1 SEMINOLE COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS ESOL Strategies For Mainstream Teachers ESOL/World Languages Department For additional resources and strategies, visit the ESOL/ World Languages Department website To sign up for the A+ Rise Strategies (ESOL Research Based Strategies)
2 BEGINNER 10 HOURS TO 6 MONTHS 500 RECEPTIVE LISTEN DRAW POINT SELECT MOVE CHOOSE MIME ACT/ACT OUT MATCH CIRCLE SEMINOLE COUNTY ESOL INSTRUCTIONAL TIPS & STRATEGIES ADVANCED INTERMEDIATE EARLY FLUENT FLUENT BEGINNER ADDITIONAL 6 MONTHS/1 YEAR 1000 RECEPTIVE 100 ACTIVE/EXPRESSIVE NAME LIST LABEL CATEGORIZE GROUP TELL/SAY RESPOND ANSWER DISCRIMINATE ADDITIONAL 1 3 YEARS RECEPTIVE 700 ACTIVE/EXPRESSIVE CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES RECALL SUMMARIZE RETELL DESCRIBE DEFINE ROLE-PLAY EXPLAIN RESTATE COMPARE CONTRAST ADDITIONAL 1 2 YEARS ,000 RECEPTIVE 1200 ACTIVE/EXPRESSIVE RECALL SUMMARIZE RETELL DESCRIBE DEFINE ROLE-PLAY EXPLAIN RESTATE COMPARE CONTRAST 5 TO 7 YEARS W/ L1 LITERACY CONTENT AREA VOCABULARY CRITIQUE RECOMMEND SOLVE RATE DECIDE DEBATE ARGUE RATE JUDGE SHOW ME CIRCLE THE WHERE IS WHO HAS RECOMMENDED QUESTIONS TO ASK YES/NO ONE -OR -TWO WORD ANSWERS LIST LABEL WHY? HOW? EXPLAIN PHRASE OR SHORT SENTENCE ANSWERS WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF? WHY DO YOU THINK? DECIDE IF RETELL AT THIS STAGE ELL S CAN FUNCTION AT THE SAME LEVEL OF A NATIVE SPEAKER. Adapted from Krashen and Terrell (1983) Learn how to pronounce the student s name. Students who are recent arrivals need time to adjust. Increase your knowledge. Learn as much as you can about the language and culture of your students. Encourage students to express their points of view and opinions on different issues and share information about their culture. Cooperative groups are effective! Buddies are great for academics, playground, lunchroom, etc. Simplify your language, not the content. Speak directly to the student-avoid slang and idiomatic expressions For beginners, adjust the amount of work or the performance standard to be reasonable. Increase requirements as proficiency and comfort increase. Write the objectives. Use pictures, drawings, diagrams, charts, labels, etc. to illustrate what will be taught. Access prior knowledge- Assess students prior knowledge and tap into their experiences to make learning meaningful. Ask inferential and higher order thinking questions Recognize that students will make language mistakes- Model correct grammatical form in a supportive and friendly environment. Choose from the instructional strategies below based on the linguistic ability of the student.
3 Instructional Strategies 1. Total Physical Response (TPR) (Kagan, 2011): Students are asked to incorporate action into language learning. The student responds to commands using his/her whole being. 2. Multi-sensory Approaches (Kagan, Marzano, 2011): Multi-sensory approaches use the senses of sight, smell, hearing, and touch to create alternate input channels for information, by recognizing that students have different learning ways to understand concepts. Teachers tap those alternate input channels to understanding by incorporating all the modalities. 3. Jigsaw (Kagan & Marzano, 2011): Teacher introduces the strategy and the topic to be studied. Students are assigned to a "home group" of 3-5 students who reflect a range of reading abilities. A set of reading selections is determined and one selection is assign to each student. "Expert groups" are created that consist of students across "home groups" who will read the same selection. Key questions are provided to help the "expert groups" gather information. Materials and resources are provided for all students to learn about their topics and become "experts." "Experts" reports the information learned to their home group. Home group members prepare a graphic organizer as a guide for organizing the experts' information report. Remind students that "home group" members are responsible to learn all content from one another. 4. Vocabulary Development (Best practices): Vocabulary taught in context using realia, visuals, or demonstration. May include vocabulary file cards with pictures, student created subject area vocabulary dictionaries, and use of vocabulary templates. Make use of new vocabulary within the context of other vocabulary or material already presented. Make use of antonyms and synonyms. Make use of word sorting or categorization. 5. Journal Writing (Best practices): Journal writing calls for students to keep a journal or diary, which is only shared with the teacher. Such highly personal writing builds on student interest and expressive abilities. 6. Cooperative Learning Strategies (Kagan & Marzano, 2011): Cooperative learning strategies refer to pairing or grouping of students to do worksheets, complete a project, or to resolve problems. The key is to create communicative opportunities for the ESOL student to use the content vocabulary and structures independently. Examples of cooperative activities are Think-Pair- Share, Numbered Heads Together, and Inside-Outside Circle.
4 7. Corners (Kagan, 2011): Students move to different corners of the room, depending on their point of view. This activity may help them see that not everyone shares the same point of view, and it may stretch their own way of thinking. The teacher announces corners. Then she announces the choices for each corner of the room. Students are then given a small amount of silent think time to make a choice. They will write the name of their corner on a piece of paper but should not discuss it with anyone else. Teacher tells students to go to their chosen corners. Once they are in their corner, they must find a partner to talk with someone not on their regular team. Pairs will then discuss the reason(s) for their choice. Teacher will then select a few students from each corner to share what his or her partner shared. 8. Language Experience Approach (Best practices): The language experience approach is an approach to reading instruction based on activities and stories developed from personal experiences of the learner. The stories about personal experiences are written down by a teacher and read together until the learner associates the written form of the word with the spoken. Here are some benefits of the language experience approach: It brings together writing, reading, art, and language. It extends the learners' creativity in storytelling through writing. It helps learners understand that what they think and say can be written. It is learnercentered and demonstrates that the learners' thoughts and language are valued. 9. Direct Instruction (Best practices): Direct instruction involves the teachers consciously teaching children how to think, by modeling aloud the process through which the teacher has developed thought. This framework includes four major stages. To avoid overloading your students with more new information than they can absorb, teach only one strategy at a time and make sure that your students have thoroughly mastered each strategy before teaching them another. 10. Inquiry Approach (Marzano, 2011): The essence of inquiry-based learning is that students participate in the planning, development and evaluation of projects and activities. Instructors who adopt an inquiry-based learning approach help students identify and refine their "real" questions into learning projects or opportunities. They then guide the subsequent research, inquiry, and reporting processes. An inquiry-based approach validates the experience and knowledge that all students bring to the learning process. 11. Visuals (Kagan & Marzano, 2011): When a spoken or written word or idea can be further represented by a visual, it reduces the complexity of a task. Visuals such as maps, graphs, charts, pictures, audiovisual aids, lists, semantic maps and webs, flow charts, outlines, etc. 12. Hands-on Activities (Kagan & Marzano, 2011): Allows the ESOL student to explore and discover things through multi-modal input. Language proficiency can develop along with content through activities such as cooking projects, drawing and constructing maps, making dioramas, role-playing historical events, conducting experiments, and using manipulatives.
5 13. Provide Demonstrations or Modeling (Kagan & Marzano): Modeling is the demonstration and explanation of a process or product by the teacher. 14. Preview/Review (Kagan & Marzano, 2011): The lesson material is previewed prior to being presented in order to provide the ESOL student with the necessary background information (vocabulary background) to help make the concepts presented in the lesson more comprehensible. The review comes after the content lesson and helps to reinforce the concepts presented, and provides a comprehension check. 15. Linguistic modifications (Marzano, 2011): repetition, slow speech, restating, controlled vocabulary, controlled sentence length. 16. Mapping Techniques and graphic Organizers (Kagan & Marzano, 2011): Mapping techniques and graphic organizers provide a visual way to link concepts and ideas and help students activate existing knowledge and relate it to new learning situations. 17. Highlight key concepts (Best Practices). 18. Locate or develop simplified worksheets that use fill-in-the blanks, multiple choice, or true/false (Kagan & Marzano, 2011). 19. Reducing oral directions, written directions and information to make it easier to understand steps or parts (Best Practices). 20. Provide LEP students with additional time to complete written activities, projects, readings, and tests (Best Practices). 21. Choose-A-Chip (Kagan, 2011): Chips ( Magic Stars ) are all spread out on the team table, face up. Teacher provides time and selects who will begin on each team. That student selects and reads on chip. The student responds to the chip s prompt. The chip is retired, encouraging use of remaining chips. The next student chooses the next chip and the process is repeated. Continue by redistributing the chips Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback (Marzano, 2011): setting objectives establishes a direction for learning. Once students understand the parameters of an objective, they should brainstorm to determine what they know and what they want to learn. Specific, timely, and regular feedback to students enhances their learning. 23. Adapting written text and materials to facilitate comprehension (Best Practices & Marzano, 2011).
6 24. Multicultural Enhancement (Best Practices): use cultural background to promote diversity within the classroom. 25. Alternative assessments (Best Practices): observation, demonstration, product evolution, portfolios. 26. Reciprocal Teaching (Marzano, 2011): this strategy is built on four strategies good readers use to comprehend text: predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing. It was designed as a discussion technique in which think alouds play an integral part. During think aloud, the reader talks aloud as they use each of the four strategies. Both teachers and students should conduct think alouds each time they are engaged in reciprocal teaching lessons (e.g. two students might pair up to read a story or passage, one student might read a paragraph aloud and after he finishes, the other student asks questions, or make predictions based on what was read). Using this strategy, students learn to consciously think about, monitor, and reflect on their strategy use. 27. Scaffolding (Kagan & Marzano, 2011): Scaffolding is an instructional technique whereby the teacher models the desired learning strategy or task, then gradually shifts responsibility to the students. 28. Chunking (Marzano, 2011): Presenting new information in small, comprehensible segments 29. Summarizing (Marzano, 2011): Summarizing is restating the essence of text or an experience in as few words as possible in a new, yet concise form. 30. Reinforce effort (Marzano, 2011): Students who are recognized for their effort will make the connection between effort and improvement. 31. Carousel (A+ Rise comprehension, 2009)- After reading the text, group students into cooperative groups. Each group is to analyze the selection. Have the groups summarize their learning, identify main idea and details, identify author s purpose, or cause and effect, etc. Have students use graphic organizers. Have the recorder write the finding with the help of the students in the group. The teacher will select two students per group, one ELL student and one monolingual English speaking student. Each pair of students visits an opposite group to present their findings. 32. Pass the Pencil (A+ Rise writing, 2009)- Pass the Pencil is an interactive approach to engage all students in the writing process. Students are placed into heterogeneous cooperative groups. Materials include one pencil and one sheet of paper for the entire group. Students pass the paper and pencil around the group and write a response, sentence, thought, etc. in order to build their paragraph. Students
7 can assist each other if they do not know the answer or cannot express themselves through writing. Spelling does not count. 33. Circle of Friends (A+ Rise fluency, 2009)- Have half of the class stand in a circle facing the outside. Students in this group will have their textbook or reading passage in front of them. Have the second half of the students stand on the outer side of the circle paired up with a student in the inner circle. This group will also have their textbook or reading passage. The inner circle group will read aloud to their partner on the outer circle. After a few minutes, have students on the outer circle read to their partner. The after a few minutes, have the outer circle rotate to the right so they have a new partner. Continue the process through at least one rotation. 34. Mad Three Minutes (A+ Rise phonics, 2009) - Provide students with used magazines, newspapers, or any other form of print. The teacher will write the high frequency words or letters sounds on the board that has been the focus of the lesson. Students will find as many high frequency words or letter sounds as possible in three minutes. Use a watch with a second hand. As students are locating the high frequency words or sounds, they will circle the words. At the end of three minutes, they will count the number of words or sounds circled. The student with the most words earns a round of applause. 35. Touch and Go (A+ Rise phonics, 2009)- Write sounds on cards or paper strips and post around the classroom wall. Students will be divided into two teams and will be lined up. Student can be seated, standing, or sitting on the floor. The teacher will call out the word. One student from each of the teams will stand and search for the word. The first one to touch the word will earn a point for their team. Extra points will be awarded if students can provide a word that corresponds with the sound. Continue the process with the next group of students in line. 36.Frayer Model (A+ Rise vocabulary, 2009)- Have student use index cards for this strategy. Teacher will model each step starting with the content vocabulary word. Have the students place the word in the center of the quadrant. Teacher will brainstorm, with the help of students, a definition of the word. Repeat step 3 to identify the characteristics, examples, and non-examples. Encourage students to create an illustration for each of the four sections. Definition Examples Examples Word Characteristics Non-Examples Non-Examples
8 37. Partner Think Alouds (A+ Rise vocabulary)- As the content is read, have students underline target vocabulary words. The teacher underlines the clues used in the passage and guides students by modeling his/her thinking process in the use of context clues. Have students use the same underlining and thinking processes with a partner. Allow students to share processes used with each other. 38. Stand Up (A+ Rise newcomers)- Teach students sequencing vocabulary such as before, after, next, beginning, middle, and end. Attach these words using index cards to the classroom word wall. After students have mastered the meaning of these sequencing words, pass the cards out and instruct students to stand up and line themselves according to the word they are holding. Use this strategy for simple stories and text. Use sentence strips, with complete sentences, and have students line themselves based on the sequence of events of the story or text. 39. Reader s Theatre (A+ Rise fluency)- After several reading of a section in the text, the teacher assigns speaking roles of concepts or characters to several students. The teacher facilitates the rehearsal and assumes the role of director. The director s role can also be assigned to a student. Once students have read aloud several times through choral reading, paired reading, shared reading, etc., Reader s Theatre can be performed. Several rehearsals are required for students to achieve maximum fluency. 40. Omit, Keep, Summarize (A+ Rise comprehension)- Provide each student with a transparency and an erasable marker to place on top of the text. The teacher will model his/her thinking throughout the entire process. The teacher reads aloud the targeted paragraph(s) and has student follow along. Inform students that they will summarize the paragraph(s) using the OKS (Omit, Keep, Summarize) technique. Help students identify and omit trivial text using the erasable marker. Read aloud the unmarked text as a class. Teacher will model various sentences to rephrase the remaining text into one sentence. Have student practice rephrasing and summarizing other paragraphs. All strategies are researched based and taken from the following authors All A+ Rise Strategies (2009) Pearson. Arisek12.com Kagan, S(2011). Kagan it s all about engagement. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing Marzano, R(2007). The art and science of teaching. Marzano, R(2007). The art and science of teaching. Alexandria, Virginia: ASCD. Marzano, R, Pollock, J, & Pickering, D(2003). Classroom instruction that works. Alexandria, Virginia: ASCD. For additional resources and strategies, visit the ESOL/ World Languages Department website, to sign up for the A+ Rise Strategies (ESOL Research Based Strategies). This website will provide a systematic guide in how to implement ESOL strategies in any content-area classroom.