Ecosystem Services and Convention on Biological Diversity How ecosystem services are reflected in the CBD COP Decisions in Nagoya?

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1 Ecosystem Services and Convention on Biological Diversity How ecosystem services are reflected in the CBD COP Decisions in Nagoya? Heikki Toivonen Finnish Environment Institute Ecosystem services and Biodiversity, Alter-Net Wien,

2 Ecosystem Services and CBD Objectives of the CBD: Conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources Biodiversity: means the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems Ecysystem Services: the direct and indirect contributions of ecoystems to human well-being. The concept ecosystem goods and services is synonymous with ecosystem services (TEEB)

3 Ecosystem Services and CBD The Biodiversity Target 2010 The CBD Indicator process (SEBI 2010 in Europe) The Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO 3) 2010 Millenium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) 2005 The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) 2010

4 Ecosystem Services and CBD Analysis of COP 10 draft decisions, 192 A4 pages ESS were mentioned more than 200 times in about 200 paragraphs of the decisions Reviseted using L-documents, treated in the COP plenary Context was analyzed, as well as the detailness etc.

5 Ecosystem Services and CBD The revised Strategic Plan of the Convention, including new biodiversity target (beyond 2010) and related indicators Inland waters biodiversity Marine and coastal biodiversity Protected areas Sustainable use of biodiversity Biodiversity and climate chnage Incentive measures

6 Ecosystem Services and CBD Mostly biodiversity and ESS are mentioned simultaneously, sometimes with ecosystem functions Biodiversity and ecosystem services / biodiversity and associated ecosystem services The language stresses that biodiversity underpins ecosystem functioning and the provision of ecosystem services Ecoystem services are seen as an important tool for communicating and mainstreaming biodiversity for various sectors and policies

7 Ecosystem Services and CBD Ecosystem services are often mentioned in the context of ecosystem function and structure (inland waters, marine and coastal ecosystems) Goods and provisioning services are given in more detail concerning agricultural or forest biodiversity ESS are mentioned often in the context of indigenous people and local communities

8 Ecosystem Services and CBD Ecosystem services are referred to as grounds for finding synergy and collaboration with other MEAs, organizations and processes Interactions between biodiversity and climate chnage Ecosystem-based approaches, adaptation and mitigation measures, particularly REDD+ (Reducing deforestation and forest degradation) Win-win situations for conservation of biodiversity and combatting climate change, if possible also other ecological, economic and social co-benefits

9 Ecosystem Services and CBD One strategic goal of the CBD is mainstreaming biodiversity and ecosystem services for sustainbale development and poverty eradication Ecosystem services will be an important element in the future reporting towards the new biodiversity targets The lack of agreed indicators for ESS is identified as a major knowledge gap

10 Ecosystem Services and CBD ESS are also in the central role in making valuation of biodiversity operational Incentive measures, para 11. Invites national, regional and international funding institutions to support building or enhancement of national capacities for assessing the values of BD and ESS, for identifying or removing perverse incentives, and for design and implementation of positive incentive measures for the conservation and sustainable use of BD

11 COP President Ryu Matsumoto waving to the plenary after the adoption of the Nagoya Protocol

12 CBD COP 10 in Nagoya Main results The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization The CBD Strategic Plan for the period Decision on activities and indicators for the Implementation of the Resource Mobilization Biodiversity and climate change Affirmed the role of CBD in REDD+ Geo-engineering (de facto moratorium) Cooperation with other Rio Conventions

13 Revised Strategic Plan of the Convention, including new biodiversity target and related indicators The vision of the strategic Plan is a world of Living in harmony with nature where by 2050, biodiversity is valued, conserved, restored and wisely used, maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining a healthy planet and delivering benefits essential to people. Take effective and urgent action to halt by 2020 the loss of biodiversity in order to ensure that ecosystems are resilient and continue to provide essential services, thereby securing the planet s variety of life, and contributing to human wellbeing, and poverty eradication

14 The Strategic Plan includes 20 heaqdline targets for 2020 Target 1. By 2020, at the latest, people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably Target 2. By 2020, at the latest, biodiversity values have been integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies and planning processes, and are being incorporated into national accounting, as appropriate, and reporting systems.

15 The Strategic Plan - 20 headline targets for 2020 Target 5. By 2020 the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forest, is at least halved, and where feasible brougth close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced. Target 7. By 2020 areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity Target 10. By 2015, the multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs, and other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning

16 The Strategic Plan - 20 headline targets for 2020 Target 11. By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes.

17 The Strategic Plan - 20 headline targets for 2020 Target 14. By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, particularly water, and contribute to health, livelihood and well-being, are safeguarded and / or restored, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnberable Target 15. By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contibution of biodiversity to carbon stocks has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15 per cent of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation to combating desertification.

18 Intergovernmental science-policy platform on biodiversity and ecosystem services (IPBES) Reaffirming that a regular assessment is needed to provide decision-makers with the necessary knowledge base in addressing biodiversity loss and the degradation of ecosystems and ecosystem services and their implications for human well-being COP 10 encouraged the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) at its sixty-fifth session to consider the establishment of IPBES at the earliest opportunity

19 Thank you!

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