Sources of Health Insurance Coverage: A Look at Changes Between 2013 and 2014 from the March 2014 and 2015 Current Population Survey

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1 October 2015 No. 419 Sources of Health Insurance Coverage: A Look at Changes Between 2013 and 2014 from the March 2014 and 2015 Current Population Survey By Paul Fronstin, Ph.D., Employee Benefit Research Institute A T A G L A N C E The percentage of nonelderly individuals in the United States with health insurance increased between 2013 and In 2014, 88 percent of individuals were covered, up from 84.6 percent in Twelve percent of individuals under age 65 did not have health insurance at any point in 2014, down from 15.4 percent in Just over 32 million were uninsured in 2014, down from 41.1 million in There was no change in the percentage of the nonelderly population with coverage through an employment-based health plan. More people were covered by employment-based coverage in 2014 than in 2013 because of population growth, but the percentage with employment-based health coverage was unchanged at 62 percent. The percentage of workers with employment-based health coverage increased slightly between 2013 and 2014, rising from 70.5 percent to 70.8 percent. The percentage of workers who had no health insurance coverage fell from 17.2 percent in 2013 to 13.3 percent because of an increase in the percentage with health insurance coverage purchased directly from an insurance carrier and because of an increase in Medicaid coverage. Among the entire population, the percentage with coverage purchased directly from an insurance carrier increased from 8.8 percent in 2013 to 12.6 percent in 2014, which represents a corresponding increase of about 10 million people with coverage purchased directly from an insurance carrier. Enrollment in public programs increased as well between 2013 and In 2014, 58.4 million (or 21.7 percent of the nonelderly population) were covered by Medicaid or State Children s Health Insurance Program (S-CHIP), up from 52 million (or 19.4 percent) in A monthly research report from the EBRI Education and Research Fund 2015 Employee Benefit Research Institute

2 Paul Fronstin is director of the Health Education and Research Program at the Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI). This article was written with assistance from EBRI s research and editorial staffs. Any views expressed in this report are those of the author and should not be ascribed to the officers, trustees, or other sponsors of EBRI, Employee Benefit Research Institute-Education and Research Fund (EBRI-ERF), or their staffs. Neither EBRI nor EBRI-ERF lobbies or takes positions on specific policy proposals. EBRI invites comment on this research. Copyright Information: This report is copyrighted by the Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI). It may be used without permission, but citation of the source is required. Recommended Citation: Paul Fronstin. Sources of Health Insurance Coverage: A Look at Changes Between 2013 and 2014 from the March 2014 and 2015 Current Population Survey. EBRI Issue Brief, no. 419, (Employee Benefit Research Institute, October 2015). Report Availability: This report is available on the Internet at Table of Contents Introduction... 6 Summary of Findings... 6 Conclusion... 6 Endnotes... 8 Figures Figure 1, Nonelderly Population With Selected Sources of Health Insurance Coverage, Figure 2, Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Among Children Under Age 18, Figure 3, Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Among Adults, Ages 18 64, Figure 4, Percentage of Women Ages Who Were in Families With Welfare Income or Who Were Employed, Figure 5, Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Among Workers, Ages 18 64, Figure 6, Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Among Workers, Ages 18 64, Figure 7, Premium Increases, by Firm Size, Figure 8, Percentage of Workers Who Were Self-Employed, Employed in Large Firms, or Employed Part-Time, Figure 9, Employment-Based Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Own Work Status, Figure 10, Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Nonelderly Population, by Own Work Status, Figure 11, Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Nonelderly Population, by Own Work Status, Figure 12, Individually Purchased Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Own Work Status, Figure 13, Medicaid Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Own Work Status, Figure 14, Nonelderly Population, Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Own Work Status, ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

3 Figure 15, Employment-Based Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Family Income, Figure 16, Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Nonelderly Population, by Family Income, Figure 17, Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Nonelderly Population, by Family Income, Figure 18, Individually Purchased Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Family Income, Figure 19, Medicaid Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Family Income, Figure 20, Nonelderly Population, Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Family Income, Figure 21, Employment-Based Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Race, Figure 22, Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Nonelderly Population, by Race, Figure 23, Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Nonelderly Population, by Race, Figure 24, Individually Purchased Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Race, Figure 25, Medicaid Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Race, Figure 26, Nonelderly Population, Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Race, Figure 27, Employment-Based Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Poverty Level, Figure 28, Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Nonelderly Population, by Poverty Level, Figure 29, Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Nonelderly Population, by Poverty Level, Figure 30, Individually Purchased Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Poverty Level, Figure 31, Medicaid Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Poverty Level, Figure 32, Nonelderly Population, Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Poverty Level, Figure 33, Employment-Based Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Health Status, Figure 34, Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Nonelderly Population, by Health Status, Figure 35, Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Nonelderly Population, by Health Status, Figure 36, Individually Purchased Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Health Status, Figure 37, Medicaid Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Health Status, Figure 38, Nonelderly Population, Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Health Status, Figure 39, Employment-Based Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Citizenship, Figure 40, Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Nonelderly Population, by Citizenship, Figure 41, Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Nonelderly Population, by Citizenship, Figure 42, Individually Purchased Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Citizenship, Figure 43, Medicaid Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Citizenship, Figure 44, Nonelderly Population, Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Citizenship, Figure 45, Employment-Based Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Age, Figure 46, Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Nonelderly Population, by Age, ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

4 Figure 47, Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Nonelderly Population, by Age, Figure 48, Individually Purchased Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Age, Figure 49, Medicaid Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Age, Figure 50, Nonelderly Population, Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Age, Figure 51, Employment-Based Coverage, Males, by Age, Figure 52, Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Males, by Age, Figure 53, Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Males, by Age, Figure 54, Individually Purchased Coverage, Males, by Age, Figure 55, Medicaid Coverage, Males, by Age, Figure 56, Males Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Age, Figure 57, Females With Employment-Based Coverage, by Age, Figure 58, Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Females, by Age, Figure 59, Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Females, by Age, Figure 60, Individually Purchased Coverage, Females, by Age, Figure 61, Medicaid Coverage, Females, by Age, Figure 62, Females Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Age, Figure 63, Employment-Based Coverage, Workers Ages 18-64, by Industry, Figure 64, Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Workers Ages 18 64, by Industry, Figure 65, Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Workers Ages 18 64, by Industry, Figure 66, Individually Purchased Coverage, Workers Ages 18 64, by Industry, Figure 67, Medicaid Coverage, Workers Ages 18 64, by Industry, Figure 68, Workers Ages 18 64, Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Industry, Figure 69, Employment-Based Coverage, Workers Ages 18 64, by Firm Size, Figure 70, Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Workers Ages 18 64, by Firm Size, Figure 71, Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Workers Ages 18 64, by Firm Size, Figure 72, Individually Purchased Coverage, Workers Ages 18 64, by Firm Size, Figure 73, Medicaid Coverage, Workers Ages 18 64, by Firm Size, Figure 74, Workers Ages Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Firm Size, Figure 75, Employment-Based Coverage, Workers Ages 18 64, by Hours and Weeks Worked, Figure 76, Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Workers Ages 18 64, by Hours and Weeks Worked, ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

5 Figure 77, Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Workers Ages 18 64, by Hours and Weeks Worked, Figure 78, Individually Purchased Coverage, Workers Ages 18 64, by Hours and Weeks Worked, Figure 79, Medicaid Coverage, Workers Ages 18 64, by Hours and Weeks Worked, Figure 80, Workers Ages 18 64, Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Hours and Weeks Worked, Figure 81, Employment-Based Coverage, Workers Ages 18 64, by Earnings, Figure 82, Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Workers Ages 18 64, by Earnings, Figure 83, Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Workers Ages 18 64, by Earnings, Figure 84, Individually Purchased Coverage, Workers Ages 18 64, by Earnings, Figure 85, Medicaid Coverage, Workers Ages 18 64, by Earnings, Figure 86, Workers Ages 18 64, Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Earnings, Figure 87, Employment-Based Coverage, Children Under Age 18, by Poverty Level, Figure 88, Individually Purchased Coverage, Children Under Age 18, by Poverty Level, Figure 89, Medicaid Coverage, Children Under Age 18, by Poverty Level, Figure 90, Children Under Age 18, Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Poverty Level, Figure 91, Employment-Based Coverage, Children Under Age 18, by Work Status of Family Head, Figure 92, Individually Purchased Coverage, Children Under Age 18, by Work Status of Family Head, Figure 93, Medicaid Coverage, Children Under Age 18, by Work Status of Family Head, Figure 94, Children Under Age 18, Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Work Status of Family Head, ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

6 Sources of Health Insurance Coverage: A Look at Changes Between 2013 and 2014 from the March 2014 and 2015 Current Population Survey By Paul Fronstin, Ph.D., Employee Benefit Research Institute Introduction The data presented in this Issue Brief come from the March Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted by the Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The CPS has been conducted every month for more than 50 years. The March Supplement, now known as the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC), is one of the primary sources of data on health insurance coverage of the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population. The questions on health insurance refer to the previous calendar year. For example, in March 2015, interviewers asked about health insurance coverage during Approximately 99,000 households, representing 199,000 individuals, were interviewed for the March 2015 Supplement. This Issue Brie focuses mainly on changes in health insurance coverage between 2013 and 2014, the year before and after provisions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) took effect to increase health insurance coverage and reduce the uninsured. The analysis focuses on the nonelderly population, workers ages 18 64, and children. Selected data from prior to 2013 are presented, but it is important to note that this data is not comparable to the more recent data because of methodological changes in the way in which health insurance data is collected in the CPS. The prior data are presented in order to provide a sense of direction of prior trends. Summary of Findings The percentage of nonelderly individuals in the United States with health insurance increased between 2013 and In 2014, 88 percent of individuals were covered, up from 84.6 percent in 2013 (calculated from Figure 1). The increase between 2013 and 2014 is in contrast to a downward trend that had been occurring during most years prior to the passage of PPACA. Twelve percent of individuals under age 65 did not have health insurance at any point in 2014, down from 15.4 percent in Just over 32 million were uninsured in 2014, down from 41.1 million in Despite the overall increase in health insurance coverage, there was no change in the percentage of the nonelderly population with coverage through an employment-based health plan. More people were covered by employment-based coverage in 2014 than in 2013 because of population growth, but the percentage with employment-based health coverage was unchanged at 62 percent. However, employment-based coverage remained the dominant source of health coverage in the United States for the population under age 65. The percentage of workers with employment-based health coverage increased slightly between 2013 and 2014, rising from 70.5 percent to 70.8 percent (Figure 5). The percentage of workers that had no health insurance coverage fell from 17.2 percent in 2013 to 13.3 percent because of an increase in the percentage with health insurance coverage purchased directly from an insurance carrier and because of an increase in Medicaid coverage. Among the entire population, the percentage with coverage purchased directly from an insurance carrier increased from 8.8 percent in 2013 to 12.6 percent in 2014, which represents a corresponding increase of about 10 million people with coverage purchased directly from an insurance carrier (Figure 1). Enrollment in public programs increased as well. In 2014, 58.4 million (or 21.7 percent of the nonelderly population), were covered by Medicaid (the federal-state health care program for the poor and disabled) or State Children s Health Insurance Program (S-CHIP), up from 52 million (or 19.4 percent) in Conclusion The remainder of this report provides data on sources of health insurance coverage for 2013 and 2014 for the nonelderly population, workers ages 18 64, and children. Data for 2013 and 2014 are presented by various characteristics of these populations. EBRI invites comment on additional ways to make the data more usable to our readers. ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

7 Figure 1 Nonelderly Population With Selected Sources of Health Insurance Coverage, a (millions) Total Employment-based Coverage Own name Dependent coverage Individually Purchased Public Medicaid Medicare TRICARE/CHAMPVA b No Health Insurance Total (percentage) Employment-based Coverage Own name Dependent coverage Individually Purchased Public Medicaid Medicare TRICARE/CHAMPVA b No Health Insurance Source: Employee Benefit Research Institute estimates of the Current Population Survey, March Supplements. Note: Details may not add to totals because individuals may receive coverage from more than one source. a is not directly comparable with data because of a methodological change in the way individuals with coverage were counted. b TRICARE is a program administered by the Department of Defense for military retirees as well as families of active duty, retired, and deceased service members. CHAMPVA, the Civilian Health and Medical Program for the Department of Veterans Affairs, is a health care benefits program for disabled dependents of veterans and certain survivors of veterans. ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

8 Figure 2 Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Among Children Under Age 18, % 64.8% 64.1% is not directly comparable with % 61.2% 60.1% 59.8% 58.9% % 54.8% 54.7% 55.4% % Employment-based Coverage 5 Medicaid % Uninsured Individually Purchased 26.3% 26.9% 26.7% 27.1% 23.8% 22.6% 28.2% 30.3% 33.8% 34.8% 35.6% 35.9% 38.3% 39.8% % 10.7% 10.3% 10.4% 9.9% 10.3% 11.2% 10.3% % 9.8% 9.4% 8.9% 7.3% 9.9% 5.8% 5.8% 6.1% % 6.2% 5.9% 5.9% 5.8% 5.8% 5.7% 5.7% 5.8% % Source: Employee Benefit Research Institute estimates from the Current Population Survey, March Supplements. Note: is not directly comparable with data because of a methodological change in the way individuals with coverage were counted. Figure 3 Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Among Adults, Ages 18 64, % % 66.4% 65.6% 65.2% 64.9% 64.9% 63.7% is not directly comparable with % 60.2% 59.8% 59.6% 61.9% 62.2% 6 5 Employment-based Coverage Medicaid 4 Uninsured Individually Purchased % 17.9% 18.9% 18.7% 19.1% 19.6% % 21.6% 21.9% 21.3% 21.1% 18.4% 14.8% 12.2% 8.2% 8.2% % 8.9% 9.9% 9.9% 10.7% 10.7% 7.9% 7.9% 8.1% % % 7.9% 7.9% 7.8% 5.9% 6.2% % 6.7% 7.4% 7.4% 7.6% 7.6% 7.8% Source: Employee Benefit Research Institute estimates from the Current Population Survey, March Supplements. Note: is not directly comparable with data because of a methodological change in the way individuals with coverage were counted. ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

9 Figure 4 Percentage of Women Ages Who Were in Families With Welfare Income or Who Were Employed, % 75.8% % 74.2% % 71.6% 70.4% 70.3% % 71.3% Percentage With Welfare Income Percentage Employed % 3.1% 2.8% 2.7% 3.1% 2.6% 2.8% 2.4% 2.2% 2.3% % % 1.9% Source: Employee Benefit Research Institute estimates from the Current Population Survey, March Supplements. 8 Figure 5 Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Among Workers, Ages 18 64, % 75.1% % 72.2% 71.9% % 70.8% % 68.6% 68.3% 67.8% % Employment-based Coverage Medicaid Uninsured Individually Purchased is not directly comparable with % % 17.2% 17.2% % 17.6% 18.2% 19.6% 19.6% 19.4% 19.6% 17.2% 13.3% 13.2% 9.3% 7.4% 7.6% 7.9% 7.8% 7.8% 7.7% 7.6% 7.6% 7.3% 7.4% 7.8% 7.6% 7.8% 9.4% 3.2% 3.4% 3.6% 3.7% 4.7% 4.6% 4.6% 4.7% 5.1% 5.7% % Source: Employee Benefit Research Institute estimates from the Current Population Survey, March Supplements. Note: is not directly comparable with data because of a methodological change in the way individuals with coverage were counted. ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

10 Figure 6 Percentage of Workers, Ages 18 64, With Employment-Based Health Benefits in their Own Name and as a Dependent, % 53.3% % % 5 4 Own Name Dependent Coverage is not directly comparable with % 17.1% 17.4% 17.4% % Source: Employee Benefit Research Institute estimates from the Current Population Survey, March Supplements. Note: is not directly comparable with data because of a methodological change in the way individuals with coverage were counted % 16.7% 17.1% Figure 7 Premium Increases, by Firm Size, All Employers (10+ Workers) 18.1% % Small Employers ( Workers) 11.6% 14.7% 6.9% 10.1% % % 7.3% 6.1% 8.1% 11.2% 9.7% % 9.9% % % 6.3% % 6.1% 6.1% 6.1% 4.1% 4.9% 4.7% 4.4% 2.1% 3.9% 0.6% 0.2% 2.2% 0.8% -1.1% -1.8% % Source: Mercer National Survey of Employer-Sponsored Health Plans. ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

11 Figure 8 Percentage of Workers Who Were Self-Employed, Employed in Large Firms, or Employed Part-Time, % 4 44% 43% 44% 43% 44% 44% 44% 44% 44% % 46% Percentage Self-employed Percentage Employed by Firms With 100 or More Workers 2 2 Percentage Part-time 17% 16% 17% 17% 18% 18% 17% 17% 17% 18% % 18% 1 9% 9% 9% 9% 9% 9% 9% 9% 9% 9% 8% 8% Source: Employee Benefit Research Institute estimates from the Current Population Survey, March Supplements. Figure 9 Employment-Based Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Own Work Status, % % 69.3% % % 36.2% 3 2 Total Child Family Head Worker Other Worker Nonworker ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

12 Figure 10 Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Nonelderly Population, by Own Work Status, % 35.6% % % 0.1% 0. Total Child Family-head Worker Other Worker Nonworker Figure 11 Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Nonelderly Population, by Own Work Status, % 54.1% % 37.9% % % % 9.8% Total Child Family-head Worker Other Worker Nonworker ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

13 Figure 12 Individually Purchased Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Own Work Status, % 14.7% 14% 12.6% 13.4% 12.8% 12% 8.8% 9.9% 9.4% 9.3% 10.2% 8% 7. 6% 4% 2% Total Child Family-head Worker Other Worker Nonworker Figure 13 Medicaid Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Own Work Status, % 39.8% % 31.2% % 21.7% 1 7.7% 10.1% 5.9% 8.2% Total Child Family-head Worker Other Worker Nonworker ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

14 Figure 14 Nonelderly Population, Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Own Work Status, % % 17.4% % % % 7.3% 6.1% Total Child Family-head Worker Other Worker Nonworker Figure 15 Employment-Based Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Family Income, % % 68.3% % 57.2% % % % 17.6% 21.8% 20.3% Total Under $10,000 $10,000 $19,999 $20,000 $29,999 $30,000 $39,999 $40,000 $49,999 $50,000 $74,000 $75,000 and Over ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

15 Figure 16 Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Nonelderly Population, by Family Income, % 32.2% % 37.1% 36.9% % % 27.8% % 19.4% % 4.7% Total Under $10,000 $10,000 $19,999 $20,000 $29,999 $30,000 $39,999 $40,000 $49,999 $50,000 $74,000 $75,000 and Over Figure 17 Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Nonelderly Population, by Family Income, % 45.3% % % % 19.4% % % 10.8% 14.6% 15.1% Total Under $10,000 $10,000 $19,999 $20,000 $29,999 $30,000 $39,999 $40,000 $49,999 $50,000 $74,000 $75,000 and Over ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

16 Figure 18 Individually Purchased Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Family Income, % 14% 12% 12.6% 12.4% 11.8% 13.1% 13.4% % 11.9% 8% 8.8% 7.7% 7.8% 8.1% 8.7% 8.3% % 6% 4% 2% Total Under $10,000 $10,000 $19,999 $20,000 $29,999 $30,000 $39,999 $40,000 $49,999 $50,000 $74,000 $75,000 and Over Figure 19 Medicaid Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Family Income, % 47.7% 43.3% % % 26.1% 29.7% % 19.4% 22.1% 19.9% 15.2% 12.6% 7.6% 5.7% Total Under $10,000 $10,000 $19,999 $20,000 $29,999 $30,000 $39,999 $40,000 $49,999 $50,000 $74,000 $75,000 and Over ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

17 Figure 20 Nonelderly Population, Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Family Income, % 27.3% 26.8% % 20.9% 20.2% 20.7% % % 13.9% 13.3% 10.7% 6.4% 5.6% Total Under $10,000 $10,000 $19,999 $20,000 $29,999 $30,000 $39,999 $40,000 $49,999 $50,000 $74,000 $75,000 and Over Figure 21 Employment-Based Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Race, % 67.7% % 61.1% % 49.7% % Total White Black Hispanic Other Source: Employee Benefiat Research Institute estimates from the Current Population Survey, March Supplements. ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

18 Figure 22 Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Nonelderly Population, by Race, % 33.2% % % % 26.4% % 1 Total White Black Hispanic Other Figure 23 Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Nonelderly Population, by Race, % % 34.7% % % % 2 1 Total White Black Hispanic Other ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

19 Figure 24 Individually Purchased Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Race, % 15.1% 14% 13.4% 12.6% 12% 8.8% 10.1% % 10.7% 8% 6% 5.9% 5. 4% 2% Total White Black Hispanic Other Figure 25 Medicaid Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Race, % 32.3% 30.6% 32.8% % 21.8% % 19.2% % 15.7% Total White Black Hispanic Other ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

20 Figure 26 Nonelderly Population, Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Race, % % % % 12.8% % 9.1% Total White Black Hispanic Other 9 Figure 27 Employment-Based Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Poverty Level, % % % % 31.3% Total 0 99% of Poverty % of Poverty % of Poverty % of Poverty 30 of Poverty or More ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

21 4 4 Figure 28 Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Nonelderly Population, by Poverty Level, % % % 28.1% % 19.2% % 12.8% 5.3% 5.4% Total 0 99% of Poverty % of Poverty % of Poverty % of Poverty 30 of Poverty or More 4 Figure 29 Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Nonelderly Population, by Poverty Level, % 39.6% % % 32.4% % % Total 0 99% of Poverty % of Poverty % of Poverty % of Poverty 30 of Poverty or More ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

22 16% Figure 30 Individually Purchased Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Poverty Level, % 13.8% 13.8% 12.6% 12.8% 12.4% 12% 11.1% 8.8% 9.1% 9.2% 9. 8% 6.9% 7.9% 6% 4% 2% Total 0 99% of Poverty % of Poverty % of Poverty % of Poverty 30 of Poverty or More Figure 31 Medicaid Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Poverty Level, % 43.2% % % 29.7% % 19.4% 15.6% 18.4% 5.7% 7.4% Total 0 99% of Poverty % of Poverty % of Poverty % of Poverty 30 of Poverty or More ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

23 3 Figure 32 Nonelderly Population, Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Poverty Level, % 24.4% % 17.6% % % 7.7% 6. Total 0 99% of Poverty % of Poverty % of Poverty % of Poverty 30 of Poverty or More Figure 33 Employment-Based Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Health Status, % 64.8% 53.2% 53.3% % 39.3% % 26.2% 2 Total Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

24 Figure 34 Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Nonelderly Population, by Health Status, % % 34.1% 31.3% % 25.2% % % 13.1% Total Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor Figure 35 Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Nonelderly Population, by Health Status, % 40.2% % % % 22.3% % 16.1% 13.6% 13.1% Total Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

25 Figure 36 Individually Purchased Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Health Status, % 12% 12.6% 13.1% 12.3% 12.3% 11.9% 11. 8% 8.8% 9.4% % 8.2% 6% 6.1% 4% 2% Total Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor Figure 37 Medicaid Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Health Status, % % 19.4% 18.8% 18.6% 17.2% 16.7% 21.6% 24.6% 1 Total Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

26 Figure 38 Nonelderly Population, Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Health Status, % 19.4% % 15.2% 16.1% 14.3% 16.7% % 11.3% 9.8% 9.8% Total Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor Figure 39 Employment-Based Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Citizenship, % 61.7% 60.3% 61.3% % 39.7% 3 2 Total Native Citizen Naturalized Citizen Non-Citizen ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

27 Figure 40 Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Nonelderly Population, by Citizenship, % % % 28.9% % Total Native Citizen Naturalized Citizen Non-Citizen Figure 41 Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Nonelderly Population, by Citizenship, % % 32.8% % 21.3% % 17.7% Total Native Citizen Naturalized Citizen Non-Citizen ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

28 Figure 42 Individually Purchased Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Citizenship, % 16.8% 16% 14.4% 14% 12% 12.6% 12.1% 10.6% 8% 8.8% 8.8% 7.9% 6% 4% 2% Total Native Citizen Naturalized Citizen Non-Citizen Figure 43 Medicaid Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Citizenship, % 21.7% 19.9% 22.2% 20.1% 16.8% 16.3% % Total Native Citizen Naturalized Citizen Non-Citizen ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

29 Figure 44 Nonelderly Population, Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Citizenship, % % % 10.1% 12.3% Total Native Citizen Naturalized Citizen Non-Citizen Figure 45 Employment-Based Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Age, % 54.2% 58.8% 59.2% 57.1% % 64.2% % 62.3% 61.4% Total Under 18 Ages Ages Ages Ages Ages ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

30 Figure 46 Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Nonelderly Population, by Age, % 42.3% % 47.2% 47.8% 45.6% 44.8% % % 14.8% Total Under 18 Ages Ages Ages Ages Ages Figure 47 Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Nonelderly Population, by Age, % 54.2% 43.1% 44.1% % % 16.1% 18.9% 18.9% 18.8% % 16.8% Total Under 18 Ages Ages Ages Ages Ages ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

31 Figure 48 Individually Purchased Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Age, % 16% 14.8% 16.1% 14% 12% 12.6% 13.3% 11.8% 11.3% 12.2% 8.8% 9.9% 9.9% 9.8% 8% % 6% 4% 2% Total Under 18 Ages Ages Ages Ages Ages Figure 49 Medicaid Coverage, Nonelderly Population, by Age, % 38.3% % 21.7% 16.9% 19.7% 13.3% 16.1% 11.4% 14.1% % 13.1% 10.9% Total Under 18 Ages Ages Ages Ages Ages ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

32 Figure 50 Nonelderly Population, Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Age, % % 18.9% % % 15.4% 15.8% 11.7% 13.2% 9.9% 7.3% 6.1% Total Under 18 Ages Ages Ages Ages Ages Figure 51 Employment-Based Coverage, Males, by Age, % 60.1% 55.2% 54.2% % 58.1% 58.1% 64.4% 63.9% 65.7% % 61.9% Total Under 18 Ages Ages Ages Ages Ages ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

33 Figure 52 Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Males, by Age, % 49.7% 53.6% 53.3% 54.1% 52.1% % 32.3% % 15.1% Total Under 18 Ages Ages Ages Ages Ages Figure 53 Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Males, by Age, % 54.2% % % % 12.4% 12.4% 10.2% 10.7% 10.8% 13.2% 13.4% Total Under 18 Ages Ages Ages Ages Ages ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

34 Figure 54 Individually Purchased Coverage, Males, by Age, % 16% 14.8% % 13.9% 12% 8% 8.9% 12.4% 7.2% 9.8% 9.9% 8.6% 12.3% 7.7% 10.8% % 6% 4% 2% Total Under 18 Ages Ages Ages Ages Ages Figure 55 Medicaid Coverage, Males, by Age, % 37.9% % 20.7% 17.3% % 12.4% 10.2% 9.8% 8.6% % Total Under 18 Ages Ages Ages Ages Ages ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

35 Figure 56 Males Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Age, % % 20.9% 21.1% % 17.3% % % 12.4% 12.6% 7.4% 6.1% 9.8% Total Under 18 Ages Ages Ages Ages Ages Figure 57 Females With Employment-Based Coverage, by Age, % 59.8% % 56.1% 58.1% 57.9% % 66.4% % Total Under 18 Ages Ages Ages Ages Ages ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

36 Figure 58 Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Females, by Age, % 37.3% 38.6% 38.9% 41.4% 41.7% % 25.8% % Total Under 18 Ages Ages Ages Ages Ages Figure 59 Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Females, by Age, % % 43.3% % 33.9% % 26.7% 25.6% % Total Under 18 Ages Ages Ages Ages Ages ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

37 Figure 60 Individually Purchased Coverage, Females, by Age, % 16.7% 16% 14.7% 14% 12% 12.6% 12.8% 11.4% 11.8% 12.7% 8.8% 9.9% 9.9% 9. 8% 6.9% 7.4% 7.9% 6% 4% 2% Total Under 18 Ages Ages Ages Ages Ages Figure 61 Medicaid Coverage, Females, by Age, % 38.7% % 22.7% 19.3% 22.1% 19.2% 16.3% 15.8% % % 13.3% 11.2% Total Under 18 Ages Ages Ages Ages Ages ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

38 Figure 62 Females Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Age, % % % % 16.8% 13.3% % % 6.1% Total Under 18 Ages Ages Ages Ages Ages Figure 63 Employment-Based Coverage, Workers Ages 18 64, by Industry, % 77.7% 86.3% 86.3% % 69.2% 70.1% 64.6% 65.6% Total Agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining & construction Manufacturing Wholesale & retail trade Personal services Public sector ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

39 Figure 64 Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Workers Ages 18 64, by Industry, % 63.9% 72.1% 71.6% % 48.4% 49.1% % 38.9% 39.9% 40.4% 3 2 Total Agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining & construction Manufacturing Wholesale & retail trade Personal services Public sector Figure 65 Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Workers Ages 18 64, by Industry, % 24.6% % 20.8% % % 14.7% 14.2% Total Agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining & construction Manufacturing Wholesale & retail trade Personal services Public sector ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

40 Figure 66 Individually Purchased Coverage, Workers Ages 18 64, by Industry, % 16.8% 16% 14% 13.3% 14.1% % 9.3% 11.3% 10.9% 10.6% 10.1% 9.3% 8% 7.4% 6% 5.9% 4% 2% Total Agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining & construction Manufacturing Wholesale & retail trade Personal services Public sector Figure 67 Medicaid Coverage, Workers Ages 18 64, by Industry, % 12% 12.2% 9.4% 9.9% % 8% 6% 7.1% % 7.6% 6.9% 4.9% 4% 3.9% 2% Total Agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining & construction Manufacturing Wholesale & retail trade Personal services Public sector ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

41 Figure 68 Workers Ages 18 64, Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Industry, % % 17.1% 20.2% % 13.6% % 5.9% 4.9% Total Agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining & construction Manufacturing Wholesale & retail trade Personal services Public sector Figure 69 Employment-Based Coverage, Workers Ages 18 64, by Firm Size, % 86.3% % 72.9% 73.2% % % 79.4% % 77.8% 71.9% % 61.1% % % 47.1% 3 2 Total Self-Employed Wage and Public Sector Salary Workers Private Sector Private Sector: Private Sector: Private Sector: Private Sector: Private Sector: Private Sector: Fewer Than ,000 or More ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

42 Figure 70 Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Workers Ages 18 64, by Firm Size, % 71.6% % 54.1% 54.3% 50.9% 51.2% 52.1% 63.3% 63.2% 62.4% 62.7% 60.1% 59.9% % 37.4% % 24.1% 22.6% Total Self-Employed Wage and Public Sector Salary Workers Private Sector Private Sector: Private Sector: Private Sector: Private Sector: Private Sector: Private Sector: Fewer Than ,000 or More Figure 71 Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Workers Ages 18 64, by Firm Size, % 26.6% % % % 18.9% 19.1% 19.7% 19.9% % 18.3% 17.9% 17.6% 17.2% 17.3% 16.6% % 14.2% Total Self Employed Wage and Public Sector Salary Workers Private Sector Private Sector: Fewer Than 10 Private Sector: Private Sector: Private Sector: Private Sector: Private Sector: ,000 or More ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

43 Figure 72 Individually Purchased Coverage, Workers Ages 18 64, by Firm Size, % % 1 9.3% 13.3% 7.9% 11.7% 5.9% 9.3% 8.3% 12.1% 13.7% 9.4% 14.1% % 7.4% 9.9% 10.3% 6.7% 6.6% 9.7% Total Self Employed Wage and Public Sector Salary Workers Private Sector Private Sector: Fewer Than 10 Private Sector: Private Sector: Private Sector: Private Sector: Private Sector: ,000 or More Figure 73 Medicaid Coverage, Workers Ages 18 64, by Firm Size, % 14% 14.7% 12% 11.6% 9.4% 9.7% 9.4% 10.1% % % 8.8% 8% 7.1% 6.6% % 7.3% 7.4% 6.7% 6.7% 6.8% 6% 4% 3.9% 4.9% 2% Total Self-Employed Wage and Public Sector Salary Workers Private Sector Private Sector: Private Sector: Private Sector: Private Sector: Private Sector: Private Sector: Fewer Than ,000 or More ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

44 Figure 74 Workers Ages Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Firm Size, % % % 24.1% 21.8% % 16.2% % 18.8% % % % % % 9.2% 5.9% 4.9% Total Self-Employed Wage and Public Sector Salary Workers Private Sector Private Sector: Private Sector: Private Sector: Private Sector: Private Sector: Private Sector: Fewer Than ,000 or More Figure 75 Employment-Based Coverage, Workers Ages 18 64, by Hours and Weeks Worked, % 74.6% 74.6% 77.4% 77.2% % 59.2% 53.4% 53.9% 55.7% % Total Full-time Full-time, Full-year Full-time, Part-year Part-time Part-time, Full-year Part-time, Part-year ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

45 Figure 76 Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Workers Ages 18 64, by Hours and Weeks Worked, % % 62.8% % % 36.8% % 16.4% 21.2% 20.1% 10.9% 10.6% Total Full-time Full-time, Full-year Full-time, Part-year Part-time Part-time, Full-year Part-time, Part-year Figure 77 Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Workers Ages 18 64, by Hours and Weeks Worked, % 37.9% 35.6% 34.2% 42.3% 40.6% % 21.9% 22.4% % 15.7% 14.1% 14. Total Full-time Full-time, Full-year Full-time, Part-year Part-time Part-time, Full-year Part-time, Part-year ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

46 Figure 78 Individually Purchased Coverage, Workers Ages 18 64, by Hours and Weeks Worked, % % 17.1% 16% 14.9% 14% 12% 13.3% 12.3% 11.9% 12.6% 12.1% 13.3% 8% 9.3% 8.6% 8.3% 10.1% 6% 4% 2% Total Full-time Full-time, Full-year Full-time, Part-year Part-time Part-time, Full-year Part-time, Part-year 2 Figure 79 Medicaid Coverage, Workers Ages 18 64, by Hours and Weeks Worked, % 13.4% 15.8% 15.6% 11.8% 11.4% 9.4% 7.1% 5.6% 7.6% % Total Full-time Full-time, Full-year Full-time, Part-year Part-time Part-time, Full-year Part-time, Part-year ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

47 Figure 80 Workers Ages Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Hours and Weeks Worked, % 24.2% 24.2% 24.2% % 13.3% 15.6% 12.4% 14.1% 11.3% 16.7% 17.1% 16.3% Total Full-time Full-time, Full-year Full-time, Part-year Part-time Part-time, Full-year Part-time, Part-year Figure 81 Employment-Based Coverage, Workers Ages 18 64, by Earnings, % 93.8% 90.3% % 88.1% 85.8% 87.2% 87.2% 86.8% 82.8% 82.8% 76.3% 76.8% 62.8% 61.9% % 49.1% 47.2% 48.1% ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

48 Figure 82 Employment-Based Coverage in Own Name, Workers Ages 18 64, by Earnings, % 76.6% 76.7% 73.9% % 74.6% % 68.2% 66.9% 60.8% 60.3% 74.4% 81.4% % 42.9% % 23.1% 9.2% 9.2% Figure 83 Employment-Based Coverage as Dependent, Workers Ages 18 64, by Earnings, % % 19.9% % 14.6% % 13.6% 13.4% 13.4% 12.8% 13.3% % 13.2% 11.6% 10. ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

49 Figure 84 Individually Purchased Coverage, Workers Ages 18 64, by Earnings, % 16% 16.2% 15.6% 14% 12% 8% 13.3% 11.8% 9.3% 9.9% 14.2% 12.9% 12.4% 10.8% 8.8% 8.8% 8.8% 8.3% 11.4% 10.4% 10.6% % % 13.2% 6% 4% 2% Figure 85 Medicaid Coverage, Workers Ages 18 64, by Earnings, % % % % 7.1% % 4.6% 3.2% % 2.7% 2.3% % 4.3% 3.3% 3.3% 3.1% 2.3% ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

50 Figure 86 Workers Ages Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Earnings, % % 24.1% % 17.1% % 14.4% 11.9% 10.2% 8.3% % 6.8% 5.7% % 6.4% 3.3% 3.3% 4.7% 3.9% Figure 87 Employment-Based Coverage, Children Under Age 18, by Poverty Level, % 81.1% % 62.8% % 43.4% % 29.8% Total 0 99% of Poverty % of Poverty % of Poverty % of Poverty 30 of Poverty or More ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

51 Figure 88 Individually Purchased Coverage, Children Under Age 18, by Poverty Level, % % 11.3% 9.9% 9. 8% % 7.9% 8.3% 8.4% 6% 5.7% 4% 3.8% 2% Total 0 99% of Poverty % of Poverty % of Poverty % of Poverty 30 of Poverty or More Figure 89 Medicaid Coverage, Children Under Age 18, by Poverty Level, % 77.4% % % 47.4% % 39.8% % % Total 0 99% of Poverty % of Poverty % of Poverty % of Poverty 30 of Poverty or More ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

52 Figure 90 Children Under Age 18 Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Poverty Level, % 11.4% % 8% 7.3% 8.2% 8.3% 7.9% 7.4% 6% 6.1% 5.8% 4% % Total 0 99% of Poverty % of Poverty % of Poverty % of Poverty 30 of Poverty or More Figure 91 Employment-Based Coverage, Children Under Age 18, by Work Status of Family Head, % 62.2% 66.9% 64.9% % % 26.8% 31.7% 30.2% 28.8% % 27.3% % Total Full Time Full-year, Fulltime Worker Full-time, Partyear Worker Part Time Part-time, Fullyear Worker Part-time, Partyear Worker Nonworker ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

53 Figure 92 Individually Purchased Coverage, Children Under Age 18, by Work Status of Family Head, % 12% 11.1% 12.2% 9.9% 9.9% 10.1% 9.1% 8. 8% % 7.3% 6.8% 6% 5.7% 6.1% % 4% 2% Total Full Time Full-year, Fulltime Worker Full-time, Partyear Worker Part Time Part-time, Fullyear Worker Part-time, Partyear Worker Nonworker Figure 93 Medicaid Coverage, Children Under Age 18, by Work Status of Family Head, % 75.6% % 65.9% 62.1% % 68.2% 68.2% % 38.2% % % 29.7% 2 Total Full Time Full-year, Fulltime Worker Full-time, Partyear Worker Part Time Part-time, Fullyear Worker Part-time, Partyear Worker Nonworker ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

54 Figure 94 Children Under Age 18, Without Health Insurance Coverage, by Work Status of Family Head, % 8% 7% 6% 7.3% 6.1% 6.8% % 5.6% 9.4% 7.3% 9.1% 9.1% 9.1% 9.1% 7.9% 7.3% 8.4% 7.3% 4% 3% 2% 1% Total Full Time Full-year, Fulltime Worker Full-time, Partyear Worker Part Time Part-time, Fullyear Worker Part-time, Partyear Worker Nonworker ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

55 Endnotes 1 The estimate for Medicaid also includes children enrolled in the State Children s Health Insurance Program (S- CHIP). ebri.org Issue Brief October 2015 No

56 EBRI Employee Benefit Research Institute Issue Brief (ISSN X) is published monthly by the Employee Benefit Research Institute, th St. NW, Suite 878, Washington, DC, , at $300 per year or is included as part of a membership subscription. Periodicals postage rate paid in Washington, DC, and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to: EBRI Issue Brief, th St. NW, Suite 878, Washington, DC, Copyright 2015 by Employee Benefit Research Institute. All rights reserved. No Who we are What we do Our publications Orders/ Subscriptions The Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) was founded in Its mission is to contribute to, to encourage, and to enhance the development of sound employee benefit programs and sound public policy through objective research and education. EBRI is the only private, nonprofit, nonpartisan, Washington, DC-based organization committed exclusively to public policy research and education on economic security and employee benefit issues. EBRI s membership includes a cross-section of pension funds; businesses; trade associations; labor unions; health care providers and insurers; government organizations; and service firms. EBRI s work advances knowledge and understanding of employee benefits and their importance to the nation s economy among policymakers, the news media, and the public. It does this by conducting and publishing policy research, analysis, and special reports on employee benefit issues; holding educational briefings for EBRI members, congressional and federal agency staff, and the news media; and sponsoring public opinion surveys on employee benefit issues. EBRI s Education and Research Fund (EBRI-ERF) performs the charitable, educational, and scientific functions of the Institute. EBRI-ERF is a tax-exempt organization supported by contributions and grants. EBRI Issue Briefs is a monthly periodical with in-depth evaluation of employee benefit issues and trends, as well as critical analyses of employee benefit policies and proposals. EBRI Notes is a monthly periodical providing current information on a variety of employee benefit topics. EBRIef is a weekly roundup of EBRI research and insights, as well as updates on surveys, studies, litigation, legislation and regulation affecting employee benefit plans, while EBRI s Blog supplements our regular publications, offering commentary on questions received from news reporters, policymakers, and others. The EBRI Databook on Employee Benefits is a statistical reference work on employee benefit programs and work force-related issues. Contact EBRI Publications, (202) ; fax publication orders to (202) Subscriptions to EBRI Issue Briefs are included as part of EBRI membership, or as part of a $199 annual subscription to EBRI Notes and EBRI Issue Briefs. Change of Address: EBRI, th St. NW, Suite 878, Washington, DC, , (202) ; fax number, (202) ; Membership Information: Inquiries regarding EBRI membership and/or contributions to EBRI-ERF should be directed to EBRI President Dallas Salisbury at the above address, (202) ; Editorial Board: Dallas L. Salisbury, publisher; Stephen Blakely, editor. Any views expressed in this publication and those of the authors should not be ascribed to the officers, trustees, members, or other sponsors of the Employee Benefit Research Institute, the EBRI Education and Research Fund, or their staffs. Nothing herein is to be construed as an attempt to aid or hinder the adoption of any pending legislation, regulation, or interpretative rule, or as legal, accounting, actuarial, or other such professional advice. EBRI Issue Brief is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. ISSN: X/ X/90 $ , Employee Benefit Research Institute Education and Research Fund. All rights reserved.

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