# Embedded Systems Lecture 9: Reliability & Fault Tolerance. Björn Franke University of Edinburgh

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Embedded Systems Lecture 9: Reliability & Fault Tolerance. Björn Franke University of Edinburgh"

## Transcription

1 Embedded Systems Lecture 9: Reliability & Fault Tolerance Björn Franke University of Edinburgh

2 Overview Definitions System Reliability Fault Tolerance

3 Sources and Detection of Errors Stage Error Sources Error Detection Specification & Design Prototype Manufacture Algorithm Design Formal Specification Algorithm Design Wiring & Assembly Timing Component Failure Wiring & Assembly Component Failure Consistency Checks Simulation Stimulus/Response Testing System Testing Diagnostics Installation Field Operation Assembly Component Failure Component Failure Operator Errors Environmental Factors System Testing Diagnostics Diagnostics

4 Definitions Reliability: Survival Probability When function is critical during the mission time. Availability: The fraction of time a system meets its specification. Good when continuous service is important but it can be delayed or denied Failsafe: System fails to a known safe state Dependability: Generalisation - System does the right thing at right time

5 System Reliability R F (t) The reliability, of a system is the probability that no fault of the class F occurs (i.e. system survives) during time t. R F (t) =P (t init t<t f f F ) where tinit is time of introduction of the system to service, tf is time of occurrence of the first failure f drawn from F. Failure Probability, Q F (t) is complementary to R F (t) R F (t)+q F (t) =1 We can take off the F subscript from R F (t) and Q F (t) When the lifetime of a system is exponentially distributed, the reliability of the system is: where the parameter is called the failure rate R(t) =e λt λ

6 Component Reliability Model Burn In Useful Life Wear Out During useful life, components exhibit a constant failure rate λ. Reliability of a device can be modelled using an exponential distribution R(t) =e λt

7 Component Failure Rate Failure rates often expressed in failures / million operating hours Automotive Embedded System Component Failure Rate λ Military Microprocessor Typical Automotive Microprocessor 0.12 Electric Motor Lead/Acid battery 16.9 Oil Pump 37.3 Automotive Wiring Harness (luxury) 775

8 MTTF: Mean Time To Failure MTTF: Mean Time to Failure or Expected Life MTTF: Mean Time To (first) Failure is defined as the expected value of tf MTTF = E(t f )= where λ is the failure rate. 0 R(t)dt = 1 λ MTTF of a system is the expected time of the first failure in a sample of identical initially perfect systems. MTTR: Mean Time To Repair is defined as the expected time for repair. MTBF: Mean Time Between Failure

9 MTTF - MTTR - MTBF Availability = MTBF/(MTBF + MTTR)

10 Serial System Reliability Serially Connected Components R k (t) is the reliability of a single component k: R k (t) =e λ kt Assuming the failure rates of components are statistically independent. The overall system reliability i=1 No redundancy: Overall system reliability depends on the proper working of each component i=1 λ i) Serial failure rate R ser (t) R ser (t) =R 1 (t) R 2 (t) R 3 (t)... R n (t) n R ser (t) = R i (t) R ser (t) =e t(p n n λ ser = i=1 λ i

11 System Reliability Building a reliable serial system is extraordinarily difficult and expensive. System Reliability Building a reliable serial system is extraordinarily difficult and expensive. For example: if one is to build a serial system with 100 components each of which had a reliability =0.905 of 0.999, the overall system reliability would be (0.999) 100 = For example: if one is to build a serial system with 100 components each of which had a reliability of 0.999, the overall system reliability would be Reliability of System of Components Reliability of System of Components Minimal Path Set: Minimal Path Set: Minimal set of components whose functioning Minimal set of components whose functioning ensures the functioning of the ensures the functioning of the system system: {1,3,4} {2,3,4} {1,5} {2,5} {1,3,4} {2,3,4} {1,5} {2,5} G.Khan COE718: HW/SW Codesign of Embedded Systems 11

12 Parallel System Reliability Parallel Connected Components Q k (t) 1 R k (t) Q k (t) =1 e λ kt is : Assuming the failure rates of components are statistically independent. Q par (t) = Overall system reliability: n i=1 Q i (t) R par (t) =1 n (1 R i (t)) i=1

13 Example Consider 4 identical modules are connected in parallel System will operate correctly provided at least one module is operational. If the reliability of each module is The overall system reliability is 1 (1 0.95) 4 =

14 Parallel-Serial Reliability Parallel-Serial Reliability Parallel and Serial Connected Components Parallel and Serial Connected Components Total reliability is the reliability of the first half, in serial with the second half. Total reliability is the reliability of the first half, in serial with the second half. Given R1=0.9, R2=0.9, R3=0.99, R4=0.99, R5=0.87 Given R1=0.9, R2=0.9, R3=0.99, R4=0.99, R5=0.87 Rt = [1-(1-0.9)(1-0.9)][1-(1-0.87)(1-(0.99*0.99))] R t =(1 (1= )(1 0.9))(1 (1 0.87)(1 ( ))) = G.Khan COE718: HW/SW Codesign of Embedded Systems 13

15 Faults and Their Sources What is a fault? Fault is an erroneous state of software or hardware resulting from failures of its components Fault Sources Design errors Manufacturing Problems External disturbances Harsh environmental conditions System Misuse

16 Fault Sources Mechanical -- wears out Deterioration: wear, fatigue, corrosion Shock: fractures, overload, etc. Electronic Hardware -- bad fabrication; wears out Latent manufacturing defects Operating environment: noise, heat, ESD, electro-migration Design defects Software -- bad design Design defects Code rot -- accumulated run-time faults People Can take a whole lecture content...

17 Fault and Classifications Failure: Component does not provide service Fault: A defect within a system Error: A deviation from the required operation of the system or subsystem Extent: Local (independent) or Distributed (related) Value: Determinate Indeterminate (varying values) Duration: Transient Intermittent Permanent

18 ault-tolerant Computing COE718: HW/SW Codesign of Embedded Systems 18 aspects of FTC: Fault Tolerant Computing Fault-Tolerant Computing lt detection lt isolation and containment tem recovery lt Diagnosis Fault air Detection Main aspects of Fault Tolerant Computing (FTC): Fault detection, Fault isolation and containment, System recovery, Fault Diagnosis Repair Isolation Recovery Normal Processing td ti tr Time Switch-in Spare Diagnosis & Repair Time

19 Tolerating Faults There is four-fold categorisation to deal with the system faults and increase system reliability and/or availability. Methods for Minimising Faults Fault Avoidance: How to prevent the fault occurrence. Increase reliability by conservative design and use high reliability components. Fault Tolerance: How to provide the service complying with the specification in spite of faults having occurred or occurring. Fault Removal: How to minimise the presence of faults. Fault Forecasting: How to estimate the presence, occurrence, and the consequences of faults. Fault-Tolerance is the ability of a computer system to survive in the presence of faults.

20 Fault-Tolerance Techniques Hardware Fault Tolerance Software Fault Tolerance

21 Hardware Fault-Tolerance Techniques Fault Detection Redundancy (masking, dynamic) Use of extra components to mask the effect of a faulty component. (Static and Dynamic) Redundancy alone does not guarantee fault tolerance. It guarantee higher fault arrival rates (extra hardware). Redundancy Management is Important A fault tolerant computer can end up spending as much as 50% of its throughput in managing redundancy.

22 Hardware Fault-Tolerance: Fault Detection Detection of a failure is a challenge Many faults are latent that show up later Fault detection gives warning when a fault occurs. Duplication: Two identical copies of hardware run the same computation and compare each other results. When the results do not match a fault is declared. Error Detecting Codes: They utilise information redundancy

23 Hardware Fault-Tolerance: Redundancy Static and Dynamic Redundancy Extra components mask the effect of a faulty component. Masking Redundancy Static redundancy as once the redundant copies of an element are installed, their interconnection remains fixed e.g. N-tuple modular redundancy (nmr), ECC, TMR (Triple Modular Redundancy) 3 identical copies of modules provide separate results to a voter that produces a majority vote at its output. Dynamic Redundancy System configuration is changed in response to faults. Its success largely depends upon fault detection ability.

24 TMR Configuration PR1, PR2 and PR3 processors execute different versions of the code for the same application. Voter compares the results and forward the majority vote of results (two out of three). TMR Configuration Inputs PR1 Voter Outputs PR2 V PR3

25 Software Fault-Tolerance Hardware based fault-tolerance provides tolerance against physical i.e. hardware faults. How to tolerate design/software faults? It is virtually impossible to produce fully correct software. We need something: To prevent software bugs from causing system disasters. To mask out software bugs. Tolerating unanticipated design faults is much more difficult than tolerating anticipated physical faults. Software Fault Tolerance is needed as: Software bugs will occur no matter what we do. No fully dependable way of eliminating these bugs. These bugs have to be tolerated.

26 Tolerating Software Failures How to Tolerate Software Faults? Software fault-tolerance uses design redundancy to mask residual design faults of software programs. Software Fault Tolerance Strategy Defensive Programming If you can not be sure that what you are doing is correct. Do it in many ways. Review and test the software. Verify the software. Execute the specifications. Produce programs automatically.

27 SW Fault-Tolerance Techniques Software Fault-tolerance is based on HW Fault-tolerance Software Fault Detection is a bigger challenge Many software faults are of latent type that shows up later. Can use a watchdog to figure out if the program is crashed Change the specification to provide low level of service Write new versions of the software Throw the original version away. Use all the versions and vote the results. N-version Programming (NVP) Use an on-line acceptance test to determine which version to believe. Recovery Block Scheme.

28 Fault-tolerant Software Design Techniques Recovery block scheme (RB) Dynamic redundancy N-version programming scheme (NVP) n-modular redundancy Hardware redundancy is needed to implement the above Software Faulttolerance techniques.

29 Fault-tolerant Software Design Techniques Fault-tolerant Software Design Techniques Primary Primary V1 V2 V3 Alternate Alternate H H H H H RB NVP G.Khan RB Scheme comprises of three elements: A primary module to execute critical software functions. Acceptance test for the output of N-independent program variants execute in parallel on the identical input. Results are obtained by voting upon the output of COE718: primary module. HW/SW Alternate Codesign of Embedded Systems modules perform the same functions as of primary. individual programs

30 RB: Recovery Block Scheme Recovery Block Scheme An Architectural View of RB Input Rollback and try alternate version Failed Recovery Memory S w i t c h Primary Alternate-1 Alternate-n AT Passed Output Failed and alternates exhausted RB uses diverse versions RB uses diverse versions. Raise error Attempt to prevent Attempt residual to prevent residual software faults G.Khan COE718: HW/SW Codesign of Embedded Systems 32

31 Fault Recovery Fault recovery technique's success depends on the detection of faults accurately and as early as possible. Three classes of recovery procedures: Full Recovery It requires all the aspects of fault tolerant computing. Degraded recovery: Also referred as graceful degradation. Similar to full recovery but no subsystem is switched-in. Defective component is taken out of service. Suited for multiprocessors. Safe Shutdown

32 Fault Recovery Two Basic Approaches: Forward Recovery Produces correct results through continuation of normal processing. Highly application dependent Backward Recovery Some redundant process and state information is recorded with the progress of computation. Rollback the interrupted process to a point for which the correct information is available. e.g. Retry, Checkpointing, Journaling

33 Summary Reliability Serial Reliability, Parallel Reliability, System Reliability Fault Tolerance Hardware, Software

34 Preview Scheduling Theory Priority Inversion Priority Inheritance Protocol

Basics of Traditional Reliability Where we are going Basic Definitions Life and ties of a Fault Reliability Models N-Modular redundant systes Definitions RELIABILITY: SURVIVAL PROBABILITY When repair is

### FAULT TOLERANT SYSTEMS

FAULT TOLERANT SYSTEMS http://www.ecs.umass.edu/ece/koren/faulttolerantsystems Part 18 Chapter 7 Case Studies Part.18.1 Introduction Illustrate practical use of methods described previously Highlight fault-tolerance

### Price/performance Modern Memory Hierarchy

Lecture 21: Storage Administration Take QUIZ 15 over P&H 6.1-4, 6.8-9 before 11:59pm today Project: Cache Simulator, Due April 29, 2010 NEW OFFICE HOUR TIME: Tuesday 1-2, McKinley Last Time Exam discussion

### FAULT TOLERANCE FOR MULTIPROCESSOR SYSTEMS VIA TIME REDUNDANT TASK SCHEDULING

FAULT TOLERANCE FOR MULTIPROCESSOR SYSTEMS VIA TIME REDUNDANT TASK SCHEDULING Hussain Al-Asaad and Alireza Sarvi Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering University of California Davis, CA, U.S.A.

### Design for Safety. 1 Introduction. Neil Storey University of Warwick, Coventry, UK

Design for Safety Neil Storey University of Warwick, Coventry, UK 1 Introduction Perhaps an appropriate starting point for a paper entitled Design for Safety is to define what we mean by design and to

### Reliable Software/Hardware Development

Reliable Software/Hardware Development Objectives To explain how fault tolerance and fault avoidance contribute to the development of dependable systems To describe characteristics of dependable software

### Software Fault Avoidance

Software Fault Avoidance Goutam Kumar Saha Senior Member IEEE gksaha@ieee.org All software faults are basically design faults. Correct specification and correct implementation are must in order to produce

### CS 6290 I/O and Storage. Milos Prvulovic

CS 6290 I/O and Storage Milos Prvulovic Storage Systems I/O performance (bandwidth, latency) Bandwidth improving, but not as fast as CPU Latency improving very slowly Consequently, by Amdahl s Law: fraction

### Value Paper Author: Edgar C. Ramirez. Diverse redundancy used in SIS technology to achieve higher safety integrity

Value Paper Author: Edgar C. Ramirez Diverse redundancy used in SIS technology to achieve higher safety integrity Diverse redundancy used in SIS technology to achieve higher safety integrity Abstract SIS

### CLASSES OF BYZANTINE FAULT-TOLERANT ALGORITHMS FOR DEPENDABLE DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS. André Postma

CLASSES OF BYZANTINE FAULT-TOLERANT ALGORITHMS FOR DEPENDABLE DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS André Postma ISBN 90-365-1081-3 Copyright 1998 by A. Postma All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,

### A Methodology for Safety Case Development

A Methodology for Safety Case Development Peter Bishop Adelard, London, UK Robin Bloomfield Adelard, London, UK 1 Introduction A safety case is a requirement in many safety standards. Explicit safety cases

### COMP303 Computer Architecture Lecture 17. Storage

COMP303 Computer Architecture Lecture 17 Storage Review: Major Components of a Computer Processor Devices Control Memory Output Datapath Input Secondary Memory (Disk) Main Memory Cache Magnetic Disk Purpose

### The New Quad Architecture: Explanation and Evaluation

The New Quad Architecture: Explanation and Evaluation By: Dr. Lawrence V. Beckman HIMA-Americas, Inc. ABSTRACT The new HIMA Quad (QMR) Architecture now available for Safety and Critical Control Applications

### Design of High Availability Systems & Software

HighAv - Version: 2 21 June 2016 Design of High Availability Systems & Software Design of High Availability Systems & Software HighAv - Version: 2 2 days Course Description: This course examines the high-level

### Reliability Prediction Basics

Reliability Prediction Basics Reliability predictions are one of the most common forms of reliability analysis. Reliability predictions predict the failure rate of components and overall system reliability.

### Dependable software development. Programming techniques for building dependable software systems.

Dependable software development Programming techniques for building dependable software systems. Ian Sommerville 2000 Dependable Software Development Slide 1 Software dependability In general, software

### Wireless Sensor Network Performance Monitoring

Wireless Sensor Network Performance Monitoring Yaqoob J. Al-raisi & David J. Parish High Speed Networks Group Loughborough University MSN Coseners 12-13th 13th July 2007 Overview The problem we are trying

### systems' resilience to disk failure through

BY Shashwath Veerappa Devaru CS615 Aspects of System Administration Using Multiple Hard Drives for Performance and Reliability RAID is the term used to describe a storage systems' resilience to disk failure

### Implementing a Fault Tolerant Real-Time Operating System

Implementing a Fault Tolerant Real-Time Operating System EEL 6686: Presentation 2 Chris Morales Kaz Onishi ECE University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida February 19, 2015 1 / 31 Introduction What is

### System Design and Methodology/ Embedded Systems Design (Modeling and Design of Embedded Systems)

System Design&Methodologies Fö 1&2-1 System Design&Methodologies Fö 1&2-2 Course Information System Design and Methodology/ Embedded Systems Design (Modeling and Design of Embedded Systems) TDTS30/TDDI08

### Data Storage - II: Efficient Usage & Errors. Contains slides from: Naci Akkök, Hector Garcia-Molina, Pål Halvorsen, Ketil Lund

Data Storage - II: Efficient Usage & Errors Contains slides from: Naci Akkök, Hector Garcia-Molina, Pål Halvorsen, Ketil Lund Overview Efficient storage usage Disk errors Error recovery INF3 7.3.26 Ellen

### Meeting the Demands of Robotic Space Applications with CompactPCI

1 of 6 1/10/2006 3:26 PM Meeting the Demands of Robotic Space Applications with CompactPCI The robotic tasks in manned and unmanned space applications need increasing sophistication, intelligence and autonomy,

### FUNCTIONAL SAFETY CERTIFICATE

FUNCTIONAL SAFETY CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the hardware safety integrity of the Valvetop ESD Valve Controller manufactured by TopWorx Inc. 3300 Fern Valley Road Louisville Kentucky 40213 USA

### Definition of RAID Levels

RAID The basic idea of RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) is to combine multiple inexpensive disk drives into an array of disk drives to obtain performance, capacity and reliability that exceeds

### Fault tolerant scheduling on a hard real time multiprocessor system. S. Ghosh, Rami Melhem, Daniel Mosse

Fault tolerant scheduling on a hard real time multiprocessor system S. Ghosh, Rami Melhem, Daniel Mosse Introduction Fault tolerance is important issue in hard real time system One way to provide fault

### Modular architecture for high power UPS systems. A White Paper from the experts in Business-Critical Continuity

Modular architecture for high power UPS systems A White Paper from the experts in Business-Critical Continuity Abstract Today, more than ever before, energy efficiency and cost-savings are among the top

### COMP 7970 Storage Systems

COMP 797 Storage Systems Dr. Xiao Qin Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering Auburn University http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~xqin xqin@auburn.edu COMP 797, Auburn University Slide 3b- Problems

### Verification of Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) Insertion for Reliable and Trusted Systems

Verification of Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) Insertion for Reliable and Trusted Systems Melanie Berg 1, Kenneth LaBel 2 1.AS&D in support of NASA/GSFC Melanie.D.Berg@NASA.gov 2. NASA/GSFC Kenneth.A.LaBel@NASA.gov

### Safety Critical & High Availability Systems

SCHA - Version: 1 21 June 2016 Safety Critical & High Availability Systems Safety Critical & High Availability Systems SCHA - Version: 1 3 days Course Description: This Masterclass examines the design

### Designing a Control System for High Availability

Designing a Control System for High Availability Art Pietrzyk, TUV FSExp, Rockwell Automation Brian Root, Redundancy Marketing Manager, Process Initiative, Rockwell Automation Paul Gruhn, P.E., CFSE, Training

### Network Monitoring. Chu-Sing Yang. Department of Electrical Engineering National Cheng Kung University

Network Monitoring Chu-Sing Yang Department of Electrical Engineering National Cheng Kung University Outline Introduction Network monitoring architecture Performance monitoring Fault monitoring Accounting

### Dependable Systems. 9. Redundant arrays of. Prof. Dr. Miroslaw Malek. Wintersemester 2004/05 www.informatik.hu-berlin.de/rok/zs

Dependable Systems 9. Redundant arrays of inexpensive disks (RAID) Prof. Dr. Miroslaw Malek Wintersemester 2004/05 www.informatik.hu-berlin.de/rok/zs Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) RAID is

### Module 13. Software Reliability and Quality Management. Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur

Module 13 Software Reliability and Quality Management Lesson 32 Software Reliability Issues Specific Instructional Objectives At the end of this lesson the student would be able to: Differentiate between

### Modularity in UPS Design What does it Mean, What are the Pro s and Con s?

Modularity in UPS Design What does it Mean, What are the Pro s and Con s? Mike Elms Technical Manager Uninterruptible Power Supplies Ltd www.upspower.co.uk Modularity in UPS Design What does it Mean, What

### Domains. Seminar on High Availability and Timeliness in Linux. Zhao, Xiaodong March 2003 Department of Computer Science University of Helsinki

Domains Seminar on High Availability and Timeliness in Linux Zhao, Xiaodong March 2003 Department of Computer Science University of Helsinki 1 1. Introduction The Hardware Platform Interface (HPI) is developed

### Selection of Techniques and Metrics

Performance Evaluation: Selection of Techniques and Metrics Hongwei Zhang http://www.cs.wayne.edu/~hzhang Acknowledgement: this lecture is partially based on the slides of Dr. Raj Jain. Outline Selecting

### MAINTAINED SYSTEMS. Harry G. Kwatny. Department of Mechanical Engineering & Mechanics Drexel University ENGINEERING RELIABILITY INTRODUCTION

MAINTAINED SYSTEMS Harry G. Kwatny Department of Mechanical Engineering & Mechanics Drexel University OUTLINE MAINTE MAINTE MAINTAINED UNITS Maintenance can be employed in two different manners: Preventive

### Tandem. Tandem. Tandem. Background Tandem NonStop Systems - Cyclone. Commercial Database Systems with very long MTTF Modularity. from.

from to HP 2013 A.W. Krings 1 Background NonStop Systems - Cyclone Commercial Database Systems with very long MTTF Modularity» units of service, failure, diagnosis, repair, growth» fault containment regions»

### ADCSS09, ESTEC MPSA - Micro-Processors for Space Applications round table

ADCSS09, ESTEC MPSA - Micro-Processors for Space Applications round table C. Monteleone On Board Computer & Data Handling Section (TEC-EDD) ESA ESTEC Slide : 1 Technical officer of High Reliability COTS

### High Availability and Safety solutions for Critical Processes

High Availability and Safety solutions for Critical Processes An Introduction to AADvance Subrahmanya Bhat P Sr. Systems Engineer 09 & 10 th Sep 2014 PUBLIC INFORMATION Rev 5058-CO900E 2 Agenda Process

### Module 1: Introduction to Computer System and Network Validation

Module 1: Introduction to Computer System and Network Validation Module 1, Slide 1 What is Validation? Definition: Valid (Webster s Third New International Dictionary) Able to effect or accomplish what

### WORD-VOTER: A NEW VOTER DESIGN FOR TRIPLE MODULAR REDUNDANT SYSTEMS

WORD-VOTER: A NEW VOTER DESIGN FOR TRIPLE MODULAR REDUNDANT SYSTEMS Subhasish Mitra and Edward J. McCluskey Center for Reliable Computing Departments of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Stanford

### Topics in Software Reliability

Dependable Software Systems Topics in Software Reliability Material drawn from [Somerville, Mancoridis] What is Software Reliability? A Formal Definition: Reliability is the probability of failure-free

### Process Safety Architecture System Neutral Solution Comparison

499 A publication of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS VOL. 48, 2016 Guest Editors: Eddy de Rademaeker, Peter Schmelzer Copyright 2016, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l., ISBN 978-88-95608-39-6; ISSN 2283-9216 The

### IT White Paper. N + 1 Become Too Many + 1?

IT White Paper Balancing Scalability and Reliability in the Critical Power system: When Does N + 1 Become Too Many + 1? Summary Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) protection can be delivered through a

### Disk Storage & Dependability

Disk Storage & Dependability Computer Organization Architectures for Embedded Computing Wednesday 19 November 14 Many slides adapted from: Computer Organization and Design, Patterson & Hennessy 4th Edition,

### The purpose of this procedure is to document the process for generating Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) for Sydney Water s facility assets.

Procedure Reliability Block Diagram (RBD). Overview.. Objective The purpose of this procedure is to document the process for generating Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) for Sydney Water s facility assets..2.

### Data Storage - II: Efficient Usage & Errors

Data Storage - II: Efficient Usage & Errors Week 10, Spring 2005 Updated by M. Naci Akkøk, 27.02.2004, 03.03.2005 based upon slides by Pål Halvorsen, 12.3.2002. Contains slides from: Hector Garcia-Molina

### MultiPARTES. Virtualization on Heterogeneous Multicore Platforms. 2012/7/18 Slides by TU Wien, UPV, fentiss, UPM

MultiPARTES Virtualization on Heterogeneous Multicore Platforms 2012/7/18 Slides by TU Wien, UPV, fentiss, UPM Contents Analysis of scheduling approaches Virtualization of devices Dealing with heterogeneous

### Fault Tolerance & Reliability CDA 5140. Chapter 3 RAID & Sample Commercial FT Systems

Fault Tolerance & Reliability CDA 5140 Chapter 3 RAID & Sample Commercial FT Systems - basic concept in these, as with codes, is redundancy to allow system to continue operation even if some components

### Maximizing return on plant assets

Maximizing return on plant assets Manufacturers in nearly every process industry face the need to improve their return on large asset investments. Effectively managing assets, however, requires a wealth

### System Aware Cyber Security

System Aware Cyber Security Application of Dynamic System Models and State Estimation Technology to the Cyber Security of Physical Systems Barry M. Horowitz, Kate Pierce University of Virginia April, 2012

### Spacecraft Computer Systems. Colonel John E. Keesee

Spacecraft Computer Systems Colonel John E. Keesee Overview Spacecraft data processing requires microcomputers and interfaces that are functionally similar to desktop systems However, space systems require:

### SpaceFibre. Steve Parkes 1, Chris McClements 1, Martin Dunstan 1 Albert Ferrer 2, Alberto Gonzalez 2 Martin Suess 3

Steve Parkes 1, Chris McClements 1, Martin Dunstan 1 Albert Ferrer 2, Alberto Gonzalez 2 Martin Suess 3 1 Space Technology Centre, University of Dundee. UK 2 STAR-Dundee Ltd, UK 3 ESA, ESTEC, The Netherlands

### Boeing B-777. 29.1 Introduction. 29.2 Background. Michael J. Morgan

29 Boeing B-777 Michael J. Morgan Honeywell 29.1 Introduction 29.2 Background 29.3 Boeing 777 Airplane Information Management System (AIMS) 29.4 Cabinet Architecture Overview 29.5 Backplane Bus 29.6 Maintenance

### Embedded Systems Lecture 15: HW & SW Optimisations. Björn Franke University of Edinburgh

Embedded Systems Lecture 15: HW & SW Optimisations Björn Franke University of Edinburgh Overview SW Optimisations Floating-Point to Fixed-Point Conversion HW Optimisations Application-Specific Instruction

### VERY IMPORTANT NOTE! - RAID

Disk drives are an integral part of any computing system. Disk drives are usually where the operating system and all of an enterprise or individual s data are stored. They are also one of the weakest links

### Reliability aspects on Power Supplies

Reliability aspects on Power Supplies Design Note 002 Ericsson Power Modules General Abstract As power supplies are the very heart of every electronic equipment, special attention must be paid to their

### SAFETY MANUAL SIL Switch Amplifier

PROCESS AUTOMATION SAFETY MANUAL SIL Switch Amplifier KCD2-SR-(Ex)*(.LB)(.SP), HiC282* ISO9001 2 With regard to the supply of products, the current issue of the following document is applicable: The General

### SAN Conceptual and Design Basics

TECHNICAL NOTE VMware Infrastructure 3 SAN Conceptual and Design Basics VMware ESX Server can be used in conjunction with a SAN (storage area network), a specialized high speed network that connects computer

### Hardware in the Loop (HIL) Testing VU 2.0, 182.117, WS 2008/09

Testen von Embedded Systems Hardware in the Loop (HIL) Testing VU 2.0, 182.117, WS 2008/09 Raimund dkirner Testing Embedded Software Testing the whole system including the physical environment is not possible

### Introduction to Embedded Systems

S E C T I O N I Introduction to Embedded Systems Introduction to Embedded Systems The field of embedded systems is wide and varied, and it is difficult to pin down exact definitions or descriptions. However,

ARTICLE IN PRESS J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 64 (24) 629 648 Efficient overloading techniques for primary-backup scheduling in real-time systems R. Al-Omari, a, Arun K. Somani, b and G. Manimaran b, *

### IJMIE Volume 2, Issue 6 ISSN:

RAIN TECHNOLOGY KAMALDEEP KAUR* ABSTARCT: The massive jumps in technology led to the expansion of internet as the most accepted medium for communication. But one of the most prominent problems with this

### Justifying the use of software of uncertain pedigree (SOUP) in safety related applications

Justifying the use of software of uncertain pedigree (SOUP) in safety related applications Peter Bishop, Robin Bloomfield and Peter Froome Adelard Abstract This short paper is intended to serve as an introduction

### Software Quality. Software Quality Assurance and Software Reuse. Three Important Points. Quality Factors

Software Quality Software Quality Assurance and Software Reuse Peter Lo Conformance to explicitly-stated functional and performance requirements, explicitly-documented development standards, and implicit

### Fault Tolerant Servers: The Choice for Continuous Availability on Microsoft Windows Server Platform

Fault Tolerant Servers: The Choice for Continuous Availability on Microsoft Windows Server Platform Why clustering and redundancy might not be enough This paper discusses today s options for achieving

### SAFETY MANUAL SIL RELAY MODULE

PROCESS AUTOMATION SAFETY MANUAL SIL RELAY MODULE KFD0-RSH-1.4S.PS2 ISO9001 3 With regard to the supply of products, the current issue of the following document is applicable: The General Terms of Delivery

### Software Driven Embedded Systems Design. A Use Case Analysis: Avoiding a hardware dependent software disaster using Virtual System Prototyping

Software Driven Embedded Systems Design A Use Case Analysis: Avoiding a hardware dependent software disaster using Virtual System Prototyping Overview Traditional System Development: A use case Traditional

### "Reliability and MTBF Overview"

"Reliability and MTBF Overview" Prepared by Scott Speaks Vicor Reliability Engineering Introduction Reliability is defined as the probability that a device will perform its required function under stated

### System Availability and Data Protection of Infortrend s ESVA Storage Solution

System Availability and Data Protection of Infortrend s ESVA Storage Solution White paper Abstract This white paper analyzes system availability and data protection on Infortrend s ESVA storage systems.

### Solving Data Loss in Massive Storage Systems Jason Resch Cleversafe

Solving Data Loss in Massive Storage Systems Jason Resch Cleversafe 2010 Storage Developer Conference. Insert Your Company Name. All Rights Reserved. 1 In the beginning There was replication Long before

### CERTIFIED RELIABILITY ENGINEER (CRE) BODY OF KNOWLEDGE

CERTIFIED RELIABILITY ENGINEER (CRE) BODY OF KNOWLEDGE The topics in this Body of Knowledge include additional detail in the form of subtext explanations and the cognitive level at which the questions

### CS 61C: Great Ideas in Computer Architecture. Dependability: Parity, RAID, ECC

CS 61C: Great Ideas in Computer Architecture Dependability: Parity, RAID, ECC Instructor: Justin Hsia 8/08/2013 Summer 2013 Lecture #27 1 Review of Last Lecture MapReduce Data Level Parallelism Framework

### RAID 5 rebuild performance in ProLiant

RAID 5 rebuild performance in ProLiant technology brief Abstract... 2 Overview of the RAID 5 rebuild process... 2 Estimating the mean-time-to-failure (MTTF)... 3 Factors affecting RAID 5 array rebuild

### Overview of IEC 61508 - Design of electrical / electronic / programmable electronic safety-related systems

Overview of IEC 61508 - Design of electrical / electronic / programmable electronic safety-related systems Simon Brown The author is with the Health & Safety Executive, Magdalen House, Bootle, Merseyside,

### Distributed Fault-Tolerant / High-Availability (DFT/HA) Systems

White Paper February 2010 Distributed Fault-Tolerant / High-Availability (DFT/HA) Systems By Ravi Raj Bhat, Vice President of Engineering Today s telecommunication platforms must provide five nines availability,

### Electronic Power Control

Service. Self-Study Programme 210 Electronic Power Control Design and Function With the Electronic Power Control system, the throttle valve is actuated only by an electric motor. This eliminates the need

### Testing for the Unexpected: An Automated Method of Injecting Faults for Engine Management Development

Testing for the Unexpected: An Automated Method of Injecting Faults for Engine Management Development By Shaun Fuller What will happen if a fault occurs in an automotive vehicle s electrical system? Similarly,

### Increased power protection with parallel UPS configurations

Increased power protection with parallel UPS configurations Making the selection between Centralized Bypass and Distributed Bypass systems Janne Paananen Application Engineer, Large Systems Group Eaton

### Introduction. Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Introduction The area of fault detection and diagnosis is one of the most important aspects in process engineering. This area has received considerable attention from industry and academia because

### SECTION PROCESS INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS

SECTION 13311 - PROCESS INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS PART 1 - GENERAL 1.01 WORK INCLUDED A. This Section covers work related to the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC)

### Virtualization for Embedded Systems Lecture for the Embedded Systems Course CSD, University of Crete (April 23, 2015)

Virtualization for Embedded Systems Lecture for the Embedded Systems Course CSD, University of Crete (April 23, 2015) ManolisMarazakis (maraz@ics.forth.gr) Institute of Computer Science (ICS) Foundation

www.bsc.es Build it for Fault Tolerance, Get Security for Free Osman Sabri Ünsal BSC HESES Workshop, HIPEAC January 18 th 2016 Fault-tolerance Quick Glance Transient Errors Soft errors due to particle

### APPLICATION OF ADVANCED HARDWARE TESTING AND INVENTORY MANAGEMENT METHODS FOR THE LHC POWER CONVERTER CONTROL SYSTEM

10th ICALEPCS Int. Conf. on Accelerator & Large Expt. Physics Control Systems. Geneva, 10-14 Oct 2005, PO2.038-3 (2005) APPLICATION OF ADVANCED HARDWARE TESTING AND INVENTORY MANAGEMENT METHODS FOR THE

### Belleville Fire Hall/Headquarters and Emergency Operations Centre Belleville, Ontario Page 1 of 6

Belleville, Ontario Page 1 of 6 1 GENERAL 1.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS.1 The General Conditions of CCDC2-2008, and the General requirements of Division 1, form part of this Section and must read in conjunction

### CSC408H Lecture Notes

CSC408H Lecture Notes These lecture notes are provided for the personal use of students taking Software Engineering course in the Summer term 2005 at the University of Toronto. Copying for purposes other

### Unit 2 Distributed Systems R.Yamini Dept. Of CA, SRM University Kattankulathur

Unit 2 Distributed Systems R.Yamini Dept. Of CA, SRM University Kattankulathur 1 Introduction to Distributed Systems Why do we develop distributed systems? availability of powerful yet cheap microprocessors

### Failure Mode and Effect Analysis. Software Development is Different

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis Lecture 4-3 Software Failure Mode and Effects Analysis in Software Software Development, Pries, SAE Technical Paper 982816 Software Development is Different Process variation

### Software testing. Objectives

Software testing cmsc435-1 Objectives To discuss the distinctions between validation testing and defect testing To describe the principles of system and component testing To describe strategies for generating

### Essential Standby Generator System Requirements for Next Generation Data Centers

Essential Standby Generator System Requirements for Next Generation Data Centers White Paper 90 Revision 1 by Matt LePard > Executive summary Effective standby generator system installations must address

### Software Engineering. How does software fail? Terminology CS / COE 1530

Software Engineering CS / COE 1530 Testing How does software fail? Wrong requirement: not what the customer wants Missing requirement Requirement impossible to implement Faulty design Faulty code Improperly

### The MCSE Methodology. overview. the mcse design process. if a picture is worth a thousand words, an executable model is worth a thousand pictures

The MCSE Methodology overview if a picture is worth a thousand words, an executable model is worth a thousand pictures The MCSE methodology the mcse methodology (méthodologie de conception des Systèmes

### Achieving High Availability

Achieving High Availability What You Need to Know before You Start James Bottomley SteelEye Technology 21 January 2004 1 What Is Availability? Availability measures the ability of a given service to operate.

### Automotive Software Engineering

Automotive Software Engineering List of Chapters: 1. Introduction and Overview 1.1 The Driver Vehicle Environment System 1.1.1 Design and Method of Operation of Vehicle Electronic 1.1.2 Electronic of the

### SIMULATION OF FAULT-TOLERANT SCHEDULING ON REAL-TIME MULTIPROCESSOR SYSTEMS USING PRIMARY BACKUP OVERLOADING

SIMULATION OF FAULT-TOLERANT SCHEDULING ON REAL-TIME MULTIPROCESSOR SYSTEMS USING PRIMARY BACKUP OVERLOADING Bindu Mirle and Albert M. K. Cheng Real-Time Systems Laboratory Department of Computer Science

### High Availability Design Patterns

High Availability Design Patterns Kanwardeep Singh Ahluwalia 81-A, Punjabi Bagh, Patiala 147001 India kanwardeep@gmail.com +91 98110 16337 Atul Jain 135, Rishabh Vihar Delhi 110092 India jain.atul@wipro.com