3 1. Introduction There are six trigonometric functions: sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, and cosecant; abbreviated as sin, cos, tan, cot, sec, and csc respectively. These are functions of a single real variable that is normally an angle measurement given in terms of radians or degrees. Consequently,values such as sin.7 rad or tan (read: the sine of.7 radians or the tangent of degrees) often appear in trigonometric expressions. In the first case,the radian identifier (rad) is frequently suppressed for simplicity and sin.7 rad is shortened to sin.7. When variables such as t or α (α is the Greek letter alpha) denote angles,measurement identifiers are usually omitted. Consequently,the reader will encounter expressions such as sin t and tan α. In such cases the context must make the choice of measurement clear. In this tutorial we will normally use Greek letters to denote angles measured in degrees while most other variables generally denote radian measurement. The next section of this lesson introduces the trigonometric functions using their circular definitions. Specifically,the functions are defined by coordinates of points on a particular circle. This approach requires that the angles constructed by points on this circle be given in radian measure. Section and Section 4 demonstrate strategies for computing the numerical values of the trigonometric functions at certain special angles by using various geometric properties of the circle. The final section of this lesson examines the periodic or cyclic nature of the trigonometric functions. It should be noted that right triangles provide an alternate means for defining
4 Section 1: Introduction 4 the trigonometric functions. In this setting the angles are normally measured in degrees and the length of the sides of right triangles are used to determine the values of the trigonometric functions. This approach and its connection with the circular definitions is presented in a subsequent lesson. (See Lesson.)
5 . Definition of the Trigonometric Functions As indicated in Figure.1 let P be the point on the unit circle with coordinates (x, y) that determines the angle in standard position 1 of measure t rad. Then the values of all six trigonometric functions at t are defined in terms of the numbers x and y. For example, the sine function is defined to have value y at the angle of measure t radians. That is, sin t = y. Example 1 Since the coordinates of the point P on the unit circle determined by the angle 0 rad are (1, 0) we see that sin 0 = 0. The cosine function is defined by cos t = x. O O Figure.1: Example of an angle determined by a point on the unit circle. Example Again, since P (1, 0) is the point on the unit circle described by the angle 0 rad we have cos 0 = 1. J 1 An angle is in standard position if its initial side lies on the x-axis and has its vertex at the origin. 5
6 Section : Definition of the Trigonometric Functions 6 The definitions of all six trigonometric functions are given in Table.1 below. The student should memorize these definitions. A few elementary identities or relations sin t = y cos t = x tan t = y x cot t = x y sec t = 1 x csc t = 1 y Table.1: Definition of the trigonometric functions. easily follow from these definitions. For example, csc t = 1 y = 1 sin t sec t = 1 x = 1 cos t tan t = y x = 1 cot t = sin t cos t cot t = x y = 1 tan t = cos t = sin t = 1 csc t = cos t = 1 sec t sin t. Identities such as these have an important role in the study and use of trigonometry. Lesson 6 is devoted to their development. and
7 . Some values of the trigonometric functions It is relatively easy to calculate the values of the trigonometric functions for particular angles. For example,we saw in Example 1 that for t = 0 the coordinates of P in Figure.1 are (1, 0) so x = 1 and y = 0. Consequently, sin 0 = 0, cos 0 = 1, tan 0 = 0, and csc 0 = 1. The cotangent and secant functions are undefined when t = 0 because division by zero is undefined. At t = π/ the point P has coordinates (0, 1),so sin π =1, cos π =0, cot π =0, and csc π =1. The tangent and secant functions are undefined at π/. Remember: sin t = y, cos t = x, tan t = y x, cot t = x y, sec t = 1 x, csc t = 1 y. 7
8 Section : Some values of the trigonometric functions 8 We have seen that it is easy to find the values of the trigonometric functions at t = 0 and π/. There are other important angles for which the values of these functions can be directly calculated. Some techniques for computing these values are illustrated in the following examples. These special values are summarized in Table. on page 1. They should be memorized and the techniques for computing them should be mastered. Memorizing these values and mastering the geometric principles employed to compute them will assist the reader in developing an understanding of the basic principles of trigonometry,and in acquiring the necessary skills for solving more complicated trigonometric problems. The values of the trigonometric functions for arbitrary angles are not easily computed and the introduction of the hand held calculator and other computing devices has greatly simplified this task. When using a computing device the user must remember to set it to degree or radian mode depending on the dimension being used to measure angles.
9 Section : Some values of the trigonometric functions 9 Example Determine the values of the trigonometric functions at t = π/4. Solution: As suggested by the figure below, at t = π/4 (45 ) the two coordinates x and y of the point P (x, y) on the unit circle must be equal since P lies on the line y = x. O Replacing y by x in the equation of the unit circle (x + y =1)yields x + x =1, or x =1. Then, x =1/ or x = ±(1/ ). The point P is in the first quadrant of the plane suggesting that x is positive so x = 1. O
10 Section : Some values of the trigonometric functions 10 Since y = x we also have y = 1. Appealing directly to the definitions of the trigonometric functions we have sin π 4 = cos π 4 = 1, tan π 4 = cot π / 4 = =1, and sec π / 4 = csc π 4 = 1 =. ote that since = 1 we have 1 = 1 =. Historically, students were required to make conversions such as this. This process, referred to as rationalizing the denominator, often simplified numerical computations. Indeed, observe that without a calculator it is much more difficult to perform the division 1 than the division. Computing machines all but eliminated complicated hand calculations and the process of rationalizing the denominator no longer holds the prestigious position it once did in arithmetic computations. However, this process is often used as a procedure for simplifying algebraic expressions and remains a valuable tool for practitioners.
11 Section : Some values of the trigonometric functions 11 Example 4 Determine the values of the trigonometric functions at t = π/. Solution: Examine the larger triangle with vertices P, (1, 0),and the origin in the figure to the right. The two radii of the unit circle forming the angle of measure π/ rad each have length one so the triangle is isosceles. Since the remaining two angles must be equal and have sum 4 π π = π/, they must also have measure π/ rad. This means that the larger triangle is equilateral so each side has length one. ote the two right triangles forming the equilateral triangle with common side indicated by the dashed line. These triangles have base length 1/ because these two lengths must be equal and sum to one. That is the x-coordinate of the point P that determines the angle π/ is 1/. O F! O Appealing to the equation of the unit circle it follows that ( 1 ) + y =1so y = /. We have used positive roots since P is in the first quadrant. Hence, sin π = cos π = 1 tan π = / 1/ = cot π = 1 sec π = csc π =. 4 The sum of the three angles of a triangle must be π rad or 180.
12 Section : Some values of the trigonometric functions 1 Example 5 Determine the values of the trigonometric functions at t = π/6. Solution: An argument similar to that used in the previous example 5 suggests that the point P on the unit circle that determines the angle of π/6 rad has coordinates ( /, 1/). Consequently, the values of the trigonometric functions at π/6 rad are sin π 6 = 1 cos π 6 = tan π 6 = 1 cot π / 6 = 1/ = sec π 6 = csc π 6 =. Remember: sin t = y, cos t = x, tan t = y x, cot t = x y, sec t = 1 x, csc t = 1 y. 5 For a different approach see Exercise 4.
13 Section : Some values of the trigonometric functions 1 A summary of the values of the trigonometric functions at various angles,including those discussed thus far,is given in Table. below. A dash ( ) indicates that the function is undefined at the given angle. Function Radians sin t cos t tan t cot t sec t csc t π/6 π/ π/ π/ Table.: Values of the trigonometric functions at special angles.
14 Section : Some values of the trigonometric functions 14 Example 6 Determine the values of the trigonometric functions at t = π/6. Solution: LetP denote the point on the unit circle that determines the angle π/6 rad. Consider the figure to the right and note the symmetric relationship between the coordinates of the two points determining the angles π/6 rad and π/6 rad. Armed with the results of Example 5, this suggests that the coordinates of P are ( /, 1/). Consequently, ( sin π ) = 1 6 ( tan π ) = 1/ = 1 6 / ( sec π ) = 6 ( cos cot π ) = 6 ( π ) = 6 ( csc π ) =. 6 O F $ F $ O! Example 7 Find sin 0 and tan( 0 ). Solution: A 0 angle has radian measure π/6 so sin 0 = sin π 6 tan( 0 ) = tan ( ) π 6 = 1. =1/. Likewise,
15 4. Trigonometric functions at related angles Example 6 demonstrated that using the symmetry of the unit circle the values of the trigonometric functions at π/6 rad could be used to compute the values of these functions at ( π/6) rad. This section is devoted to exploiting that and other symmetry properties of the unit circle. Figure. suggests that the coordinates of points symmetrically located with respect to the x-axis are related. That is,reflecting the point (x, y) about the x-axis identifies the point (x, y) on the circle. Consequently,if the angle of measure t rad determines the point (x, y) on the unit circle,then this symmetry suggests that the angle of measure ( t) rad identifies the point (x, y) onthe circle. Hence, sin( t) = y = sin t and cos ( t) =x = cos t. O J O J O Figure.: Symmetry properties of the angles t rad and ( t) rad. A moment s reflection will convince the reader that these relationships hold regardless of the magnitude or direction of the angle t. Similar identities hold for the remaining trigonometric functions. These can be established using the geometric symmetry of the unit circle. They can also be derived 15
16 Section 4: Trigonometric functions at related angles 16 by appealing to the identities presented in section. For example,using the identities above for the sine and cosine function and the identity tan t = sin t cos t we have tan ( t) = sin ( t) cos ( t) = sin t cos t = sin t cos t = tan t. Example 8 Using the information provided in Table. we have the following values Function Radians sin t cos t tan t cot t sec t csc t π/6 1 π/ π/ π/
17 Section 4: Trigonometric functions at related angles 17 The symmetry of the unit circle illustrated in Figure. indicates that the angle of measure (π t) rad determines the point ( x, y) on the unit circle if the angle of measure t rad determines (x, y). Hence, sin (π t) =y = sin t and cos(π t) = x = cos t. Once again,similar identities for the remaining trigonometric functions can be established using these symmetry properties or by direct calculation. Both strategies are illustrated in the next example. Example 9 Use the symmetry properties of the unit circle and the methods of direct calculation to determine sec (π t). Solution: Here, sec (π t) = 1 x = 1 x = sec t 1 sec (π t) = cos (π t) = 1 cos t = 1 = sec t. cos t O O F J O Figure.: Symmetry properties of the angles t rad and (π t) rad. (Symmetry) (Direct Calculation) J
18 Section 4: Trigonometric functions at related angles 18 Example 10 Using the symmetry of the circle and the information in Table. determine the values of the sine, cosine, and tangent functions at a) π rad and b) 4 5π rad. 6 Solution: π a) Observe that = π π/4. Table. indicates 4 ( ) that the angle π rad corresponds to the point 4, on the unit circle, so it follows from the preceding discussion that ( ) ( π π 4 rad determines the point, ). (The figure to the right my be helpful.) Consequently, F " F F " sin π 4 =, cos π 4 = and tan π 4 = 1. b) ote that 5π = π π/6 so the coordinates so the coordinates associated with this 6 angle are (, 1 ). Hence, sin 5π 6 = 1, cos 5π 6 =, and tan 5π 6 = 1.
19 Section 4: Trigonometric functions at related angles 19 The two symmetry properties discussed thus far are easily combined to obtain the coordinates of the point on the unit circle related to the angle (t π) rad. To see this introduce the notation s = π t and let (x, y) be the point on the unit circle determined by the angle t rad. Then ( x, y) is associated with s rad. Using the symmetry property discussed at the beginning of this section,the point associated with s rad is obtained by simply negating the y-coordinate of that for s. (See Figure..) This means that( x, y) is determined by s. But s rad = (π t) rad = (t π) rad. The figure below provides a complete visual account of this result. O O O F J J J F O
20 Section 4: Trigonometric functions at related angles 0 Example 11 Using the symmetry of the circle and the information in Table. determine the values of the sine, cosine, and tangent functions at a) π rad and b) 5π rad. 6 Solution: ( ) a) Since π = π/ π and π/ is associated with 1, the coordinates of the point that determines the angle ( π rad are 1, ) sin ( π = (, cos π, ). Consequently, ) =. ) = 1 and tan ( π ( b) Since the coordinates of the point on the unit circle determined by π are 6 and ( 5π = π π, we have using the point ), ( sin 5π ) = 1 ( 6, cos 5π ) ( = and tan 5π ) = , 1 )
21 Section 4: Trigonometric functions at related angles 1 As illustrated in Figure.4 the coordinates of the points on the unit circle that determines the angles t rad and (t + π) rad are symmetric with respect to the origin since they differ by an angle of π rad (180 ). (ote the angle of π rad indicated in the figure by the bold curved arrow that separates the two angles t rad and (t + π) rad.) Given that the coordinates on the unit circle associated with the angle t rad are (x, y), those determined by (t + π) rad are ( x, y). This suggests the relations sin(t + π) = y = sin t and cos(t + π) = x = cos t. Also,we can calculate sin(t + π) tan(t + π) = cos(t + π) = sin t cos = tan t for any angle t. Again,the remaining three trigonometric functions satisfy similar identities. F H J F O O O Figure.4: Symmetry properties of the angles t rad and (π + t) rad. J
22 Section 4: Trigonometric functions at related angles Example 1 Determine the values of the sine, cosine, and tangent functions at 5π rad. 4 Solution: Consider Figure.4 and recall that if the coordinates on the unit circle determined by the angle t rad are (x, y), then the coordinates related to the angle (t ( + π) rad are ( x, y). Since 5π = π + π and the point associated with π rad is 4 4 4, ), the coordinates that determine the angle 5π rad are (, ). The three 4 values are sin 5π 4 =, cos 5π 4 =, and tan 5π 4 =1. Example 1 Determine the value of the sine function at the angle at 40. Solution: Since ( 40 = and the point on the unit circle determined by the angle 60 1 is, ) we see that sin 40 =.
23 5. Periodic behavior of the trigonometric functions The terminal sides of coterminal angles 6 in standard position intersect the unit circle at a unique point P. Since the values of any trigonometric function depend only on the coordinates of P, it must be the same at coterminal angles. For example,since π 1π +4π =,the angles π 1π 1π rad and rad are coterminal so sin = sin π =. More generally,for any angle of measure t rad, sin(t +kπ) = sin t (1) where k can be any integer. The geometric symmetry of the unit circle suggests that the value π (or k = 1) is the smallest positive number for which Equation 1 holds. This property of the sine function is described by saying that it is periodic with period π. Similar statements hold for the cosine function so it is also periodic with period π. Furthermore,the secant and cosecant have period π since they are the reciprocals of the cosine and sine functions respectively 7,The tangent and cotangent functions are also periodic but have period π as suggested by Exercise 5. 6 Recall that coterminal angles have the same initial and terminal sides. Such angles must have radian measures that differ by an integer multiple of π. 7 Recall that csc t = 1 y = 1 sin t, sec t = 1 x = 1 cos t, and tan t = y x = 1 cot t.
24 6. Exercises Exercise 1. Determine the values of the trigonometric functions if they are defined at the angles: with radian measure (a) π (b) π/ (c) π/ (d) π/4 (e) π/ (f) 5π/6 (g) π/ (h) π/4 Exercise. Determine the values of the trigonometric functions at the angles with radian measure a) 4π b) 5π/ c) 7π/ d) 9π/4 e) 5π/ f) 11π/6 g) 4π/ h) 9π/4. Exercise. Determine the values of the trigonometric functions at the angles with radian measure a) 97π b) 15π/ c) 1π/ d) 19π/4 e) 9π/, f) 1π/6 g) 14π/ h) 19π/4. Exercise 4. Find the coordinates of the point P (x, y) on the unit circle determined by the angle π/6 rad. The figure below should provide some insight. 4
25 Section 6: Exercises 5 O O F $ F $ O O Exercise 5. Show that the period of the tangent and cotangent functions is π.
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5.5 Modelling Harmonic Motion Periodic behaviour happens a lot in nature. Examples of things that oscillate periodically are daytime temperature, the position of a weight on a spring, and tide level. If
Inverse Trigonometric Functions - Trigonometric Equations Dr. Philippe B. Laval Kennesaw STate University April 0, 005 Abstract This handout defines the inverse of the sine, cosine and tangent functions.
Find the exact value of each expression, if it exists. 1. sin 1 0 Find a point on the unit circle on the interval with a y-coordinate of 0. 3. arcsin Find a point on the unit circle on the interval with
Section. Linear Equations: Slope and Equations of Lines Slope The measure of the steepness of a line is called the slope of the line. It is the amount of change in y, the rise, divided by the amount of
Chapter 5 Polar Coordinates; Vectors 5.1 Polar coordinates 1. Pole and polar axis 2. Polar coordinates A point P in a polar coordinate system is represented by an ordered pair of numbers (r, θ). If r >
Harold s s Cheat Sheet 8 December 05 Algebra Constant Linear Identity f(x) c f(x) x Range: [c, c] Undefined (asymptote) Restrictions: c is a real number Ay + B 0 g(x) x Restrictions: m 0 General Fms: Ax