas and maintaining corridors and connectivity between habitats The sum of conservation and other protected areas in the area should maximise biodiversity conservation in a contiguous block of habitat Monitoring and incentive payments Mutually agreed parameters and a participative monitoring programme eg. Forest cover, presence of cut stumps on transects, presence of hunting traps, presence of target species monitored to qualify for an annual base payment Bonus payments possible for additional biodiversity eg. successful nesting, numbers of burrows etc. depending on target species Payments are to the association and a decision is made on use of funds at a General Assembly of members (as with all revenue to the association) Management and enforcement Village associations implement own surveillance plans and create rules about resource use in their management area (dina, by-laws) Those caught breaking rules pay a fine (vonodina) Mayors assist with arbitration and enforcement If necessary, affair is referred to Water and Forests to follow legal proceedings Mayors and local Water and Forests receive a proportion of the incentive payment (15% each) to encourage support and participation in the scheme Menabe region Only site for 4 endemic species: giant jumping rat, flat-tailed tortoise, Mme Berthe s mouse lemur, narrow striped mongoose Forest disappearing at 1% per year due to slash and burn agriculture for maize Long-term presence of unsustainable hardwood logging operations Lemur hunting is widespread and endemic species numbers are crashing, due to habitat loss and habitat degradation Currently no benefits to villages from tourism and limited hydrological service functions

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5 Progress in Menabe 8 villages have been identified for conservation 3 are willing to set aside 50% of their forest area This will increase the protected area (30,900 ha) by 3,200 ha and by around 10,000 ha (30%) if all 8 agree to a similar principle Monitoring protocols and amount of payments have yet to be agreed based on market principles of willingness to pay/accept Contracts will be signed in the next 6 months Funding has been identified for 5 years Future funding After 5 years there may be other sources of funding linked to biodiversity, eg. from tourism Need to convert existence value and willingness to pay of public abroad into direct biodiversity funding Could be through membership of NGOs and special campaigns Zoos are increasingly interested and required to contribute to conservation, particularly where there is a direct link to exhibits Zoos can link conservation directly to the public A number of zoos have expressed an interest in marketing and funding conservation Advantages of conservation Direct link between incentive and biodiversity conservation Not relying on indirect benefits of ecosystem services or unreliable tourism revenue as a means to achieve biodiversity conservation A market is being created for biodiversity via which existence value of biodiversity is captured and converted into benefits for those living near, managing or owning areas rich in biodiversity A new source of revenue is created for the rural poor Protection is assured at lower cost to the State

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