Electricity grids. Description of the state under the Dutch energy research program. EOS (Energie Onderzoek Strategie)

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1 Electricity grids Description of the state under the Dutch energy research program EOS (Energie Onderzoek Strategie) Author : Olivier Ongkiehong Version: September 15 th 2006 SenterNovem EOS If you have feedback on this document and its appendices, please contact the author by mail at or by phone at +31 (0) Page 1 of 19

2 Contents 1 Introduction General Group aimed at Summary Description Function Structure of the electricity grid in the Netherlands Ownership and operators in the Netherlands Scale Key figures Availability Technical state Flows and losses in the grid Dutch import and export Drivers and challenges Traditional Growing energy demand Economics and environment Scale and location of power generation Challenge for whom? State of the art Research and development (R&D) EU European Technology Platform (ETP) International Energy Agency (IEA) NL IOP-EMVT NL EOS NL PREGO Patents Comparing European and Dutch programs More than technology Profound changes Interference between DG s-dsr s and the distribution grid Interference between DG s-dsr s and the transmission grid Interference between DG s-dsr s and central generators Recommendations Definitions and abbreviations References Appendices: 1 to 7 This version is an update of the version of July 25 th 2006: an extension of the references in chapter 12. Page 2 of 19

3 1 Introduction 1.1 General In this document the reader finds a description of the research and development on the area of electricity grids under the Dutch energy research program EOS (Energie Onderzoek Strategie). The document provides a description of the grids, key figures, drivers and challenges, the state of the art and of the research and the development in Europe and the Netherlands. After comparing the projects under the European en Dutch research programs I present recommendations, submitting an opening for future research decisions under EOS. Beyond technology I address the opportunities from socio-economic and regulatory considerations. Definitions, abbreviations and references have been listed in the last two chapters. 1.2 Group aimed at The document focuses on readers, who are involved in electricity grids, in decisions about projects under EOS and on other readers, who have a special interest in the electricity grids. 2 Summary The Netherlands has a well developed electricity grid with respect to security of supply and cross border interconnections. Per year about 110 TWh of electrical energy is supplied in the Netherlands to end users through (non) public grids. Of this amount about 18 TWh is imported from neighbouring countries. Projects are carried out in order to increase the capacity of the electricity grid and to increase the possibilities to import and/or to export electrical energy. Despite the positive developments experts in the Netherlands disagree about the gravity of the situation of the electricity grid with its ageing components. And the lack of room in the Netherlands for high voltage lines and underground cables leads to concern about the question what kind of infrastructure can be implemented on the longer term, with the assumption on the background that the demand for electrical energy will double within 30 years from now. The current grid is incompatible to level the playing field for all power generation technologies and to offer these different technologies access to markets on equal terms. There is a certain bias towards existing technologies. Without such a bias and with a level playing field the best of all technologies (small, large, centralized, distributed, demand side) can be selected under different circumstances in order to implement a sustainable energy supply: reliable, clean and affordable. With additional research the state of the art in the Netherlands is able to implement the transition, which is on the agenda of the Netherlands, and change the grid to meet the drivers and challenges. A conditio sine qua non is that regulatory and socio-economic considerations are integrated into the technology on a step by step basis. There is a broad range of parties involved in the transition: universities, research and development, energy suppliers, power generation, TSO, DSO s, manufacturers of electric and ICT systems, regulator and, last but not least, (retail) customers. The impact on them is profound and positive when we succeed to implement a sustainable energy supply. However, under undue management, the impact will change into a nightmare. The European and the Dutch projects have an overlap with their focus on technology. They also have their own features. The Dutch projects offer testfacilities and technical-business simulation facilities. Contracts-tariffs, policy-regulatory roadmaps and stakeholders awareness are not (yet) on the agenda of the EOS projects until today. The European projects and PREGO may be a source for support in these areas. In order to support the transition and to anticipate a risk of a nightmare I conclude with recommendations about the use of the room, that is available within the Dutch energy research program EOS, for socio-economic research. Page 3 of 19

4 3 Description 3.1 Function Electricity grids have been built and are in operation in many countries from the beginning of the 20 th century. Their function from the beginning until today is to transport electrical energy from central power plants over a larger distance and to distribute this energy to connected customers: companies, factories, buildings and retail customers. More recently an additional function can be observed. The liberalization of the energy market and the increasing concern about the environment make technical demands on the grid to enable the connection of diverging energy sources to the grid and their integration with the grid. Diverging energy sources means: - Their size ranges from small to large - Their production ranges from continuous to variable. - Their concept ranges from one central power plant for many energy users to more decentral power plants and to virtual power plants (where smaller decentral plants have been virtually united). A transition of the electricity grids is on the agenda of today of European and Dutch energy programs. In the USA similar developments take place. Kurt Yeager, former head of the EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute in the USA), is critical about the existing grid:.. as incompatible with the future as horse trails were with automobiles. But he hardly contains his excitement about the future 10 : Today s technological revolution in power is the most dramatic since Edsion s day given the spread of distributed generation and the convergence of electricity with gas and even telecommunications. 3.2 Structure of the electricity grid in the Netherlands The technical structure of the Dutch grid is as follows: - Very high voltage grid for transmission at the country level : 380 and 220 kv - High voltage grid for transmission at the regio level : 150, 110 and 50 kv - Intermediate voltage grid for supply to large users and for distribution : 3-30 kv - Low voltage grids for connection of retail customers and small entreprises : V. 3.3 Ownership and operators in the Netherlands TenneT, the Dutch state owned TSO (Transmission System Operator), owns and operates the transmission part at the country level: 380 kv and 220 kv. TenneT also owns the 150 kv grid in the province Zuid-Holland. The other parts of the grid (lower voltages until 230V - 400V) are owned and operated by regional grid operators, most of them are owned by energy companies. According to the 1998 Dutch Electricity Act these grid operators are legally distinct from their shareholders, the energy supply companies. There is one remaining link: the grid companies are owned by energy supply companies. Total unbundling has passed the Dutch parliament (Tweede Kamer) in april 2006 and is on the agenda of the Dutch senate (Eerste Kamer). 3.4 Scale The electricity grid is one of the biggest and complicated infra structures, that has been built by mankind. From the beginning of the 20 th century it has grown continuously in order to meet increasing energy demands. I estimate the order of magnitude of the capital, needed to rebuild the current Dutch electricity grid in its current configuration, at 20 billion. An example of expansion of the electricity grid today is the project Randstad380. TenneT, the Dutch TSO, is implementing this project in the western part of the Netherlands. The project is a result of the increasing demand for electrical energy in the industrial area near Rotterdam and lasts for a period of ten years until Grids of countries are more and more interconnected in order to improve the reliabillity of the supply of electrical energy and to encourage the liberalization of the electricity market. Page 4 of 19

5 4 Key figures 4.1 Availability The Netherlands has a well developed electricity grid, both at the transmission level and the distribution level. 1 From 1976 until today the interruption in the supply of electrical energy in the Netherlands fluctuates between 15 and 38 minutes for the average customer per year: 24,1 minutes 3, 11 in 2004 and 35 minutes in 2005 (expected) for the average customer per year. Of the Dutch interruptions in 2004 about 73% has been initiated in the intermediate voltage part of the grid, 18% in the low voltage part of the grid and 9% in the high voltage part of the grid. Interruptions initiated in the 380 and 220 kv level of the grid (very high voltage) rarely occur. 11 Digging is an issue at the intermediate and low voltage levels of the grid: only 70% of the interruptions, initiated in the intermediate and low voltage levels of the grid, is due to technical or operational failures within the grid, the remaining 30% is due to digging by third parties without proper use of the Dutch 4, 11 database of underground cables. The Netherlands is a safe country with respect to interruptions. The interruption rate in other European countries (with less stable climate conditions) is higher: in Italy, Spain, Ireland, Finland and 5, 11 Norway between 150 and 230 minutes for the average customer per year. An example of a serious failure is the blackout in Italy on September 28 th 2003, that lasted between a few hours in North Italy and 18 hours in Sicily. Boughs of trees, hitting high voltage lines in Switzerland, have initiated this blackout. The grid in the USA has experienced serious power failures during the last forty years: November 1965 : North East US, > 30 M inhabitants lost power for > 12 hours. July 1977 : In and around NY, 9 M inhabitants lost power for > 15 hours August 1996 : From Oregon to Mexico. March 2001 : West coast US. August 2003 : USA and Canada, 50 M inhabitants affected 4.2 Technical state About 10% of the components in the Dutch electricity grids has passed the age of 30 years and another 40% of the components will pass that age within seven years (if there is no replacement). Press releases ( ) indicate opposite opinions (Dutch competition authority, energy and distribution companies and experts on the field) about the question whether this is a problem and about the need for investments and for more smart maintenance and diagnostics. 6 Distribution companies report performance improvements of their grids by replacing coupling sleeves, that have been deployed from the 1970s, by the use of smart fuses and by the use of sensing devices, that identify themselves through wireless connections. 4 Beyond interruptions in the supply of electrical energy the technical state of the electricity grid has an impact on the safety of the employees of the TSO and DSO, working on the grid. Also others may be harmed by an insufficient technical state. Exploding manholes have been reported in 2001 (USA) as decaying and overloaded power lines blew up underground, sending manhole covers flying tens of feet in the air Flows and losses in the grid The table underneath shows 2005 figures of the CBS (central Dutch statistics agency) of the balance of electrical energy in the Netherlands. Page 5 of 19

6 Position Sub position TWh in 2005 Gross production Own use Energy companies 69.2 Other producers 31.0 Energy companies 2.6 Other producers 1.3 Net production 96.4 Import 18.3 Available Through public grid Through non public grids 12.1 Grid losses 4.5 Turn over Table 4.3: Balance of electrical energy in the Netherlands 93% of the annual turn over is offered through the public grid, 7% through non public grids. The (recorded) grid losses (4.5 TWh per year) correspond to 4,1% of the turn over. Leaving VAT and taxes out of consideration: - Grid losses, based on the assumption of 0,065 / kwh retail tariff : 290 million / year - Turn over, based on the assumption of 0,065 / kwh retail tariff : million / year - Grid services, based on a retail grid tariff of 0,042 / kwh : million / year - Ratio of grid services and supply of electrical energy : 40 / Dutch import and export There are three interconnectors between Germany and the Netherlands and two between Belgium and the Netherlands. Through these interconnectors the import and export of electrical energy takes place. The following figures apply per year for the period: - The import fluctuates between 20.8 and 22.9 TWh, the export between 3.8 and 5.2 TWh. 7 - The import balance (import minus export) fluctuates between 16.2 TWh and 18.9 TWh. With these figures the Dutch power sector is highly interconnected with its neighbouring countries. 1 The 700 MW DC interconnection between Norway and the Netherlands ( NorNed project, start construction in 2006) offers additional room within the import balance of +/- 6 TWh per year. Within the project BritNed the TSO of the United Kingdom National Grid Tranco and the Dutch TSO TenneT are developing a project for an interconnector between the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. A final decision on whether to proceed is expected by late Page 6 of 19

7 5 Drivers and challenges 5.1 Traditional Today interruptions in the supply of electrical energy lead to complaints from customers, to questions about liabilities, to economic damage, to additional risks in health care, traffic, security, safety and environment, cattle and poultry, suppy of potable water, and to other inconveniences. The longer mankind depends on the use of electrical energy, the higher her requirements become in terms of availability and quality. The challenge is to meet these requirements. 5.2 Growing energy demand The grid structure involves a vulnerability: bottlenecks in the grid can lead to interruptions in the electrical energy supply for customers, in a worse case for many customers in more countries. If the grids grow the coming decades with the growing energy demand, this vulnerability grows as well. Beyond the vulnerability under a growing energy demand there is a question how far the infrastructure can grow at all. The room in the Netherlands 13 for more (high) voltage lines and for underground cables is limited today. When grid operators plan to expand the capacity of their grid, they are increasingly faced with difficult permit procedures. Under increasing concern the actual question is what kind of infrastructure can be implemented on the longer term, with the assumption on the background that the use of electrical energy will double within 30 years from now. The challenge for the future is a developing technology to maintain and meet the traditional requirements as mentioned above, under a growing energy demand and hence a growing vulnerability. 5.3 Economics and environment Today there is a political and a social pressure to liberalize the electrical energy markets and to avoid with best efforts the environmental harm from power generation. The European Electricity Directive and the 1998 Dutch Electricity Act reflect the pressure to liberalize: customers are free to choose, market liberalization takes place in phases and a system regulator supervises the implementation of the Dutch act. With respect to renewable energy and to the environment there is a history (from 1987) of sometimes changing instruments in the Netherlands: investment subsidy and feed-in tariffs for returned electricity from CHP s, fiscal investment incentives and ecotax. Today the MEP applies in the Netherlands (Milieukwaliteit van de Elektriciteits Productie) in order to stimulate the environmentminded generation of electricity. The challenge is a grid structure that facilitates the current and the future instruments, that are deployed in order to meet the political and social demands. 5.4 Scale and location of power generation Both scale and location of power generation are on the agenda of the European and the Dutch R&D programs for power generation, electricity grids, buildings and houses: a shift towards decentral on site generation, physically and emotionally close to the customer, is considered as an opportunity to meet the demands for the liberalization, for the environment and for the security of the supply of energy. While central larger scale generation remains. Referring to Sustelnet 1 : in connection with the liberalization a level playing field for all power generation technologies is required, including the technologies based on renewable energy sources (RES). This means that the different technologies have access to markets on equal terms, reducing the existing bias towards centralised generation. Reference 2 establishes the evolution of thinking about scale and size of power generators and shows in detail examples of smaller generation units, indicating that the economic and environmental advantages can, under circumstances, surpass the disadvantages by far. 2 The modern view is that a level playing field between centralised and decentralised generation should exist 1, enabling customers to choose the concept for the generation of the power they need. As a result the use of the grid changes: Page 7 of 19

8 - Directions of flow of electrical energy change: a customer changes from an energy user to an energy supplier v.v. more times a day. - More energy suppliers, connected on different locations to the grid, but virtually being one trading energy supplier ( virtual power plant ). - Demand side resources (DSR) included in power generation and trading. - The grid is the market place, where electrical energy from sources is offered, sold and bought. The challenge is the transition to an electricity market and a grid structure that creates a level playing field between centralised and decentralised generation, monetizing the benefits of different sizes of energy sources and realising lower emissions. 5.5 Challenge for whom? The challenges in this chapter apply for a broad spectrum of parties: universities, research and development, energy suppliers, power generation, TSO, DSO s, manufacturers of electric and ICT systems, regulator and, last but not least, the customers who need to understand what the freedom to choose means. 6 State of the art The state of the current grids is as follows, beyond small scale applications and testsites: - The architecture is top down : the number of customers is several orders of magnitude larger than the number of power plants. - Proven technology exists for interconnections between countries over a larger distance and over sea. Subsea DC interconnectors (580 km / 700 MW between Norway and the Netherlands and 150 km / 500 MW between Ireland and the UK) are a next step in the interconnectivity within the European Union and in technology. - Barriers are expected for large scale integration of wind power with the grid, although substantial improvements have taken place: from 500 to 2400 MW in Denmark over a seven year period. The EOS program focuses on the continuation of these improvements. - The DG penetration rate is defined as the electrical energy, produced by DG s, as percentage of the total electrical energy production per area and per period. There can be a limit to the DG penetration due to stability and quality problems. This limit is not a single figure and depends on: the choice of the electrical inverters between the DG and the grid the intensity of non-linear loads connected to the grid: computers, consumer electronics, low quality lighting devices, arc-welders. This limit is 13% according to early studies 2, based on the unrealistic assumtion that the harmonics from the inverters are perfectly in phase with each other and that the DG s all run at peak load simulteneously. Experiments after 1985 indicate, that with modern inverters and 53% penetration rate the DG s add less harmonic distortion to the grid than they receive from the grid. 2 The more modern view is that inverters are part of the solution of harmonic problems and enable a 100% DG penetration rate. - There is, within or close to the grid, no ICT infrastructure for energy management and trading diagnostics and condition based maintenance services from DG s to improve the grid stability The Netherlands has a dedicated knowledge base: TSO, DSO s, universities, industry, ECN, KEMA, TNO, test sites, a large digital grid simulator and a business simulator. I expect, that with the help of additional research the state of the art is qualified to meet the political and social demands. The state of the art is able to change the grid to meet the drivers and challenges as mentioned in chapter 5. A conditio sine qua non is that regulatory and socio-economic considerations are integrated into the technology on a step by step basis: - Practices for pricing of electricity from the grid and electricity into the grid - Market access for DG s and DSR s A barrier may occur: the decreasing number of (incoming) students at technical universities. They are an important part of the basis of the future R&D. My suggestion is that the Dutch parties, that are involved in the EOSLT program, consider the issue: will there be a problem and can we anticipate? Page 8 of 19

9 7 Research and development (R&D) In the paragraphs of this chapter I summarize the grid programs in Europe and the Netherlands and within the IEA. For every project under a program I show its focus in the appendices 3, 4 and 5. The focus is a cell or a combination of cells within a matrix. The horizontal position within the matrix is the area of research under the project, I have established 17 of such areas. The vertical position is the level within the grid, I have established four levels. I refer to the figure underneath. Area of research Level in the grid Level not specified Transmission Intermediate voltage Diagnostics Safety FACTS FACDS Distribution * Houses & streets * Micro & local grids Figure 7 Impression of a project with the help of a matrix. The example shows a project, that focuses on safety on the distribution level and on safety on the level of grids in houses and streets. The projects under the European and under the Dutch R&D programs have been brought together in a similar matrix in appendix 2. All parties have been listed in the appendices as well. 7.1 EU The FP (Framework Programmes for Research) is the main European Union funding mechanism for R&D and demonstration, FP5 ( ), FP6 ( ). For the distribution of electrical energy the table shows the profile of FP5 and FP6. 8 Vision Energy holds the key to reconciling the often opposing dimensions of sustainable development: 1. economic development 2. protection of the environment 8% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels by (Kyoto) share of RES from 6% to 12% by 2010 share of electrical energy from RES from 14% by 2001 to 22% by social justice Mission Transforming the conventional electricity transmission and distribution grid into a unified and interactive service network. Objectives New architectures and components for future networks Grid connected storage systems to facilitate the larger penetration of DER Enabling technologies for distributed networks Table 7.1.a FP5 and FP6 profile for the distribution of electrical energy For FP7 an additional research area, referred to as Smart power networks, has been identified as a continuation of running R&D efforts. The table shows its objectives under the same vision and mission as for FP5 and FP6. 6 Objectives 1. To increase efficiency and security of the overall power system and of 2. the supply of renewable power to the grid 3. To transform the current grid to an interactive service network 4. To remove technical obstacles to large scale RES Table 7.1.b Smart power networks under FP IRED Page 9 of 19

10 IRED is a large European cluster of R&D programs funded by the European Commission under FP5 and coordinated by ISET, Germany. IRED = Integration of Renewable Energy Sources and Distributed Generation into the European Electricity Grid. The table shows the vision, the mission, the objectives and the results of IRED. Vision Major contribution coming from RES and other sources of DG to the European electricity network within the first quarter of this century. Mission 1. To facilitate the integration of RES and DG into the future European electricity network 2. To create a competitive European industry for a sustainable and reliable future power supply. Objectives 1. Stakeholders aware 2. Removing technical, economical and regulatory barriers 3. Socio-economic acceptance Results Knowledge infrastructure Table a IRED: vision, mission, objectives and results IRED involves seven projects, over 100 partners, 34 million. The European Commission has submitted 19 million of this amount. I categorize the projects in the appendix, based on their description. The table underneath shows the projects: name and headline. Name Sustelnet DGnet Investire Dispower Microgrids CRISP DGFACTS Headline Policy and regulatory roadmaps. To advocate the concept of DG and RES: stakeholders aware, removing barriers, acceptance. Storage technologies. Grid stability and system control, safety and quality standards, energy trading and load management. Microgrids in parallel with the mains and in islanding conditions. Strategies for distributed power generation as enabled by ICT. The use of the FACTS concept to distribution networks: DGFACTS. Table b IRED: projects 7.2 European Technology Platform (ETP) An European platform, ETP = European Technology Platform, (SmartGrids) has been initiated in 2005 to develop and consolidate a joint vision for the European electricity grids of the future and will prepare a strategic research agenda with R&D priorities for the coming years. 7.3 International Energy Agency (IEA) The IEA provides a forum for international collaboration between 26 of the 30 OECD countries in relation to energy technologies and systems. Beyond publications the agency employs its frame work of Implementing Agreements (IA) to perform its function as international forum. IA s exist today on the area of twelve technologies. Today (beginning of 2006) it is proposed to initiate a new IA, adressing Electricity Networks Analysis, Research and Development, ENARD. The table shows the vision, the mission and objectives of ENARD. Page 10 of 19

11 Vision To facilitate the uptake of new operating procedures and architectures to enhance the overall performance of electricity grids. Mission To provide a major international forum for information exchange, in-depth research and analysis of electricity grids. Objectives 1. Inform governmental officials and other key stakeholders 2. Collation, exchange and promulgation of information 3. In-depth review and analysis of key issues (transmission grids) and associated key issues (distribution grids) regulatory frameworks Table 7.3 ENARD: vision, mission, objectives 7.4 NL IOP-EMVT IOP 9 is the Dutch program to encourage innovations (IOP = Innovatiegerichte Onderzoeks Programmas). EMVT is a program under IOP for Electro Magnetic Power Engineering. (EMVT = Elektro Magnetische Vermogens Techniek) The program has two focal points: intelligence in electricity grids and power conversion. IOP-EMVT is carried out by a cooperation of the (technical) universities of Delft, Eindhoven and Twente and by CWI (Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica, the national research institute for mathematics and computer science in the Netherlands). The first phase of the program started in 2001/2002 for a period of four years. Today SenterNovem is preparing the program for the second phase with the help of universities, R&D parties and industry. The second phase will last another four years. To the two focal points from the first phase a third focal point has been added in the second phase: components. The projects until today have been mentioned in the table below. Titel Administration number Intelligence in electricity grids and Space-mapping and related techniques for inverse problems in magnetic shape design, with application to an electromagnetic actuator Pulsed power proces technology Contactless multi-dimensional planar actuator technology High power density, high power, electronic DC converters Packaging, integration and manufacturing optimization of PCB assembled power converters Optimal cabling in buildings and plants Optimalisation of electricity grids with phase shifters Power quality test lab for distribution grids Contactless planar actuator with manipulator Contactless energy transfer in domestic and office applications Multi domain optimalisation of power electronics Stochastic methods for field calculations during EMC problems Table 7.4 IOP-EMVT: projects Until today IOP-EMVT has resulted in 30 PhD programmes: research and thesis. Spin-offs until today: - Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS): a computer system that can be used by researchers to simulate and analyse events in the electricity grid. RTDS is located on the site of the TUD and is Page 11 of 19

12 operated by both TUD and TU/e (Technical Universities of Delft and Eindhoven). The system belongs in its kind to the most powerful systems of the world. - Power quality lab at the site of the Technical University of Eindhoven - EMVT lab at the site of KEMA in Arnhem, start construction in Continuon Netbeheer, one of the Dutch DSO s, owns a test site (electricity grid) in Zuiderveld 4 and offers IOP-EMVT the opportunity to use this test site. 7.5 NL EOS EOS is the Dutch program for energy research (EOS = Energie Onderzoek Strategie) and consists of: - NEO : breeding ground for new energy ideas - EOSLT : long term fundamental research - ES : research and product development with one or more entrepreneurs - EOS Demo : demonstrations - UKR : support of one of the 16 (status July 2006) formal national energy transition paths SenterNovem has invited in 2002 representatives form the business community, the research institutions, the universities and the government in the Netherlands in order to establish the EOSLT program. SenterNovem has issued the EOSLT program in The table underneath shows the headlines of the EOSLT program for electricity grids. Focal points Transport of electrical energy: Security of supply Integration into the grid Power electronics Conversion of electrical energy: Power quality Customer Converters EMC Transition of the grid (1 st area of research) Operation and maintenance of the grid (2 nd area of research) Objective To formulate of an evolutionary path to the future of the electricity grid, enabling a sustainable energy supply in 2030 Features Grid architecture in the future Controlling currents through the grid by power electronics and by intelligence within or close to the grids. DC grids Seaproof grids Nimble simulations without the need for large amounts of computer time. Services of powerconverters to the grid Objective Sustainable use of electricity grids Features Sustainable materials and ancillary services Diagnostics Table 7.5.a EOSLT program Beyond own actions in the Netherlands the EOSLT program submits answers to the question which deficits in the available knowledge in the country will / must result in knowledge import. With respect to electricity grids EOSLT establishes small scale storage of electrical energy as an import theme. The involved energy committees have not rewarded any electricity grid project under NEO, EOS Demo and UKR until today. But the energy committee under EOSLT has rewarded five electricity grid projects and the committee under ES has rewarded one grid project in I categorize these projects in the appendix, based on their description. The table underneath shows the list of the projects. Page 12 of 19

13 Title Abbreviation Years of execution Administration number Flexible electricity grids for integration of RES Flexibel EOSLT Stability and control of the future electricity grid in the Netherlands STABINET EOSLT Electrical infrastructure of the future EIT EOSLT Quality of the voltage in future infrastructure KTI EOSLT Synergy of intelligence and energy in future grids SINERGIE EOSLT Universal Power Manager UPM ES IS Table 7.5.b EOS projects, that have been rewarded in : EOSLT and ES. 7.6 NL PREGO PREGO is a Dutch program (PREGO = Prgramma Elektriciteitsnetwerk Gebruikers Onderzoek) to investigate the user requirements with respect to electricity grids. KEMA and ECN have carried out PREGO on the request of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs in the period The publications contain a wide range of future related subjects: PREGO Headline (English) Title (Dutch) number 1 Valuation of quality of supply. Wensstromen: de waardering van de kwaliteit van levering van elektrische energie door aangeslotenen. 2 Valuation of grid connections. Onderscheidend vermogen: een verkenning naar objectieve waardering van netaansluitingen. 3 Statistical control of power quality. Spanningskwaliteit in beeld: ontwerp van een landelijk meetsysteem voor statistische bewaking van spanningskwaliteit. 4 Resilience Dutch power supply. Incasseringsvermogen: inventarisatie kwetsbaarheid van de Nederlandse Elektriciteitsvoorziening, een haalbaarheidsstudie. 5 Control of power through grids. Valt er wat te regelen: vermogenssturing en beheersing in transportnetten, een voorstudie. 6 Cross border capacity: NL in EU. Cross Border capaciteit, wat en hoe: de Nederlandse voorzieningszekerheid in Europees perspectief. 7 Prediction methods for grid operators. Grip op de toekomst: het gebruik van voorspellingsmethoden door netbeheerders. 8 Grid losses. Winnen met verliezen: vergroten van inzicht en nauwkeurigheid in de netverliezen. 9 Integration of decentral generation. 10 Technology radar for grid operators. Van berekening naar beoordeling: inpassing van decentrale opwekking. Competitieve intelligentie: onderzoek naar de behoefte aan een technologische uitkijkpost voor netbeheerders in Nederland. 11 Synergy ECN KEMA. Synergie: onderzoek naar de mogelijke synergie tussen ECN en KEMA. 12 Power quality with many small generators. Eendracht maakt Macht: verbetering van de spanningskwaliteit door samenwerking van veel kleine opwekkers. 14 Optimizing security of supply. Optimale leveringszekerheid: methodiek voor het maatschappelijk optimum. 15 Cost savings operation and maintenance. 16 Investments under reduced production. Kostenbesparing binnen handbereik: gereedschap dynamisch netbeheer voor bedrijfsvoering en lange termijn-netplanning. Hoeveel investeren: kostenbepaling voor netbeheerders bij verminderde productie. 17 Investment decisions. Investeren in de toekomst: een nieuwe kijk op investeringsbeslissingen. 18 Management of a crisis: basics. Conceptcriteria voor crisisbeheersing: ontwikkeling van een generieke norm Page 13 of 19

14 voor de beheersing van calamiteiten. 19 Storage for the support of wind Elektriciteitsopslag ter ondersteuning van opwekking met zon en wind. and solar energy. 20 Report on power quality. Een kwaliteitsrapport: helder rapporteren over de spanningskwaliteit. 21 Voltage dips. Dip(lomatiek): grenzen aan spanningsdips. 22 Bottlenecks cable connections. Aanpakken van bottlenecks in kabelverbindingen. 23 Management of a crisis in the transmission grids. Vertrouwen onder hoogspanning: kwaliteitsnorm voor crisisbeheersing door beheerders van hoogspanningsnetten. 24 Prediction of kwh s in home. Wat gebruikt uw huishouden: voorspellings-methodiek voor belastingpatronen van huishoudens. 25 Handling uncertainties. Minder spanning in middenspanning: planmatig de onzekerheid te lijf. 26 Transition of grids feasible? Nettransitie, mythe of maakbaar: de haalbaarheid van de flexibilisering van netten. 27 Quality plans grid operators. Ondersteuning opzet kwaliteitsplannen netbeheerders. 28 Storage. Opmaat tot elektriciteitsopslag. 29 Remaining length of life: cables and transformers. Bedrijfsvoering tot morgen of tot in de eeuwigheid: een inventarisatie-studie naar de restlevensduur van energiekabels en transformatoren. Table 7.6 Projects under PREGO 7.7 Patents To be worked out. 7.8 Comparing European and Dutch programs The programs of the European Union and the Netherlands have their own features and show overlap. I refer to appendix 2 and to table 7.8. Features European programs Features Dutch programs Overlap Contracts-tariffs Policy-regulatory roadmaps Stakeholders awareness Safety Storage (import theme for EOS) Restriction of fault currents Testfacilities Technical simulation Business simulation Grid stability Diagnostics FACTS and FACDS Micro and local grids Quality Socio-economic acceptance Table 7.8 European and Dutch programs: own features and overlap Contracts-tariffs, policy-regulatory roadmaps and stakeholders awareness are not on the agenda of the Dutch projects until today. With the help of the European projects (such as Sustelnet and Dispower) additional focus within EOS on these areas should be possible. I will focus on this in the next chapters. Safety is also not on the agenda of the Dutch projects. I will not suggest additional focus within EOS on safety, the subject is continuously and highly on the agenda of TSO, DSO s, regulators, industry and manufacturers. Every change in technology or regulation will face a serious assesment with respect to safety before a pilot or a beginning of an implementation is possible. 8 More than technology With the help of European projects and recommendations 2 for regulation in the USA I highlight some issues, that should be adressed for a succesfull transition of our grid, considering contracts-tariffs, policy-regulatory roadmaps and stakeholders awareness. The European source and the USA source show a similar approach to these areas. I use a simplified illustration of a future grid (figure 8). Like today central power plants supply electrical energy to customers through the grid. Beyond that the DG s and DSR s in the homes, buildings and Page 14 of 19

15 enterprises offer electrical energy. The owner of the DG-DSR (the Pink Panther 14 in figure 8) thinks, scratches her head and needs access to information sources, in order to make a proper decision about an investment in DG s and DSR s and about the operation of the DG s and DSR s once he or she has decided to purchase (one of) them. Central power plant Electrical energy Electricity grid: transmission part Electricity grid: distribution part Electrical energy Homes, buildings and enterprises Figure 8 Simplified illustration of a future grid. When a DG or a DSR supplies electrical energy through the grid there are, on one hand, several benefits to be considered. These benefits derive from the interaction of DG-DSR with the existing central power generation plants and the electricity grid. Beyond the fact that the DG-DSR supplies energy with an energy value the DG-DSR can: 1. relieve congestions. 2. reduce price volatility. 3. reduce environmental harm. 4. reduce harmonic distortion. 5. avoid or defer investments in the grid. 6. support in solving the reactive energy problem by producing or absorbing reactive power. 7. support the reduction of spinning reserve of larger power plants. On the other hand, when a regulation and/or a technology failure occurs, these benefits can evaporate or show an overshoot and result in disadvantages. For example a succesful reduction of price Page 15 of 19

16 volatility from DG-DSR can result in undue market power, when there is too much concentration of ownership of the DG s or DSR s. The benefits and the risks of DG-DSR require careful regulation and management, resulting in proper market access and proper pricing. 9 Profound changes A larger penetration of DG s-dsr s results in an interference within the system. I expect that the interference between DG s-dsr s on one hand and the distribution system, the transmission system and the central generators on the other hand results in profound changes for the different players in the field. These changes are positive when we succeed to implement a sustainable supply of electrical energy: reliable, clean and affordable. However they change into a nightmare under undue management. I illustrate the profound changes with examples. 9.1 Interference between DG s-dsr s and the distribution grid Two barriers facing the creation of the desired level playing field are pricing practices and market access. When leveling the playing field of generators of electrical energy it is recommended, that the DG s receive a price, that reflects their benefits. The DSO s tariffs are based today on the throughput of kwh s over their cables. This does not provide an incentive for the DSO to invite DG s to be connected to its distribution grid. On the other hand, when DG s are not connected, the potential benefits from the DG s for the distribution grid are not monetized. Nor for the DSO, nor for the DG owner. The USA source 2 (regulatory roadmap) proposes to decouple the revenues of the DSO s from kwh througput and to institute incentives in the savings from lowering total revenue requirements. Unbundling of the tariffs of the DSO should increase customer choice and allow more informed decisions of what services to purchase from the DSO versus investing in onsite DG s or DSR s. Sustelnet 1 reports as follows: DSO s should become active and innovative entrepreneurs that would facilitate and profit from the connection of DG where this is beneficial to the overall electricity system. To ensure optimal dispatch of DG units Sustelnet recommends congestion pricing and access for DG units to information about congestions. 9.2 Interference between DG s-dsr s and the transmission grid The TSO uses a number of power markets in order to perform the balancing of the electricity system. Access of DG s and DSR s to these markets will increase the liquidity of these markets. 9.3 Interference between DG s-dsr s and central generators Calculations 2 indicate that a modest penetration of DG s-dsr s of 5% reduces the profits of a utility, operating central power generators, by 15-30%. Reference 2 warns for a negative spiral ( death spiral ) if no anticipation occurs from the utilities themselves and from regulators. DG penetration Price increases for remaining customers Less profits Figure 9.3 Possible negative spiral ( death spiral ) for central power generators. Page 16 of 19

17 With respect to investments the timing might be a problem for central power plants. Large amounts of DG s-dsr s can enter the market within a short period, from a few weeks to monthes, depending on the kind of DG-DSR. Large central power plants need more years for siting, permitting and construction. When the central power plant enters the market, the market might have changed, facing more risks and less favorable discount rates. The advent of DG s-dsr s increases the risk of investing in large assets to serve a load that may not materialize. 10 Recommendations In the previous chapters I have expressed confidence that with additional research the state of the art in the Netherlands is qualified to implement the transition, which is on the agenda of the Netherlands, and change the grid to meet the drivers and challenges. A conditio sine qua non is that regulatory and socio-economic considerations are integrated into the technology on a step by step basis. I have mentioned a broad range of parties, that are involved in the transition. The impact on them is profound and positive when we succeed to implement a sustainable energy supply. However, under undue management, the impact will change into a nightmare. The Dutch EOS projects until today have not yet shown a focus on contracts-tariffs, policy-regulatory roadmaps and stakeholders awareness. In order to support the transition and to anticipate the risk of a nightmare I conclude with recommendations about the use of the room, that is available within EOS, for socio-economic research (under EOSLT 45% of the subsidy per project). I recommend to use this room as follows. 1. A special position in the level playing field is the position of the customer and the future owner of the DG s and the DSR s (the Pink Panther 14 in figure 8). The Dutch Electricity Act is complicated, the technology is complicated and market access and information access need an explanation. When we really want, that a person or an enterprise feels an incentive to invest in DG s or DSR s near, for example, a congestion zone, he or she must understand what a congestion zone is and what the value of her investment is for a DSO. 2. The penetration of DG s and DSR s has profound impacts on the DSO s, TSO, electricity sector and end users. In order to monetize the positive benefits I recommend to develop proper market access for and proper pricing of services from these DG s and DSR s. 3. In order to manage the risks of DG s and DSR s I recommend to build a common vision of the penetration of DG s and DSR s with the parties that face a profound change and with the regulator. It is better to do this in parallel with the development in technology under EOS and IOP- EMVT instead of waiting until a certain technology is ready for implementation. With the recommendations I hope to join a Chinese adage 12, which reflects what needs to happen between the many actors in the field before a transition becomes true: Tell me and I ll listen Show me and I ll remember Involve me and I ll try Share my concern and I ll change. Page 17 of 19

18 11 Definitions and abbreviations AC CHP DER DG DC DSO DSR EMC EMVT ENARD EOS ETP FACD FACT FP GHG IA ICT IEA IOP IRED R&D RES RTD SenterNovem TSO Alternating Current. Combined Heat and Power Distributed Energy Resources. Distributed Generation or Distributed Generator. Direct Current. Distribution System Operator. Demand Side Resource: resource of electrical energy, that derives from energy efficiency, load management, onsite storage and other forms of smart management on the demand side of the electricity grid. Electro Magnetic Compatibility: the ability of systems and components to perform its function within its environment without emitting or being susceptible to electro-magnetic interference. Elektro Magnetische Vermogens Techniek (Electro Magnetic Power Engineering): program under IOP. IA, adressing Electricity Networks Analysis, Research and Development. Energie Onderzoek Strategie (Energy Research Strategy), the Dutch program for energy research. European Technology Platform: among the different ETP s ETP in this document means the technology platform for electricity grids. Flexible AC distribution system. Flexible AC transmission system. Framework Program, EU funding mechanism for research, technological development and demonstration. GreenHouse Gas. Implementing Agreement within the framework of the IEA. Information and Communication Technology. International Energy Agency. Innovatiegerichte Onderzoeks Programmas, the Dutch program to encourage innovations. Integration of Renewable Energy Sources and Distributed Generation into the European Electricity Grid. Research and Development Renewable Energy Sources. Research and Technology Development. Agency under the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. Transmission System Operator. Page 18 of 19

19 12 References 1 Sustelnet, one of the IRED programs. 2 Rocky Mountain Institute, prof. A. Lovins: Small is profitable (2002). 3 P. Nabuurs, General Manager KEMA, December 31 st 2005: 30% increase of power interruptions in the Netherlands in NV Continuon Netbeheer, annual report KIVI NIRIA, Nederlandse electriciteitsvoorziening is bijzonder kwetsbaar (December 2005). 6 NRC, Stroomnetten zijn sterk verouderd (January 11 th and February 8 th 2003). 7 TenneT, key figures M. Sánchez Jiménez, EC Directorate General for Research, Energy Production and Distribution Systems: RTD activities in the EU FP on integration of DER into the electricity grids of the future, November IOP EMVT leaflet and newsletters, 10 V. Vaitheeswaran, Power to the people, KEMA, Betrouwbaarheid van electriciteitsnetten in Nederland in Summary of the reliability of the Dutch electricity grid with figures from 1995 to Twynstra Gudde (Marc de Roos, Annemieke Stoppelenburg, Ingelien Veldkamp, Martijn Vroemen): Al spelende leert men, January How to learn and how to change with a combination of games and simulations. 13 Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs Nu voor later, Energierapport, July 2005 Report on the problems and on the future with respect to the supply of energy in the Netherlands. 14 Pink Panther Image Archive: Page 19 of 19

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