Literacy is found in all content areas. Therefore, we think it is important to address literacy through the lens of an English Language Learner.

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1 Literacy is found in all content areas. Therefore, we think it is important to address literacy through the lens of an English Language Learner. 1

2 Today we are going to be talking about how literacy is in every content area which means it is in all of our classrooms. We also see a growing population of ELLs, therefore it is imperative that we address how these two, literacy and ELLs, interact. All of the information we are sharing is research based. 2

3 During our presentation, we will address the following content areas: Reading Writing Math Within each content area, we will use Washington State s definition as found in the EALRs and PEs. After a brief definition of each content area, we ll discuss what each content area might look like in your classroom and possible structures used by our district. Next, we will look at a possible situation that teachers might encounter in their daily teaching. You will then get a chance to turn and talk with the people around you, discussing possible problems an ELL in your classroom might encounter, and what teaching moves you might make to address the issue. We will then show you what research says is best practice. But we would like to emphasize that we are only giving a few ideas, not every possible option. We will wrap it up and then give you opportunities for questions at the end. There is a sheet of paper at each table available for you to keep track of your questions. 3

4 When trying to define reading, we were led to the expectations that our state has set forth. The EALRs work well as a definition because they aren t grade specific or proficiency specific and applicable to all districts. 4

5 According to Marzano (2003), he argues that despite decades of research, it has yet to be proven that word meanings are routinely acquired from context. To explain, he discusses a study done that demonstrated how, in order to learn a word, a student requires anywhere from six to ten exposures to the word in context. He goes on to explain that students can learn word meanings incidentally during reading but that this learning does not come easily or in large quantities. When we think about what reading instruction should look like, it should not be vocabulary instruction or focused around the misconception that students learn words just by reading them. Instead, teachers need to build a literacy rich environment where students are able to interact with the text in a variety of ways. Ways that these ideas can be addressed are through a balanced literacy program. Some different structures might look like: Workshop model this looks like a targeted mini lesson focusing on one skill that lasts for about 10 minutes. Then students are given the opportunity to practice this skill independently or moderate guidance. This lasts for about minutes. Last, students share out their learning with either whole class, small groups, or partners. Interactive read aloud A teacher has chosen a book to read aloud to the class for specific skill demonstration. Teacher might think aloud for the students, modeling what good readers do or what reading should look like. Shared reading This is similar to an interactive read aloud, only students now have a copy of the text in front of them. The teacher might read all or some of the text. The expectation is that students interact with the text. Direct instruction This is a more traditional way of instructing. The structure often begins with a teacher demonstration, followed by whole group practice with some teacher guidance. Last, students independently practice the skill taught until mastery. Marzano, R. J. (2003). Building Background Knowledge For Academic Achievement: Research On What Works In Schools. Alexandria, VA: Association For Supervision &Amp; Curriculum Deve. 5

6 For this hypothetical situation, we chose the workshop structure. We chose this because it is most often used in reading instruction in our district. Looking at this as a teacher, we want to draw your attention to the lesson objective. Notice that there is one specific content skill being addressed. The mini lesson is designed to model the skill being implemented. During independent practice students are asked to practice and are given a specific task. During this time, teacher is conferring one on one with students. The share for this lesson was designed to help support the learning of the skill introduced in the mini lesson. 6

7 Since we know that it is important for students to be given a chance to think about information presented, we would like to give you that opportunity as well. Given this lesson just presented, put your ELL lens on and think about potential hangups that might be present in this lesson for ELLs. What are some hazards that ELLs might be experiencing. Thinking about those hazards, develop one or two strategies that could be implemented to either eliminate the issue, or accommodate learning for ELLs. 7

8 Again, these are only a few options. Research supports that teachers need to develop both a content and a languageobjective these these are different. Remember our content objective was identify main events in a fictional text. In order to come up with a complementary language objective, the ELDs present a great and vital resource for developing language objective. A possible language objective might be: use new vocabulary in oral and written communication (ELD Standard, EALR 1, 1.3 Advanced). According to Echevarrio, Vogt, and Short (2003) teachers should incorporate in their lesson plans techniques that support students language development. As with content objectives, language objectives should be stated clearly and simply, and students should be informed of them, both orally and in writing. ii Another strategy to help support language development in reading is to encourage students to develop their own definition or, even better, a description of new words. Developing a non linguistic representation of a term is another great strategy. This is best done immediately after students have generated their own linguistic description of the term. According to Marzano (2004) students must represent their knowledge of words in linguistic and non linguistic ways. Marzano, R. J. (2003). Building Background Knowledge For Academic Achievement: Research On What Works In Schools. Alexandria, VA: Association For Supervision &Amp; Curriculum Deve. Eh Echevarria, J., Short, D. J., & Vogt, M. (2007). Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model (3rd Edition). Boston: Allyn &Amp; Bacon. 8

9 When trying to define writing, we were led to the expectations that our state has set forth. The EALRs work well as a definition because they aren t grade specific or proficiency specific and applicable to all districts. 9

10 Again, we chose the workshop model. One of the components we want to talk about is the Teacher/student conference. The goal of a conference is to find out where a student is at, determining next steps, discussing how that is going to be accomplished. Within writing, some questions that might be helpful are: What are you working on as a writer? What are you doing to make this piece of writing work? What do you think of what you ve done so far? What h will you do next? How will you go about doing that? (Lucy Calkins, 2007) Another component is guided groups. This is a way that you can efficiently reach more students and expose them, yet again, to the language of the lesson. Last, it is important to use your share time appropriately. This means that the students you choose to share their thinking are chosen with a specific skill in mind and/or opportunity to reiterate and reinforce the content objective. Cruz, M. C., Martinelli, M., Chiarella, M., Kesler, T., Gillette, C., & Calkins, M. M. (2007). Units ofstudyfor for TeachingWriting, Grades3 5. Portsmouth NH:Firsthand. 10

11 Last time we looked at a hypothetical lesson. For writing, we want to look at a unit. In studying this unit on small moment stories, there are four main components that will be taught in multiple mini lessons over the course of the unit. Take a minute and read over the components remember put your ELL lens on! Cruz, M. C., Martinelli, M., Chiarella, M., Kesler, T., Gillette, C., & Calkins, M. M. (2007). Units ofstudyfor for TeachingWriting Writing, Grades Portsmouth NH:Firsthand Firsthand. 11

12 Since we know that it is important for students to be given a chance to think about information presented, we would like to give you that opportunity as well. Given this unit just presented, put your ELL lens on and think about potential hangups that might be present in this unit for ELLs. What are some hazards that ELLs might be experiencing. Thinking about those hazards, develop one or two strategies that could be implemented to either eliminate the issue, or accommodate learning for ELLs. 12

13 Though we couldn t find an actual source to quote, we feel that being aware of our ELLs and knowing our students and their proficiency level is something all teachers should be doing. According to common sense, teachers should put on their ELL Lens when studying upcoming units. (2009). With this writing unit in mind, guided groups would provide a good opportunity to give students multiple exposure to new vocabulary (i.e. stretch out, zoom in, seed story) According to Marzano (2003), to learn a word requires anywhere from 6 to 10 exposures to the word in context. In this writing unit, we feel that pictures and manipulative will be most effective. For example, bring in a watermelon and cutting it open to show the seed inside does a great job making a abstract concept more concrete. According to Krashen (1977, 1981, 1982, 1985) Input becomes comprehensible when the teacher shows pictures or visuals to accompany new vocabulary, words, and communicative concepts. Marzano, R. J. (2003). BuildingBackground Background Knowledge For Academic Achievement: Research On What Works In Schools. Alexandria, VA: Association For Supervision &Amp; Curriculum Deve. 13

14 When trying to define math, we were led to the expectations that our state has set forth. The PEs work well as a definition because they aren t grade specific or proficiency specific and applicable to all districts. 14

15 When we think about teaching math, we don t always have literacy in mind. But we all know that literacy plays a vital role in the teaching of math. Some examples of how literacy plays a part in math are: Directions both verbal and written Communicating math strategies/thinking Worksheets Math vocabulary Situational story problems When teaching math, there are different structures that are used. Workshop we ve already explained. Direct instruction I do, we do, you do. Last, exploration students are expected to discover math concepts through exposure. 15

16 Please look over the following workshop lesson. On the next slide you will see the worksheet that is used to give students the opportunity to practice lesson objective. This lesson is designed for third grade. Again put on your ELL lens! Foresman, S. (2006). Today's Math Student Workbook, Grade 3 (Investigations in Number, Data, and Space). Glenview: Pearson Scott Foresman. 16

17 Since we know that it is important for students to be given a chance to think about information presented, we would like to give you that opportunity as well. Given the worksheet just presented, put your ELL lens on and think about potential hang ups that might be present in the worksheet for ELLs. What are some hazards that ELLs might be experiencing. Thinking about those hazards, develop one or two strategies that could be implemented to either eliminate the issue, or accommodate learning for ELLs. Foresman, S. (2006). Today's Math Student Workbook, Grade 3 (Investigations in Number, Data, and Space). Glenview: Pearson Scott Foresman. 17

18 Its always good to put yourself in the shoes of your learners in this case ELL. Recently, we attended a workshop where we experienced a class on a specific historical event the catch was it was all taught in Spanish. We found out quickly how important it was to have a partner who could speak your native language as well as hl help you acquire the new language. For developing a language objective, remember to access the ELD standards. Language objectives encourage students to discuss the terms being taught and hold teachers accountable to be looking for and encouraging student talk. According Collier, C., 2008, dynamic assessment is the process of using standardized tests or a set of criteria i in a test teach retest format over a period of several weeks. This should look like: The teacher is actively working to facilitate learning and promote active participation in students The assessment should focus on a process rather than a product The assessment should produce information about the learner and his/her modifiability (by which change is best accomplished). (Collier, C., 2008) Marzano, R. J. (2003). Building Background Knowledge For Academic Achievement: Research On What Works In Schools. Alexandria, VA: Association For Supervision &Amp; Curriculum Deve. 18

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22 Collier, C. (2008). Handbook for Second Language Acquisition. The Assessment of Second Language Acquisition, (TESL 410 Reading Packet) Collier, V. P. (1995). Acquiring a second language for school. Directions in Language Education, National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, (TESL 410 Reading Packet) Cruz, M. C., Martinelli, M., Chiarella, M., Kesler, T., Gillette, C., & Calkins, M. M. (2007). Units of Study for Teaching Writing, Grades 3 5. Portsmouth NH: Firsthand. Cummins, P., & Gibbons, J. (. (2002). Learning Language, Learning Through Language, and Learning About Language. Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning (pp ). Chicago: Heinemann. Echevarria, J., Short, D. J., & Vogt, M. (2007). Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model (3rd Edition). Boston: Allyn &Amp; Bacon. Foresman, S. (2006). Today's Math Student Workbook, Grade 3 (Investigations in Number, Data, and Space). Glenview: Pearson Scott Foresman. Marzano, R. J. (2003). Building Background Knowledge For Academic Achievement: Research On What Works In Schools. Alexandria, VA: Association For Supervision &Amp; Curriculum Deve. Thomas, W. P., & Collier, V. P. (2001). Reforming Schools for English Language Learners:Achievement Gap Closure. George Mason University, presentation at National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE). (TESL 410 Reading Packet) 22

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