Elements of Fiction. Reading Notes 8 th Grade

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1 Elements of Fiction Reading Notes 8 th Grade

2 Characters A CHARACTER is a person, animal, or imaginary creature 2 Kinds of Characters: Protagonist: main character or hero; Example: Little Red Riding Hood Antagonist: another character which causes conflict for the protagonist; sometimes the villain; The antagonist can be a character, society, or object. Example: The Wolf

3 Types of Characters: Minor Characters: have a small role in the text; example- Red Riding Hood s Mom Major Characters: have a major role in the text; example: Red Riding Hood, The Wolf Flat Characters or Static Characters: characters that do not experience any changes; they stay the same; only one side to them Example: Grandma in Red Riding Hood Round or Dynamic Characters: characters that change, grow, or learn something; many sides to them Example: Red Riding Hood

4 Kinds of Characters: Scrooge: a. static b. dynamic Superman: a. flat b. round c. protagonist d. antagonist The Little Mermaid: a. static b. dynamic Cinderella s stepmother: a. flat b. round

5 Characterization A description of individuals in a story 5 Ways to Develop a Character: 1. Physical Description of Character Example: tall, dark, brunette, blue eyes, etc. 2. Character s Speech, Thoughts, and Actions Example: I must not punish, but punish with impunity. Narrator in Edgar A. Poe The Cask of Amontillado 3. The Speech, Thoughts, and Actions of Other Characters Example: Jane exclaimed Tom is an honest person. 4. Eye-Awakening Situations Example: the death of a loved one; graduation, moving, etc. 5. Direct Statement about Character Example: Grandpa loves to tell stories.

6 Setting and Mood Setting: Where and When a story takes place Examples: 2010 Morning, Afternoon, Evening, Chicago, India Airport, Restaurant, Bookstore, School Mood: emotional atmosphere of a story; the feeling created in a reader by a text Examples: Scary Calming Romantic Hopeless Fearful

7 Plot The sequence of events in a story 5 Parts of Plot: 1. Exposition 2. Rising Action 3. Climax 4. Falling Action 5. Resolution [Dénouement]

8 Plot Diagram Climax Rising Action Falling Action Exposition Resolution [Dénouement]

9 Plot- Exposition -the beginning part of a story that: Sets the tone Establishes the setting Introduces characters Gives the reader important background information

10 Plot- Rising Action series of actions which lead the story to the climax

11 Plot- Climax turning point of the story The climax is the point of maximum interest. It usually occurs toward the end of a story, after the reader has understood the conflict and become emotionally involved with the characters. At the climax, the outcome of the plot becomes clear.

12 Plot- Falling Action occurs after the climax conflicts are beginning to be resolved- loose ends are tied up

13 Plot- Resolution part of the story where the problem or conflict is solved occurs after the climax and falling action the end

14 Conflict struggle between a character and an opposing force 2 Kinds of Conflict: Internal Conflict External Conflict

15 External Conflict struggle between a character and an outside force such as society, nature, or another character Man (character) vs. Man Man (character) vs. Nature Man (character) vs. Society Man (character) vs. Animal Man (character) vs. Machine Man (character) vs. Supernatural

16 Internal Conflict struggle WITHIN a character s mind usually occurs when a character has to make a decision or to deal with feelings Man Vs. Self

17 Theme The underlying message in a story that deals with life or human nature When determining theme, think about: The title the way a character changes and what they learn Big ideas such as courage and freedom Theme can be stated directly or implied

18 Examples of Theme Love/Hate Death Nature Time Good over Evil Betrayal Courage Justice Self-Discovery Friendship What s the theme in The Ant and the Grasshopper?

19 Dialogue: Dialogue: conversation between two or more characters Why Dialogue: Moves the action of a story Builds suspense Arouses reader interest Develops a character Establishes conflict Makes a character seem real

20 Example of Dialogue Potter attacked me, sir We attacked each other at the same time! Harry shouted.

21 Allusion A reference made to a famous person, place, or event. Readers must recognize the references in order to be effective. Examples: The auto shop worker swept in like Superman, repaired my tire in a flash, and rescued me from the roadside. What does the allusion to Superman suggest?

22 Allusion Allusions can refer to: Historical Events (Great Depression) Geographic Locations (The city that never sleeps) Bible Verses (An eye for an eye) Mythology (Pandora s Box/Hercules) Poems/Books (Achilles Heel) Stories Characters (He s such a Scrooge) Music (King of Pop) Movies, Plays, or Art (Three Stooges)

23 Examples of Allusions Cale is my Prince Charming. Kevin doesn t do so well in math, but in art class he s a regular Picasso. Brain, remember to leave your library book in the living room. If that book finds its way into the black hole in your bedroom, it will never find its way out! He s my Hercules; he rescued me from drowning. My husband is no Romeo; he s not the roses and chocolate kind of guy. We are all going to die. Nothing gold can stay. Promise me that you will never change, that you will stay gold, Ponyboy, said Tom to his friend Joe.

24 Foreshadowing Foreshadowing: hints about what will happen in a story Why Foreshadowing; Develops Plot Sets a mood of intrigue- what s going to happen next Prepares the reader for what is to come What examples of foreshadowing are in Little Red Riding Hood? What clues should Little Red have recognized to realize that her grandmother was not really her grandmother?

25 Foreshadowing Continued The clouds began to grow dark with mystery, the lights shuddered on and off, and my heart began pounding harder and faster. What does this foreshadow? As the student began to misbehave, the teacher walked straight to her desk and picked up the phone. What does this foreshadow?

26 Flashback Flashback: an event that occurred before the current events in a story Why Flashback? Provides background information that clarifies current actions in the story. 1. What are some of the reasons an author might choose to use flashbacks instead of beginning at the start of a story and telling it chronologically? 2. What are some ways that flashbacks are accomplished in novels and short stories or movies and plays?

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