# Object tracking & Motion detection in video sequences

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1 Introduction Object tracking & Motion detection in video sequences Recomended link: 1

2 2

3 DYNAMIC SCENE ANALYSIS The input to the dynamic scene analysis is a sequence of image frames F( x, y, t ) taken from the changing world. x, y are spatial coordinates. Frames are usually captured at fixed time intervals. t represents t-th frame in the sequence. 3

4 Typical Applikations Motion detection. Often from a static camera. Common in surveillance systems. Often performed on the pixel level only (due to speed constraints). Object localization. Focuses attention to a region of interest in the image. Data reduction. Often only interest points found which are used later to solve the correspondence problem. Motion segmentation Images are segmented into region corresponding to different moving objects. Three-dimensional shape from motion. Called also structure from motion. Similar problems as in stereo vision. Object tracking. A sparse set of features is often tracked, e.g., 4 corner points.

5 Pedestrians in underground station 5

6 Problem definition Assuming that the scene illumination does not change, the image changes are due to relative motion between the scene objects and the camera (observer). There are three possibilities: Stationary camera, moving objects. Moving camera, stationary objects. Moving camera, moving objects. 6

7 Motion field Motion field is a 2D representation in the image plane of a (generally) 3D motion of points in the scene (typically on surfaces of objects). To the each point is assigned a velocity vector corresponding to the motion direction and velocity magnitude. 7

8 Motion field Examle: 8

9 Estimating motion field 1. Matching of blocks. 2. Matching of objects. Interpretation needed. A sparse motion field. 3. Matching of interest points. A bit denser motion field. A more difficult interpretation. Problems with repetitive structures. 4. Optic flow, a differential technique matching intensities on a pixellevel, exploring spatial and time variations. Ideally, a dense motion field. Problems for textureless parts of images due to aperture problem (to be explained). 9

10 Segmentation in Videosequences Background Subtraction first must be defined a model of the background this background model is compared against the current image and then the known background parts are subtracted away. The objects left after subtraction are presumably new foreground objects.

11 Establishing a Reference Images Establishing a Reference Images: Difference will erase static object: When a dynamic object move out completely from its position, the back ground in replaced. 11

12 Object tracking Object tracking is the problem of determining (estimating) the positions and other relevant information of moving objects in image sequences. Two-frame tracking can be accomplished using: correlation-based matching methods feature-based methods optical flow techniques change-based moving object detection methods 12

13 Main difficulties in reliable tracking of moving objects Rapid appearance changes caused by image noise, illumination changes, non-rigid motion,... Non-stable background Interaction between multiple multiple objects... 13

14 Block matching method Correlation-based tracking is BM method For a given region in one frame, find the corresponding region in the next frame by finding the maximum correlation score (or other block matching criteria) in a search region Blocks are typically squared and overlapped 14

15 Block matching method 15

16 Visible Motion and True Motion Generally, optical flow corresponds to the motion field, but not always. For example, the motion field and optical flow of a rotating barber's pole are different... 16

17 Motion field / Optical flow z unit vector in the axis z direction. f focal length of a lens. vi = d ri d t velocity in the image plane. v=dr d t velocity in the 3D space. Optical flow is a vector field, from which the motion field can be estimated under certain conditions. 17

18 Optical flow OPTIC FLOW = apparent motion of the same (similar) intensity patterns Ideally, the optic flow can approximate projections of the three-dimensional motion (i.e., velocity) vectors onto the image plane. Hence, the optic flow is estimated instead of the motion field (since the latter is unobservable in general). 18

19 Aperture problem By analyzing projected images, we always observe a limited area of visible motion only (defined by aperture of the camera or of the area of influence of the used algorithm for motion analysis). 19

20 Aperture problem -example For example, assume that we either only see the inner rectangles, or the whole three images taken at times t, t + 1, t + 2. For the inner rectangles, we may conclude an upward translation with a minor rotation... 20

21 Aperture problem we are only able to measure the component of optical flow that is in the direction of the intensity gradient. We are unable to measure the component tangential to the intensity gradient. 21

22 Optical flow target features are tracked over time and their movement is converted into velocity vectors (upper right); lower panels show a single image of the hallway (left )and flow vectors (right) as the camera moves down the hall (original images courtesy of Jean-Yves Bouguet) 22

23 Optical flow Common assumption - Brightness constancy: The appearance of the image patches do not change (brightness constancy) I ( pi, t ) = I ( pi + vi, t + 1) A pixel from the image of an object in the scene does not change in appearance as it (possibly) moves from frame to frame. For grayscale images this means we assume that the brightness of a pixel does not change as it is tracked from frame to frame. 23

24 Optical Flow Assumptions: Brightness constancy 24

25 Optical Flow Assumptions: 25

26 Optical Flow Assumptions: Temporal persistence Temporal persistence or small movements. The image motion of a surface patch changes slowly in time. In practice, this means the temporal increments are fast enough relative to the scale of motion in the image that the object does not move much from frame to frame. 26

27 Optical Flow: 1D Case Brightness Constancy Assumption: { f (t ) I ( x (t ), t ) = I ( x (t + dt ), t + dt ) f ( x) = 0 t I x I + x t t t Ix v It v = Ix Because no change in brightness with time = 0 x(t ) It 27

28 Tracking in the 1D case: I ( x, t ) I ( x, t + 1) Temporal derivative It p v x Ix Spatial derivative I Ix = x t I It = t x= p I v t Ix Assumptions: Brightness constancy Small motion 28

29 Tracking in the 1D case: Iterating helps refining the velocity vector I ( x, t ) I ( x, t + 1) Temporal derivative at 2nd iteration It p x Ix Can keep the same estimate for spatial derivative I v v previous t Ix Converges in about 5 iterations 29

30 From 1D to 2D tracking I ( x, y, t + 1) y v2 v1 v I ( x, t ) v3 v4 I ( x, t + 1) x I ( x, y, t ) x The Math is very similar: v G 1b It v Ix I x2 G= window around p I x I y b= IxIy I y2 I x It window around p I y I t 30

31 KLT in Pyramids Problem: we want a large window to catch large motions, but a large window too oft en breaks the coherent motion assumption! To circumvent this problem, we can track first over larger spatial scales using an image pyramid and then refine the initial motion velocity assumptions by working our way down the levels of the image pyramid until we arrive at the raw image pixels. 31

32 KLT in Pyramids First solve optical flow at the top layer and then to use the resulting motion estimates as the starting point for the next layer down. We continue going down the pyramid in this manner until we reach the lowest level. Thus we minimize the violations of our motion assumptions and so can track faster and longer motions. 32

33 Coarse-to-fine optical flow estimation run iterative L-K warp & upsample run iterative L-K... imageij image t-1 Gaussian pyramid of image It-1 image II image Gaussian pyramid of image I

34 Edge large gradients, all the same large λ1, small λ2 34 * From Khurram Hassan-Shafique CAP5415 Computer Vision 2003

35 Low texture region gradients have small magnitude small λ1, small λ2 35 * From Khurram Hassan-Shafique CAP5415 Computer Vision 2003

36 High textured region gradients are different, large magnitudes large λ1, large λ2 36 * From Khurram Hassan-Shafique CAP5415 Computer Vision 2003

37 Local features for tracking...there are many kinds of local features that one can track... If strong derivatives are observed in two orthogonal directions then we can hope that this point is more likely to be unique. => many trackable features are called corners. Intuitively, corners not edges are the points that contain enough information to be picked out from one frame to the next. 37

38 Harris corner detection The definition relies on the matrix of the secondorder derivatives ( 2x, 2 y, x y) of the image intensities. Hessian matrix around a point: Autocorrelation matrix of the second derivative images over a small window around each point: 38

39 Harris corner detection Harris s definition: Corners are places in the image where the autocorrelation matrix of the second derivatives has two large eigenvalues. => there is texture (or edges) going in at least two separate directions these two eigenvalues do more than determine if a point is a good feature to track; they also provide an identifying signature for the point. 39

40 Shi and Tomasi: Good Features to Track Shi and Tomasi: Good corner results as long as the smaller of the two eigenvalues is greater than a minimum threshold. Shi and Tomasi s method was not only sufficient but in many cases gave more satisfactory results than Harris s method. 40

41 Global approach: Horn-Schunck A method for finding the optical flow pattern which assumes that the apparent velocity of the brightness pattern varies smoothly almost everywhere in the image. An iterative implementation computes the optical flow of each pixel. 41

42 Horn-Schunck Algorithm Two criteria: Optical flow is smooth, Fs(u,v) Small error in optical flow constraint equation, Fh(u,v) Minimize a combined error functional Fc(u,v) = Fs(u,v) + λ Fh(u,v) λ is a weighting parameter Variation calculus gives a pair of second order differential equations that can be solved iteratively Computer Vision - Fall 2001Digital Image Processing 42

43 Advantages / Disadvantages of the Horn Schunck algorithm Advantages : it yields a high density of flow vectors, i.e. the flow information missing in inner parts of homogeneous objects is filled in from the motion boundaries. Disadvantages: it is more sensitive to noise than local methods. The Horn-Schunck method is very unstable in case of illumination artifacts in image sequences (due to the assumed brightness constancy). 43

44 Mean-Shift Tracking Mean-Shift in tracking task: track the motion of a cluster of interesting features. 1. choose the feature distribution to represent an object (e.g., color + texture), 2. start the mean-shift window over the feature distribution generated by the object 3. finally compute the chosen feature distribution over the next video frame. Computer Vision - Fall 2001Digital Image Processing 44

45 Mean-Shift Tracking Starting from the current window location, the mean-shift algorithm will find the new peak or mode of the feature distribution, which (presumably) is centered over the object that produced the color and texture in the fi rst place. => In this way, the mean-shift window tracks the movement of the object frame by frame. Computer Vision - Fall 2001Digital Image Processing 45

46 Mean-shift algorithm in action An initial window is placed over a twodimensional array of data points and is successively recentered over the mode (or local peak) of its data distribution until convergence Computer Vision - Fall 2001Digital Image Processing 46

47 Mean-shift algorithm The mean-shift algorithm runs as follows: 1. Choose a search window: its initial location; its type (uniform, polynomial, exponential, or Gaussian); its shape (symmetric or skewed, possibly rotated, rounded or rectangular); its size (extent at which it rolls off or is cut off ). 2. Compute the window s (possibly weighted) center of mass. 3. Center the window at the center of mass. 4. Return to step 2Computer until the window stops moving (it always Vision - Fall 2001Digital will).* Image Processing 47

48 Camshift - continuously adaptive mean-shift It differs from the meanshift in that the search window adjusts itself in size. Computer Vision - Fall 2001Digital Image Processing 48

49 Motion Templates Track general movement and are especially applicable to gesture recognition. Gradient method Using motion templates requires a silhouette (or part of a silhouette) of an object. Computer Vision - Fall 2001Digital Image Processing 49

50 Motion Templates Object silhouettes: Object silhouettes can be obtained in a number of ways: 1. use a reasonably stationary camera and then employ frame-to-frame differencing. Th is will give you the moving edges of objects, which is enough to make motion templates work. 2. You can use chroma keying. For example, if you have a known background, you can simply take as foreground anything that is not background. Computer Vision - Fall 2001Digital Image Processing 50

51 Motion Templates Object silhouettes: To learn a background model from which you can isolate new foreground objects/people as silhouettes. 1. You can use active silhouetting techniques for example, creating a wall of nearinfrared light and having a near-infrared-sensitive camera look at the wall. Any intervening object will show up as a silhouette. 2. You can use thermal images; then any hot object (such as a face) can be taken as foreground. 3. Finally, you can generate silhouettes by using the segmentation techniques... Computer Vision - Fall 2001Digital Image Processing 51

52 Tracking Cars Using Optical Flow Results -Mathworks The model uses an optical flow estimation technique to estimate the motion vectors in each frame of the video sequence. By thresholding and performing morphological closing on the motion vectors, the model produces binary feature images. The model locates the cars in each binary feature image using the Blob Analysis block. 52

53 Change-based blob tracking Algorithm Calculate the background Image subtraction to detection motion blobs Compute the difference image between two frames Thresholding to find the blobs Locate the blob center as the position of the object 53

54 Estimation - Prediction In a long image sequence, if the dynamics of the moving object is known, prediction can be made about the positions of the objects in the current image. This information can be combined with the actual image observation to achieve more robust results 54

55 Prediction System 55

56 Model of system Model of system 56

57 Tracking formulated using the Hidden Markov model (HMM) Hidden Markov model (HMM): 57

58 Tracking formulated using the Hidden Markov model The state xk usually consists of the position, the velocity, the acceleration, and other features of the object The observation zk is usually the video frame at current time instance. The transition probability is modeled using dynamic model such as constant velocity model, or constant acceleration model Example: A constant velocity dynamic model 58

59 The dynamic system 59

60 The dynamic system general problem of trying to estimate the state x of a discrete-time controlled process is governed by the linear stochastic difference equation with a measurement z that is: The random variables wk and vk represent the process and measurement noise (respectively). They are assumed to be independent (of each other), white, and with normal probability distributions In practice, the process noise covariance Q and measurement noise covariance R matrices might change with each time step or measurement, however here we assume they are constant. 60

61 Kalman filter The Kalman filter is a set of mathematical equations that provides an efficient computational (recursive) means to estimate the state of a process, in a way that minimizes the mean of the squared error. 61

62 Kalman filter Two groups of the equations for the Kalman filter: time update equations and measurement update equations. The time update equations are responsible for projecting forward (in time) the current state and error covariance estimates to obtain the a priori estimates for the next time step. The measurement update equations are responsible for the feedback i.e. for incorporating a new measurement into the a priori estimate to obtain an improved a posteriori estimate. 62

63 Kalman filter the time update equations can also be thought of as predictor equations the measurement update equations can be thought of as corrector equations. predictor-corrector algorithm => solving numerical problems: Discrete Kalman filter time update equations: Discrete Kalman filter measurement update equations: time update equations project the state and covariance estimates forward from time step k-1 to step k. 63

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