Automotive Software Engineering

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1 Automotive Software Engineering List of Chapters: 1. Introduction and Overview 1.1 The Driver Vehicle Environment System Design and Method of Operation of Vehicle Electronic Electronic of the Vehicle and the Environment 1.2 Overview of Vehicle Electronic Electronic of the Powertrain User Interfaces and Setpoint Generators Sensors and Actuators Software Installation Space Variants and Scalability Electronic of the Chassis User Interfaces and Setpoint Generators Sensors and Actuators Software Installation Space Variants and Scalability Body Electronics User Interfaces and Setpoint Generators Sensors and Actuators Software Installation Space Variants and Scalability Multimedia Distributed and Networked Electronic Summary and Outlook 1.3 Overview of the Logical System ECU and Function Networks of the Vehicle Logical System for Open-Loop/Closed-Loop Control and Monitoring 1.4 Processes in Vehicle Development Overview of Vehicle Development Overview of the Development of Electronic Trend from Hardware to Software Cost Long Product Life Cycles Safety Requirements High and Still Rising Core Process for Electronic and Software Development Support Processes for Electronic and Software Development Customer/Supplier Relationships Simultaneous Engineering and Different Development Environments Production and Service of Electronic and Software 1.5 Methods and Tools for the Development of Software for Electronic Model-Based Development Integrated Quality Management Quality Assurance Guidelines Quality Control, Validation, and Verifi cation Measures Reducing the Development Risk Early Validation of Software Reuse of Software

2 Reuse of Softwar Standardization and Automation Standardization Automation Development Steps in the Vehicle 2. Essential System Basics 2.1 Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Control Modeling Block Diagrams 2.2 Discrete Time-Discrete and Signals Value-Discrete and Signals Time- and Value-Discrete and Signals State Machines 2.3 Embedded Microcontroller Construction Memory Technologies Read/Write Memory Non-Erasable Read- Only Memory Reprogrammable Nonvolatile Memory Microcontroller Programming Program Version and Data Version Functional Principles of Microcontrollers Principal Microcontroller Operations Microprocessor and Instruction Set I/O Module 2.4 Real-Time Defi ning Tasks Defi ning Real-Time Requirements Instants of Task Activation and Task Deadline Hard and Soft Real- Time Requirements Defi ning Processes Task States Basic Task State Model (per OSEK-OS) Extended Task State Model (per OSEK-OS) Task State Model (per OSEK-TIME) Strategies for Processor Scheduling Processor Scheduling In Sequential Order Processor Scheduling By Priority Processor Scheduling Combined Sequential and Priority Strategy Processor Scheduling Preemptive Strategy Processor Scheduling Nonpreemptive Strategy Processor Scheduling Event-Driven and Time- Controlled Strategies Organization of Real-Time Operating Interaction Among Tasks Synchronization Cooperation Communication Interaction Among Tasks in the Logical System 2.5 Distributed and Networked Logical and Technical System Defi ning Logical Communication Links Client/Server Model Producer/Consumer Model Defi ning the Technical Network Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Linear Topology Defi ning Messages Addressing Communications Matrix

3 Reuse of Softwar Organization of Communications and Network Management Communications (per OSEK-COM) Network Management (per OSEK-NM) Strategies for Bus Arbitration Bus Access Strategies Centralized or Decentralized Implementation Bus Access Strategies Controlled or Random Bus Access Strategies Event-Driven and Time- Controlled 2.6 System Reliability, Safety, Monitoring, and Diagnostics Basic Terms System Reliability and Availability Defi nition of Reliability Function R(t) and Failure Rate λ(t) Defi nition of Mean Time to Failure (MTTF) Defi nition of Mean Time to Repair (MTTR) Defi nition of Mean Availability System Safety Defi nition of Terms in Safety Technology Determining Risk System Monitoring and Diagnostics Monitoring Fault Recognition and Fault Diagnostics Error Detection and Correction Safety Logic Functional Software Safety Organization of a Monitoring System for Electronic Control Units Microcontroller Monitoring Monitoring Setpoint Generators, Sensors, Actuators, and Control Organization of a Diagnostic System for Electronic Control Units Offboard Diagnostic Onboard Diagnostic Diagnostics for Setpoint Generators and Sensors Diagnostics for Actuators Fault Memory Manager Offboard Diagnostic Communications Model-Based Fault Recognition 2.7 Summary 3. Support Processes for Electronic and Software Engineering 3.1 Basic Defi nitions of System Theory 3.2 Process Models and Standards 3.3 Confi guration Management Product and Life Cycle Variants and Scalability Versions and Confi gurations 3.4 Project Management Project Planning Quality Planning Cost Planning Project Scheduling Development Roles and Responsibilities Project Tracking and Risk Management 3.5 Subcontractor Management System and Component Responsibilities Interfaces for Specifi cation and Integration Defi ning the Cross-Corporation Development Process 3.6 Requirements Management Mining, Recording, and Interpreting User Requirements Tracking User Requirements

4 Reuse Quality of Softwar Assurance Integration and Testing Procedures Software Quality Assurance Methods 4. Core Process for Electronic and Software Engineering 4.1 Requirements and Prerequisites Shared System and Component Responsibilities Coordination of Engineering and Software Engineering Model-Based Software Development 4.2 Basic Defi nitions and Notations Processes, Process Steps, and Artifacts Methods and Tools 4.3 Analysis of User Requirements and Specifi cation of Logical System 4.4 Analysis of Logical System and Specifi cation of Technical System Analysis and Specifi cation of Open-Loop/Closed-Loop Control Analysis and Specifi cation of Real- Time Analysis and Specifi cation of Distributed and Networked Analysis and Specifi cation of Reliable and Safe 4.5 Analysis of Software Requirements and Specifi cation of Software Specifi cation of Software and Associated Interfaces Specifi cation of Onboard Interfaces Specifi cation of Offboard Interfaces Specifi cation of Software Layers Specifi cation of Operating States 4.6 Specifi cation of Software Specifi cation of Data Model Specifi cation of Behavioral Model Specifi cation of Data Flow Specifi cation of Control Flow Specifi cation of Real-Time Model State-Dependent Reactive Execution Model State-Independent Reactive Execution Model 4.7 Design and Implementation of Software Consideration of Requested Nonfunctional Product Properties Differentiation Between Program Version and Data Version Limitation of Hardware Resources Design and Implementation of Data Model Design and Implementation of Behavioral Model Design and Implementation of Real-Time Model 4.8 Software Component Testing 4.9 Integration of Software Generating Program Version and Data Version Generating Description Files Generating Documentation 4.10 Software Integration Testing 4.11 Integration of System Integration of Software and Hardware Download Flash Programming Integration of ECUs, Setpoint Generators, Sensors, and Actuators 4.12 System Integration Test 4.13 Calibration 4.14 System and Acceptance Test

5 Methods Reuse and of Softwar Tools for Development 5.1 Offboard Interface Between Electronic Control Units and Tools 5.2 Analysis of Logical System and Specifi cation of Technical System Analysis and Specifi cation of Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Control Analysis and Specifi cation of Real- Time Schedulability Analysis Verifying Schedulability by Means of Measurements Monitoring and Handling Deadline Violations in the Operating System Analysis and Specifi cation of Distributed and Networked Analysis and Specifi cation of Reliable and Safe Failure Rate Analysis and Calculation of Reliability Function System Safety and Reliability Analysis 5.3 Specifi cation of Software and Validation of Specifi cation Specifi cation of Software and Software Object-Based Software Modeling Module-Based Specifi cation of Interfaces to Real-Time Operating System Class-Based Specifi cation of Reusable Software Specifi cation of Data Model Specifi cation of Behavioral Model Using Block Diagrams Specifi cation of Arithmetical Specifi cation of Boolean Specifi cation of Behavioral Model Using Decision Tables Specifi cation of Behavioral Model Using State Machines Specifying Flat State Machines Specifying Transitions with Branching Instructions Specifying Hierarchy State Machines Specifi cation of Behavioral Model Using High-Level Languages Specifi cation of Real-Time Model Validating the Specifi cation Through Simulation and Rapid Prototyping Simulation Rapid Prototyping Horizontal and Vertical Prototypes Target System Identical Prototypes Throw-Away and Evolutionary Prototypes Reference Prototype for ECU Verifi cation 5.4 Design and Implementation of Software Consideration of Requested Nonfunctional Product Properties Runtime Optimization Through Consideration of Varying Access Times to Different Memory Segments Runtime Optimization Through Distribution of Software Function to Several Tasks Resource Optimization Through Division into Online and Offl ine Calculations Resource Optimization Through Division into Onboard and Offboard Calculations Resource Optimization for Characteristic Curves and Maps

6 Reuse of Softwar Design and Implementation of Algorithms for Fixed-Point and Floating-Point Arithmetic Representation of Numbers in Digital Processors Rounding Errors in Integer Division Overfl ow and Underfl ow in Addition, Subtraction, and Multiplication Shift Operations Handling Overfl ows and Underfl ows Error Propagation with Algorithms in Fixed- Point Arithmetic Physical Interrelation and Fixed-Point Arithmetic Physical Model Level and Implementation Level Notes on Implementation in Fixed- Point Arithmetic Notes on Implementation in Floating-Point Arithmetic Modeling and Implementation Guidelines Design and Implementation of Software Platform and Application Software Standardization of Platform Software Confi guration of Standardized Software Design and Implementation of Data Model Defi nition of Memory Segment Setting Data Variants via Flash Programming Setting Data Variants via Confi guration Parameters Generation of Data Structures and Description Files Design and Implementation of Behavioral Model 5.5 Integration and Testing of Software Software-in-the-Loop Simulations Laboratory Vehicles and Test Benches Test Environment for Standalone ECUs Test Environment for ECUs, Setpoint Generators, Sensors, and Actuators Test Environment for ECU Network Test Bench Experimental, Prototype, and Production Vehicles Design and Automation of Experiments 5.6 Calibration of Software Offl ine and Online Calibration Procedures Software Update Through Flash Programming Synchronous Measuring of Microcontroller and Instrumentation Signals Downloading and Evaluating Onboard Diagnostic Data Offl ine Calibration of Parameters Online Calibration of Parameters Classifi cation of Offboard Interfaces for Online Calibration Serial Preproduction Interface with Internal CAL-RAM (Method 1) Serial Development Interface with Internal CAL-RAM (Method 2) Parallel Development Interface with Internal CAL-RAM (Method 3)

7 Reuse of Softwar Serial Preproduction Interface with Additional CAL-RAM (Method 4) Serial Development Interface with Additional CAL-RAM (Method 5) Parallel Development Interface with Additional CAL-RAM (Method 6) Communications Protocols for Calibration Tools and Microcontrollers CAL-RAM Management CAL-RAM Management with Suffi cient Memory Resources CAL-RAM Management with Limited Memory Resources Parameter and Data Version Management Binary Program and Data Version File Calibration Model or Source Code Calibration and Optimization Design and Automation of Experiments 6. Methods and Tools for Production and Service 6.1 Offboard Diagnostics 6.2 Parameterization of Software 6.3 Software Update Through Flash Programming Erasing and Programming Flash Memory Flash Programming Through the Offboard Diagnostic Interface Security Requirements Availability Requirements Boot Block Shifting and Flash Programming 6.4 Startup and Testing of Electronic 7. Summary and Outlook References Illustration Credits List of Acronyms Index About the Authors

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